Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



UPTRAIN, v.t. [up and train.] To train up; to educate. [Not in use.]

UPTURN, v.t. [up and turn.] To turn up; to throw up; as, to upturn the ground in plowing.

UPWARD, a. [up and ward, L. versus.]

Directed to a higher place; as with upward eye; with upward speed.

UPWARD, n. The top. [Not in use.]

1. Toward a higher place; opposed to downward.

Upward I lift my eye.

2. Toward heaven and God.

Looking inward, we are struck dumb; looking upward, we speak and prevail.

3. With respect to the higher part.

Upward man, downward fish.

4. More than, indefinitely. Upwards of ten years have elapsed; upwards of a hundred men were present.

5. Toward the source. Trace the stream upwards.

And trace the muses upwards to their spring.

UPWHIRL, v.i. upwhurl’. [up and whirl.] To rise upwards in a whirl; to whirl upwards.

UPWHIRL, v.t. To raise upwards in a whirling direction.

UPWIND, v.t. [up and wind.] To wind up.

URAN-GLIMMER, n. An ore of uranium; uran-mica; chalcolite.

URANITE, n. An ore or phosphate of uranium, called also uran-glimmer, and uran-mica. It is of a lemon yellow gold color, or yellowish brown, sometimes of an apple green or emerald color. It occurs crystallized in rectangular prisms, in imperfect octahedrons, etc. Its structure is lamellar, and it yields to the knife.

Uranite is found in primitive earths, in three states, crystallized, compact, and pulverulent.

URANITIC, a. Pertaining to uranite, or resembling it.

URANIUM, n. [Gr. heaven, or a planet so called.]

A metal discovered in 1789 by Klaproth, in the mineral called pechblend. It is occasionally found native in uran-ocher and uran-mica; but more generally it is obtained from pechblend, in which it exists with iron, copper, lead, and sometimes with arsenic, cobalt and zink.

URAN-OCHER, n. Pechblend, an ore of uranium, containing the metal in an oxydized state. It is brown, grayish, black, and brownish black; occurring massive globular, reniform, disseminated, and pulverulent.

URANOLOGY, n. [Gr. heaven and discourse.]

A discourse or treatise on the heavens.

URBANE, a. [L. urbanus, from urbs, a city.] Civil; courteous in manners; polite.

URBANITY, n. [L. urbanitas, from urbs, a city.]

1. That civility or courtesy of manners which is acquired by associating with well bred people; politeness; polished manners.

2. Facetiousness.

URBANIZE, v.t. To render civil and courteous; to polish.

URCEOLATE, a. [L. urceolus, urceus, a pitcher.]

In botany, shaped like a pitcher; swelling out like a pitcher; as a calyx or corol.


1. A name given to the hedgehog.

2. A name of slight anger given to a child; as, the little urchin cried.

URE, n. Use; practice. [Obsolete, but retained in inure.]

UREA, n. A substance obtained from urine.

URETER, n. [Gr. See Urine.]

A tube conveying the urine from the kidney to the bladder. There are two ureters, one on each side.

URETHRA, n. [Gr. See Urine.]

The canal by which the urine is conducted from the bladder and discharged.

URGE, v.t. [L. urgeo. This belongs probably to the family of Gr. and L. arceo.]

1. To press; to push; to drive; to impel; to apply force to, in almost any manner.

And great Achilles urge the Trojan fate.

2. To press the mind or will; to press by motives, arguments, persuasion or importunity.

My broth did urge me in his act.

3. To provoke; to exasperate.

Urge not my father’s anger.

4. To follow close; to impel.

Heir urges heir, like wave impelling wave.

5. To labor vehemently; to press with eagerness.

Through the thick deserts headlong urg’d his flight.

6. To press; as, to urge an argument; to urge a petition; to urge the necessity of a case.

7. To importune; to solicit earnestly. He urged his son to withdraw.

8. To apply forcibly; as, to urge an ore with intense heat.

URGE, v.i. To press forward; as, he strives to urge upward.

URGED, pp. Pressed; impelled; importuned.


1. Pressure; importunity; earnest solicitation; as the urgency of a request.

2. Pressure of necessity; as the urgency of want or distress; the urgency of the occasion.


1. Pressing with importunity. Exodus 12:33.

2. Pressing with necessity; violent; vehement; as an urgent case or occasion.

URGENTLY, adv. With pressing importunity; violently; vehemently; forcibly.

URGER, n. One who urges; one who importunes.

URGE-WONDER, n. A sort of grain.

URGING, ppr.

1. Pressing; driving; impelling.

2. a. Pressing with solicitations; importunate.

URIC, a. In chimistry, the uric acid, called also lithic acid, is obtained from urinary calculi.

URIM, n. [Heb.] The Urim and Thummim, among the Israelites, signify lights and perfections. These were a kind of ornament belonging to the habit of the high priest, in virtue of which he gave oracular answers to the people; but what they were has not been satisfactorily ascertained.

