Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary
SECTARIANISM — SEGNITY
SECTARIANISM, n. The disposition to dissent from the established church or predominant religion, and to form new sects.
SECTARISM, n. Sectarianism. [Little used.]
SECTARIST, n. A secretary. [Not much used.]
1. A person who separates from an established church, or from the prevailing denomination of christians; one that belongs to a sect; a dissenter.
2. a follower; a pupil. [Not in use.]
SECTATOR, n. A follower; a disciple; an adherent to a sect. [Not now used.]
SECTILE, a. [L. sectilus, from seco, to cut.] A sectile mineral is one that is midway between the briddle and the malleable, as soapstone and plumbago.
SECTION, n. [L. sectio; seco, to cut off.]
1. The act of cutting or of separating by cutting; as the section of the bodies.
2. A part separated from the rest; a division.
3. In books and writings, a distinct part or portion; the subdivision of a chapter; the division of a law or other writing or instrument. In laws, a section is sometimes called a paragraph or article.
4. A distinct part of a city, town, country or people; a part of territory separated by geographecal lines, or of a people considered as distinct. Thus we say, the northern or eastern section of the United States, the middle section, the southern or western section.
5. In geometry, a side or surface of a body or figure cut off by another; or the place where lines, planes, etc. cut each other.
SECTIONAL, a. Pertaining to a section or distinct part of a larger body or territory.
SECTOR, n. [L. seco, to cut.]
1. In geometry, a part of a circle comprehended between two radii and the arch; or a mixed triangle, formed by two radii and the arch of a circle.
2. A mathematical instrument so marked with lines of sines, tangents, secants, chords, etc. as to fit all radii and scales, and useful in finding the proportion between quantities of the same kind. The sector is founded on the fourth proposition of the sixth book of Euclid, where it is proved that similar triangles have their homologous sides proportional.
SECULAR, a. [L. secularis, from seculum, the world or an age.]
1. Pertaining to the present world, or to things not spiritual or holy; relating to things not immediately or primarily respecting the soul, but the body; worldly. The secular concerns of life respect making making provision for the support of life, the preservation of health, the temporal prosperity of men, of states, etc. Secular power is that which superintends and governs the temporal affairs of men, the civil or political power; and is contradistinguished from spiritual or ecclsiastical power.
2. Among catholics, not regular; not bound by monastic vows or rules; not confines to a monastery or subject to the rules of a religious community. Thus we say, the secular clergy and the regular clergy.
3. Coming once in a century; as a secular year.
Secular games, in Rome, were games celebrated once in an age or century, which lasted three days and three nights, with sacrifices, theatrical shows, combats, sports, etc. Valerius Maximus.
Secular music, any music or songs not adapted to sacred uses.
Secular song or poem, a song or poem composed for the secular games, or sung or rehearsed at those games.
SECULAR, n. A church officer or officiate whose functions are confines to the vocal department of the choir.
SECULARITY, n. Worldiness; supreme attention to the things of the present life.
SECULARIZATION, n. [foom secularize.] the act of converting a regular person, place or benefice into a secular one. Most cathedral churchses were formerly regular, that is, the canons were of religious or monastic orders; but they have since been secularized. for the secularization of a regular church, there is wanted the authority of the pope, that of the prince, the bishop of the place, the patron, and even the consent of the people.
1. To make secular; to convert from spiritual appropriation to scular or common use; to convert that which is regular or monastic into secular; as, the ancient regular cathedral churches were secularized.
At the reformation, the abbey was secularized. Coxe, Switz.
2. To make worldy.
SECULARIZED, pp. Converted from regular to secular.
SECULARIZING, ppr. Converting from regular or monastic to secular.
SECULARLY, adv. In a worldy manner.
SECULARNESS, n. A secular disposition; worldliness; worldly mindedness.
SECUNDINE, n. Secundines, in the plural, as generally used, are the several coats or membranes in which the fetus is wrapped in the womb; the after-birth.
