Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



SEGREGATE, v.t. [L. segrego; se, from, and grex, flock.] To separate from others; to set apart.

SEGREGATE, a. Select. [Little used.]

Segregate polygamy, (Polygamia segregata, Linne,) a mode of inflorescence, when several florets comprehended within a common calyx, are furnished also with their proper perianths. Martyn.

SEGREGATED, pp. Separated; parted from others.

SEGREGATING, ppr. Separating.

SEGREGATION, n. Separation from others; a parting.


1. Pertaining to the lord of a manor; manorial.

2. Vested with large powers; independent.

SEIGNIOR, n. [L. senior, elder.] A lord; the lord of a manor; but used also in the sout of Europe as a title of honor. The sultan of Turkey is called Grand Seignior.

SEIGNIORAGE, n. A royal right or prerogative of the king of England, by which he claims an allowance of gold and silver brought in the mass to be exchanged for coin.

SEIGNIORIAL, the same as seigneurial.

SEIGNIORIZE, v.t. To lord it over. [Little used.]


1. A lordship; a manor.

2. The power or authority of a lord; dominion.

O’Neal never had any seignory over that country, but what he got by encroachment upon the English.

SEIN, n. [L. sagena.] A large net for catching fish. The seins used for taking shad in the Connecticut, sometimes sweep nearly the whole breadth of the river.

SEINER, n. A fisher with a sein or net. [Not much used.]

SEITY, n. [L. se, one’s self.] Something peculiar to a man’s self. [Not well authorized.]

SEIZE, v.t.

1. To fall or rush upon suddenly and lay hold on; or to gripe or grasp suddenly. The tiger rushes from the thicket and seizes his prey. A dog seizes an animal by the throat. The hawk seizes a chicken with his claws. The officer seizes a theif.

2. To take possession by force, with or without right.

At last they seize The scepter, and regard not David’s son. Milton.

3. To invade suddenly; to take hold of; to come upon suddenly; as, a fever seizes a patient

And hope and doubt alternate seize her soul. Pope.

4. To take possession by virtue of a warrant or legal authority. The sherif seized the debtor’s goods; the whole estate was seized and cofiscated. We say, to arrest a person, to seize goods.

5. To fasten; to fix. In seaman’s language, to fasten two ropes or different parts oof one rope together with a cord.

To be seized of, to have possession; as a griffin seized of his prey. A B was seized and possessed of the manor of Dale.

To seize on or upon, is to fall on and grasp; to take hold on; to take possession.

SEIZED, pp. Suddenly caught or grasped; taken by force; invaded suddenly; taken possession of; fastened with a cord; having possession.

SEIZER, n. One that seizes.


1. In law, possession. Seizin is of two sorts, seizin in deed or fact, and seizin in law. Seizin in fact or deed, is actual or corporal possession; seizin in law, is when something is done in which the law accounts possession or seizin, as enrollment, or when lands decend to an heir, but he has not yet entered on them. In this case, the law considers the heir as seized of the setate, and the person who wrongfully enters on the land is accounted a disseizor.

2. The act of taking possession. [Not used except in law.]

3. The thing possessed; possession.

Livery of seizin. [See Livery.]

Primer of seizin. [See Primer-Seizin.]

SEIZING, ppr. Falling on and grasping suddenly; laying hold on suddenly; taking possession by force, or taking by warrant; fastening.


1. The act of taking or grasping suddenly.

2. In seamen’s language, the operation of fastening together ropes with a cord; also, the cord or cords used for such fastening.

SEIZOR, n. One who seizes.


1. The act of seizing; the act of laying hold on suddenly; as the seizure of a thief.

2. The act of taking possession by force; as the seizure of lands or goods; the seizure of a town by an enemy; the seizure of a throne by a usurper.

3. The act of taking by warrant; as the seizure of contraband goods.

4. The thing taken or seized.

5. Gripe; grasp; possession.

And give me seizure of the mighty wealth. Dryden.

6. Catch; a catching.

Let there be no sudden seizure of a lapsed syllable, to play upon it. Watts.

SEJANT, a. In heraldry, sitting, like a great cat with the fore feet straight; applied to a lion or other beast.

SEJUGOUS, a. [L. sejigus; sex, six, and jugum, yoke.] In botany, a sejugous leaf is a pinnate leaf having six pairs of leaflets.

SEJUNCTION, n. [L. sejunctio; se, from, and jungo, to join.] The act of disjoining; a disuniting; separation. [Little used.]

SEJUNGIBLE, a. [supra.] That may be disjoined. [Little used.]

SEKE, for sick, oblolete. [See Sick.]

SELCOUTH, a. Rarely known; unusual; uncommon. Obs.

SELDOM, adv. [Sel probably signifies separate, distinct, coinciding with L. solus.] Rarely; not often; not frequently.

Wisdom and youth are seldom joined in one. Hooker.