URINAL, n. [L. urinalis, from urina, urine.]

1. A bottle in which urine is kept for inspection.

2. A vessel for containing urine.

3. In chimistry, an oblong glass vessel, used in making solutions.

URINARY, a. [from urine.] Pertaining to urine; as the urinary bladder; urinary calculi; urinary abscesses.

URINARY, URINARIUM, n. In agriculture, a reservoir or place for the reception of urine, etc. for manure.

URINATIVE, a. Provoking urine.

URINATOR, n. [L. from urino, to dive.] A diver; one who plunges and sinks in water in search of something, as for pearls.

URINE, n. [L. urina; Gr.]

An animal fluid or liquor secreted by the kidneys, whence it is conveyed into the bladder by the ureters, and through the urethra discharged. The urine of beasts is sometimes called stale.

URINE, v.i. [supra.] To discharge urine.

URINOUS, a. Pertaining to urine, or partaking of its qualities.

URN, n. [L. urna.]

1. A kind of vase of a roundish form, largest in the middle; used as an ornament.

2. A vessel for water.

3. A vessel in which the ashes of the dead were formerly kept.

4. A Roman measure for liquids, containing about three gallons and a half, wine measure. It was half the amphora, and four times the congius.

UROSCOPY, n. [Gr.] Inspection of urine.

URRY, n. A sort of blue or black clay, lying near a vein of coal.

URSA, n. [L.] The bear, a constellation, the greater and lesser bear, near the north pole.

URSIFORM, a. [L. ursa, bear, and form.] In the shape of a bear.

URSINE, a. [L. ursinus.] Pertaining to or resembling a bear.

URSULINE, a. Denoting an order of nuns who observe the rule of St. Austin; so called from their institutress, St. Ursula.

URUS, URE, n. [L. urus.] The wild bull.

US, pron. objective case of we.

Give us this day our daily bread.

USAGE, n. s as z. [See Use.]

1. Treatment; an action or series of actions performed by one person towards another, or which directly affect him; as good usage; ill usage; hard usage. Gentle usage will often effect what harsh usage will not. The elephant may be governed by mild usage.

2. Use, or long continued use; custom; practice. Uninterrupted usage for a long time, or immemorial usage constitutes prescription. Custom is a local usage; prescription is a personal usage. In language, usage is the foundation of all rules.

Of things once received and confirmed by use, long usage is a law sufficient.

3. Manners; behavior. Obs.

USAGER, n. s as z. One who has the use of any thing in trust for another. [Not in use.]

USANCE, n. s as z.

1. Use; proper employment.

2. Usury; interest paid for money.

3. In commerce, a determinate time fixed for the payment of bills of exchange, reckoned either from the day of their date, or the day of their acceptance. It is thus called because this time is settled by usage, or the custom of places on which the bills are drawn. In France, the usance for bills drawn from Spain and Portugal, is sixty days. At London, the usance for bills drawn from Holland, Germany or France is one month. The usance is very different in different countries and cities.

USE, n. [L. urus.]

1. The act of handling or employing in any manner, and for any purpose, but especially for a profitable purpose; as the use of a pen in writing; the use of books in study; the use of a spade in digging. Use is of two kinds; that which employs a thing, without destroying it or its form, as the use of a book or of a farm; or it is the employment of a thing which destroys or wastes it, as the use of bread for provision; the use of water for turning a mill.

2. Employment; application of any thing to a purpose, good or bad. It is our duty to make a faithful use of our opportunities and advantages for improvement.

Books can never teach the use of books.

3. Usefulness; utility; advantage; production of benefit. the value of a thing is to be estimated by its use. His friendship has been of use to me.

Tis use alone that sanctifies expense.

4. Need of employment, or occasion to employ. I have no further use for this book.

5. Power of receiving advantage. [Usual.]

6. Continued practice or employment.

Sweetness, truth, and every grace, which time and use are wont to teach.

7. Custom; common occurrence.

O Cesar, these things are beyond all use. [Usual.]

8. Interest; the premium paid for the possession and employment of borrowed money.

9. In law, the benefit or profit of lands and tenements. use imports a trust and confidence reposed in a man for the holding of lands. He to whose use or benefit the trust is intended, shall enjoy the profits. An estate is granted and limited to A for the use of B.

Cestuy que use, in law, the person who has the use of lands and tenements.

Contingent use, in law. A contingent or springing use, is where the use is suspended on a future event.

Resulting use, is one which, being limited by the deed, expires or cannot vest, and results or returns to him who raised it, after such expiration.

Secondary or shifting use, is that which though executed, may change from one to another by circumstances.

1. In use, in employment; as, the book is now in use.

2. In customary practice or observance. Such words, rites and ceremonies, have long been in use.

USE, v.t. s as z. [L. uter, usus; Gr.]

1. To employ; to handle, hold, occupy or move for some purpose; as, to use a plow; to use a chair; to use a book; to use time. Most men use the right hand with more convenience than the left, and hence its name, right.

2. To waste, consume or exhaust by employment; as, to use flour for food; to use beer for drink; to use water for irrigation, or for turning the wheel of a mill.

3. To accustom; to habituate; to render familiar by practice; as men used to cold and hunger; soldiers used to hardships and danger.

4. To treat; as, to use one well or ill; to use people with kindness and civility; to use a beast with cruelty.

Cato has us’d me ill.

5. To practice customarily.

Use hospitality one to another. 1 Peter 4:9.

To use one’s self, to behave. Obs.

USE, v.i. s as z.

1. To be accustomed; to practice customarily.

They use to place him that shall be their captain on a stone.

2. To be wont.

Fears use to be represented in an imaginary fashion.

3. To frequent; to inhabit.

Where never foot did use.

USED, pp. s as z. Employed; occupied; treated.

USEFUL, a. Producing or having power to produce good; beneficial; profitable; helpful towards advancing any purpose; as vessels and instruments useful in a family; books useful for improvement; useful knowledge; useful arts.

USEFULLY, adv. In such a manner as to produce or advance some end; as instruments or time usefully employed.

USEFULNESS, n. Conduciveness to some end, properly to some valuable end; as the usefulness of canal navigation; the usefulness of machinery in manufactures.

USELESS, a. Having no use; unserviceable; producing no good end; answering no valuable purpose; not advancing the end proposed; as a useless garment; useless pity.

USELESSLY, adv. In a useless manner; without profit or advantage.

USELESSNESS, n. Unserviceableness; unfitness for any valuable purpose, or for the purpose intended; as the uselessness of pleasure.

USER, n. s as z. One who uses, treats or occupies.


1. Properly, an officer or servant who has the care of the door of a court, hall, chamber or the like; hence, an officer whose business is to introduce strangers, or to walk before a person of rank. In the king’s household there are four gentlemen-ushers of the privy chamber. There is also an usher of the exchequer, who attends the barons, sheriffs, juries, etc.

2. An under-teacher or assistant to the preceptor of a school.

USHER, v.t. To introduce, as a forerunner or harbinger; to forerun.

The stars that usher evening, rose.

The Examiner was ushered into the world by a letter, setting forth the great genius of the author.

USHERED, pp. Introduced.

USHERING, ppr. Introducing, as a forerunner.


A compound distilled spirit. From this word, by corruption, we have whiskey.

USTION, n. [L. ustio, from uro, ustus, to burn.]

The act of burning; the state of being burnt.

USTORIOUS, a. [supra.] Having the quality of burning.

USTULATION, n. [L. ustulatus.]

1. The act of burning or searing.

2. In metallurgy, ustulation is the operation of expelling one substance from another by heat, as sulphur and arsenic from ores, in a muffle.

3. In pharmacy, the roasting or drying of moist substances so as to prepare them for pulverizing; also, the burning of wine.

USUAL, a. s as z. Customary; common; frequent; such as occurs in ordinary practice, or in the ordinary course of events. Rainy weather is not usual in this climate.

Consultation with oracles was formerly a thing very usual.

USUALLY, adv. s as z. Commonly; customarily; ordinarily. Men usually find some excuse for their vices. It is usually as cold in North America in the fortieth degree of latitude, as it is in the west of Europe in the fiftieth.

USUALNESS, n. s as z. Commonness; frequency.

USUCAPTION, n. [L. usus, use, and capio, to take.]

In the civil law, the same as prescription in the common law; the acquisition of the title or right to property by the uninterrupted and undisputed possession of it for a certain term prescribed by law.

USUFRUCT, n. [L. usus, use, and fructus, fruit.]

The temporary use and enjoyment of lands or tenements; or the right of receiving the fruits and profits of lands or other thing, without having the right to alienate or change the property.

USUFRUCTUARY, n. A person who has the use and enjoyment of property for a time, without having the title or property.

USURE, v.i. s as z. To practice usury. [Not in use.]

USURER, n. s as z. [See Usury.]

1. Formerly, a person who lent money and took interest for it.

2. In present usage, one who lends money at a rate of interest beyond the rate established by law.

USURIOUS, a. s as z.

1. Practicing usury; taking exorbitant interest for the use of money; as a usurious person.

2. Partaking of usury; containing usury; as a usurious contract, which by statute is void.

USURIOUSLY, adv. In a usurious manner.

USURIOUSNESS, n. The state or quality of being usurious.

USURP, v.t. s as z. [L. usurpo.]

To seize and hold in possession by force or without right; as, to usurp a throne; to usurp the prerogatives of the crown; to usurp power. To usurp the right of a patron, is to oust or dispossess him.