SELDOM, a. Rare; unfrequent. [Little used.]

SELDOMNESS, n. Rareness; uncommonness; infrequency.

SELDSHOWN, a. Rarely shown or exhibited. [Not in use.]

SELECT, v.t. [L. selectus, from seligo; se, from, and lego, to pick, cull or gather.] to choose and take from a number; to take by preference from among others; to pick out; to cull; as, to select the best authors for persual; to select the most interesting and virtuous men for associates.

SELECT, a. Nicely chosen; taken from a number by preference; choice; whence, preferable; more valuable or excellent than others; as a body of select troops; a select company or society; a library consisted of select authors.

SELECTED, pp. Chosen and taken by preference from among a number; picked; culled.

SELECTEDLY, adv. With care in selection.

SELECTING, ppr. Choosing and taking from a number; picked; culled.

SELECTION, n. [L. selectio.]

1. The act of choosing and taking from among a number; a taking from a number by preference.

2. A numbers of things selected or taken from others by preference. I have a small but valuable selection of books.

SELECTIVE, a. Selecting; tending to select. [Unusual.]

SELECTMAN, n. [select and man.] In New England, a town officer chosen anually to manage the concerns of the town, provide for the poor, etc. Their number is usually from three to seven in each town, and these constitute a kind of executive authority.

SELECTNESS, n. The state of being select or well chosen.

SELECTOR, n. [L.] One that selects or chooses from among a number.

SELENIATE, n. a compound of selenic acid with a base.

SELENIC, a. Pertaining to selenium, or extracted from it; as selenic acid.

SELENITE, n. [Gr. the moon; so called on account of its reflecting the the moon’s light with brilliancy.] Foliated or crystalized sulphate of lime. Selenite is a subspecies of sulphate of lime, of two varieties, massive and acicular.

SELENITIC, SELENITICAL, a. Pertaining to selenite; resembling it, or partaking of its nature or properties.

SELENIUM, n. [supra.] A new elementary body or substance, extracted from the pyrite of Fahlun in Sweden. It is of a gray dark brown color, with a brilliant metallic luster, and slighty translucent. It is doubted whether it ought to be classified with the metals.

SELENIURET, SELENURET, n. A newly discovered mineral, of a shining lead gray color, with granular texture. It is composed chiefly of selenium, silver and copper.

SELENOGRAPHIC, SELENOGRAPHICAL, a. [infra.] Belonging to selenography.

SELENOGRAPHY, n. [Gr. the moon; to describe.] A desciption of the moon and its phenomena; a branch of cosmography.

SELF, a. or pron. plu. selves; used chiefly in composition.

1. In old authors, this sometimes signifies particular, very, or same. “And on tham sylfan geare;” in that same year, that very year. Sax. Chron. A.D. 1052, 1061.

Shoot another arrow that self way. Shak.

On these self hills. Raleigh.

At that self moment enters Palamon. Dryden.

In this sense, self is an adjective, and is now obsolete, except when followed by same; as on the self-same day; the self-same hour; the self-same thing; which is tautology.

2. In present usage, selfis united to certain personal pronouns and pronominal adjectives, to express emphasis or distinction; also when the pronoun is used reciprocally. thus, for emphasis, I myself will write; I will examine for myself; Thou thyself shalt go; thou shalt see for thyself; You yourself shall write; you shall see for yourself. He himself shall write; he shall examine for himself. She herself shall write; she shall examine for herself. The child itself shall be carried; it shall be present itself.

Reciprocally, I abhor myself; thou enrichest thyself; he loves himself; she admires herself; it pleases itself; we value ourselves; ye hurry yourselves; they see themselves. I did not hurt him, he hurt himself; he did not hurt me, I hurt myself.

Except when added to pronouns used reciprocally, self serves to give emphasis to the pronoun, or to render the distinction expressed by it more emphatical. “I myself will decide,” not only expresses my determination to decide, but the determination that no other shall decide.

Himself, herself, themselves, are used in the nomnative case, as well as in the objective.

Jesus himself baptized not, but his disciples. See Matthew 23:4.

3. Self is sometimes as a noun, noting the individual subject to his own contemplation or action, or noting identity of person. Consciousness makes everyone to be what he call self.

A man’s self may be the worst fellow to converse with in the world. Pope.

4. It also signifies personal interest, or love of private interest; selfishness.

The fondness we have for self-furnishes another long rank of prejudices. Watts.

Self is much used in composition.

SELF-ABASED, a. [self and abase.] Humbled by conscious guilt or shame.

SELF-ABASEMENT, n. Humiliation or abasement proceeding from consciouness of inferiority, guilt or shame.

SELF-ABASING, a. Humbling by the consciouness of guilt or by shame.

SELF-ABUSE, n. [selfand abuse.] The abuse of one’s own person or powers.

SELF-ACCUSING, a. [self and accuse.] Accusing one’s self; as a self-accusing look.