Vice sometimes usurps the place of virtue.

[Usurp is not applied to common dispossession of private property.]

USURPATION, n. [supra.] The act of seizing or occupying and enjoying the property of another, without right; as the usurpation of a throne; the usurpation of the supreme power. Usurpation, in a peculiar sense, denotes the absolute ouster and dispossession of the patron of a church, by presenting a clerk to a vacant benefice, who is thereupon admitted and instituted.

USURPED, pp. Seized or occupied and enjoyed by violence, or without right.

USURPER, n. One who seizes or occupies the property of another without right; as the usurper of a throne, of power, or of the rights of a patron.

USURPING, ppr. Seizing or occupying the power or property of another without right.

The worst of tyrants, an usurping crowd.

USURPINGLY, adv. By usurpation; without just right or claim.

USURY, n. s as z. [L. usura, from utor, to use.]

1. Formerly, interest; or a premium paid or stipulated to be paid for the use of money.

[Usury formerly denoted any legal interest, but in this sense, the word is no longer in use.]

2. In present usage, illegal interest; a premium or compensation paid or stipulated to be paid for the use of money borrowed or retained, beyond the rate of interest established by law.

3. The practice of taking interest. Obs.

UTENSIL, n. [This seems to be formed on the participle of the L. utor.]

An instrument; that which is used; particularly, an instrument or vessel used in a kitchen, or in domestic and farming business.

UTERINE, a. [L. uterinus, from uterus.]

Pertaining to the womb. Uterine brother or sister, is one born of the same mother, but by a different father.

UTERO-GESTATION, n. Gestation in the womb from conception to birth.

UTERUS, n. [L.] The womb.

UTILITY, n. [L. utilas, from utor, to use.]

Usefulness; production of good; profitableness to some valuable end; as the utility of manures upon land; the utility of the sciences; the utility of medicines.

UTILIZE, v.t. To gain; to acquire. [Rare.]

UTIS, n. Bustle; stir. [Not in use.]


1. Extreme; being at the furthest point or extremity; as the utmost limit of North America; the utmost limits of the land; the utmost extent of human knowledge.

2. Being in the greatest or highest degree; as the utmost assiduity; the utmost harmony; the utmost misery or happiness; the utmost peril.

UTMOST, n. The most that can be; the greatest power, degree or effort. He has done his utmost. Try your utmost.

I will be free even to the utmost as I please in words.

UTOPIAN, a. [from More’s Utopia.] Ideal; chimerical; fanciful; not well founded.

UTRICLE, a. [L. utriculus, a little bag or bottle.]

1. A little bag or bladder; a little cell; a reservoir in plants to receive the sap.

2. A capsule of one cell, and containing a solitary seed, often very thin and semitransparent, constantly destitute of valves, and falling with the seed.

UTRICULAR, a. Containing utricles; furnished with glandular vessels like small bags; as plants.


1. Situated on the outside or remote from the center.

2. Placed or being beyond any compass; out of any place; as the utter deep.

3. Extreme; excessive; utmost; as utter darkness.

4. Complete; total; final; as utter ruin.

5. Peremptory; absolute; as an utter refusal or denial.

6. Perfect; mere; quite; as utter strangers.

UTTER, v.t.

1. To speak; to pronounce; to express; as, to utter words; to utter sounds.

2. To disclose; to discover; to divulge; to publish. He never utters a syllable of what I suppose to be intended as a secret.

3. To sell; to vend; as, to utter wares. [This is obsolete, unless in the law style.]

4. To put or send into circulation; to put off, as currency, or cause to pass in commerce; as, to utter coin or notes. A man utters a false note, who gives it in payment, knowing it to be false.

UTTERABLE, a. That may be uttered, pronounced or expressed.


1. The act of uttering words; pronunciation; manner of speaking; as a good or bad utterance.

They began to speak with other tongues, as the spirit gave them utterance. Acts 2:4.

2. Emission from the mouth; vocal expression; as the utterance of sounds.

3. Extremity; furthest part. [Not in use.]

UTTERED, pp. Spoken; pronounced; disclosed; published; put into circulation.


1. One who utters; one who pronounces.

2. One who divulges or discloses.

3. One who puts into circulation.

4. A seller; a vender.

UTTERING, ppr. Pronouncing; disclosing; putting into circulation; selling.

UTTERLY, adv. To the full extent; fully; perfectly; totally; as utterly tired; utterly debased; utterly lost to all sense of shame; It is utterly vain; utterly out of my power.

UTTERMOST, a. [utter and most.] Extreme; being in the furthest, greatest or highest degree; as the uttermost extent or end; the uttermost distress.

UTTERMOST, n. The greatest. the uttermost we can do is to be patient.

To the uttermost, in the most extensive degree; fully. Hebrews 7:25.