SELF-ACTIVITY, n. [self and activity.] Self-motion, or the power of moving one’s self without foreign aid.

SELF-ADMIRATION, n. Admiration of one’s self.

SELF-ADMIRING, a. Admiring one’s self.

SELF-AFFAIRS, n. plu. [self and affair.] One’s own private business.

SELF-AFFRIGHTED, a. [self and affright.] Frightened at one’s self.

SELF-APPLAUSE, n. self-applauz’. Applause of one’s self.

SELF-APPROVING, a. That approves of one’s own conduct.

SELF-ASSUMED, a. Assumed by one’s own act and without authority.

SELF-BANISHED, a. [self and banish.] Exiled voluntarily.

SELF-BEGOTTEN, a. [self and beget.] Begotten by one’s own powers.

SELF-BORN, a. [self and born.] Born or produced by one’s self.

SELF-CENTERED, a. [self and center.] Centered in itself.

The earth self-center’d and unmoved. Dryden.

SELF-CHARITY, n. [self and charity.] Love of one’s self.

SELF-COMMUNICATIVE, a. [self and communicative.] Imparted or communicated by its own powers.

SELF-CONCEIT, n. [self and conceit.] A high opinion of one’s self; vanity.

SELF-CENCEITED, a. Vain; having a high or overweening opinion of one’s own person or merits.

SELF-CONCEITEDNESS, n. Vanity; an overweening opinion of one’s own person or accomplishments.

SELF-CONFIDENCE, n. [self and confidence.] Confidence in one’s own judgement or ability; reliance on one’s own opinion or powers, without other aid.

SELF-CONFIDENT, a. Confident of one’s own strength or powers; relying on the correctness of one’s own judgement, or the competence of one’s own powers, without other aid.

SELF-CONFIDING, a. Confiding in one’s own judgement or powers, without other aid.

SELF-CONSCIOUS, a. [self and conscious.] Conscious in one’s self.

SELFCONSCIOUNESS, n. Consciouness within one’s self.

SELF-CONSIDERING, a. [self and consider.] Considering in one’s own mind; deliberating.

SELF-CONSUMING, a. [self and consume.] That consumes itself.

SELF-CONTRADICTION, n. [self and contradiction.] the art of contradicting itself; repugnancy in terms. To be and not to be at the same time, is a self-contradiction; a proposition consisting of two members, one of which contradicts the other.

SELF-CONTRADICTORY, a. Contradicting itself.

SELF-CONVICTED, a. [self and convict.] Convited by one’s own consciouness, knowledge or avowal.

SELF-CONVICTION, n. Conviction proceeding from one’s own consciouness, knowledge or confession.

SELF-CREATED, a. Created by one’s self; not formed or constituted by another.

SELF-DECEIT, n. [self and deceit.] Deception respecting one’s self, or that originates from one’s own mistake; self-deception.

SELF-DECEIVED, a. [self and deceive.] Deceived or mislead respecting one’s self by one’s own mistake or error.

SELF-DECEVING, a. Deceiving one’s self.

SELF-DECEPTION, n. [supra.] Deception concerning one’s self proceeding from one’s own mistake.

SELF-DEFENSE, n. self-defens’. [self and defense.] The act of defending one’s own person, property or reputation. A man may be justifiable in killing another in self-defense.

SELF-DELUSION, n. [self and delusion.] The delusion of one’s self; or respesting one’self.

SELF-DENIAL, n. [self and denial.] The denial of one’s self; the forbearing to gratify one’s own appetites or desires.

SELFDENYING, a. Denying one’s self; a forbearing to indulge one’s one appetites or desires.

SELF-DEPENDENT, SELF-DEPENDING, a. Depending on one’s self.

SELF-DESTRUCTION, n. [self and destruction.] The desruction of one’s self; voluntary destruction.

SELF-DESTRUCTIVE, a. Tending to the destruction of one’s self.

SELF-DETERMINATION, n. [self and determination.] Determination by one’s own mind; or determination by its own powers, without extraneous impulse or influnce.

SELF-DETERMINING, a. Determining by or of itself; determining or deciding without extraneous power or influence; As the self-determining power of the will.

SELF-DEVOTED, a. [self and devote.] Devoted in person, or voluntarily devoted in person.

SELF-DEVOTEMENT, n. The devoting of one’s person and services voluntarily to any difficult or hazardous employment.

SELF-DEVOURING, a. [self and devour.] Devouring one’s self and itself.

SELF-DIFFUSIVE, a. [self and diffusive.] Having power to diffuse itself; that diffuses itself.

SELF-ENJOYMENT, n. [self and enjoyment.] Internal satisfaction or pleasure.

SELF-ESTEEM, n. [self and esteem.] The esteem or good opinion of one’s self.

SELF-ESTIMATION, n. The esteem or good opinion of one’s self.