SECURE, a. [L. securus.]
1. Free from danger of being taken by an enemy; that may resist assault or attack. Teh place is well fortified and very secure. Gibraltar is a secure fortress. In this sense, secure is followed by against or from; as secure against attack, or from an enemy.
2. Free from danger; safe; applied to persons; with from.
3. Free from fear or apprehension of danger; not alarmed; not disturbed by fear; confident of safety; hence, careless of the means of defense. Men are often most in danger when they feel most secure.
Confidence then bore thee on, secure
To meet no danger. Milton.
4. Confident; not distrultful; with of.
But thou, secure of soul, unbent with woes. Dryden.
It concerns the most secure of his strength, to pray to God not to expose him to an enemy. Rogers.
5. Careless; wanting caution. [See No. 3.]
6. Certain; very confident. He is secure of a welcome reception.
1. To guard effectually from danger; to make safe. Fortifications may secure a city; ships of war may secure a harbor.
I spread a cloud before the victor’s sight,
Sustain’d the vanquish’d, and secur’d his flight. Dryden.
2. To make certain; to put beyond hazard. Liberty and fixed laws secure to every citizen due protection of person and property. the first duty of the highest interest of men is to secure the favor of God by repentance and faith, and thus secure to themselves future felicity.
3. To inclose or confine effectually; to guard effectually from escape; sometimes, to seize and confine; as, to secure a prisoner. The sherif pursued the theif with a warrant, and secured him.
4. To made certain of payment; as, to secure a debt by mortgage.
5. To make certain of receiving a precarious debt by giving bond, mail, surety or other-wise; as, to secure a creditor.
6. To insure, as property.
7. To make fast; as, to secure a door; to secure a rafter to a plate; to secure the hatches of a ship.
SECURED, pp. Effectually guarded or protected; made certain; put beyond hazard; effectually confined; made fast.
1. Without danger; safely; as, to pass a river on ice securely. But safely is generally used.
2. Without fear or apprehension; carelessly; in an unguarded state; in confidence of safety.
His daring foe securely him defied. Milton.
Devise not evil against thy neighbor, seeing he dwelleth securely by thee. Proverbs 3:29.
SECUREMENT, n. Security; protection. [Not used.]
SECURENESS, n. Confidence of safety; exemption from fear; hence, want of vigilance or caution.
SECURER, n. He or that which secures or protects.
SECURIFORM, a. [L. securis, an ax or hatchet, and form.] In botany, having the form of an ax or hatchet.
SECURITY, n. [L. securitas.]
1. Protection; effectual defense or saftey from danger of any kind; as a chain of forts erected for the security of the frontiers.
2. That which protects or guards from danger. A navy constitutes the security of Great Britain from invasion.
3. Freedom from fear or apprehension; confidence of safety; whence, negligence in providing means of defense. Security is dangerous, for it exposes men to attack when unprepared. Security in sin is the worst condition of the sinner.
4. Safety; certainty. We have no security for peace with Algiers, but the dread of our navy.
5. Anything given or deposited to secure the payment of a debt, or the performance of a contract; as a bond with surety, a mortgage, the indorsement of a responsible man, a pledge, etc.
6. Something given or done to secure peace or good behavior. Violent and dangerous men are obliged to give security for their good behavior, or for keeping the peace. This security in being bound with one or more sureties in a recognizance to the king or state.
SEDAN, n. [L. sedeo; like L. esseda] A portable chair or cover vehicle for carrying a single person. It is borne on poles by two men.
SEDATE, a. [L. sedatus, from sedo, to calm or appease, that is, to set, to cause to subside.] Settled; composed; calm; quiet; tranquil; still; serene; unruffled by passion; udisturbed; as a sedate soul, mind or temper. So we say, a sedate look or countenance.
SEDATELY, adv. Calmly; without agitation of mind.
SEDATENESS, n. Calmness of mind, manner or countenance; freedom from agitation; a settled state; composure; serenity; tranquillity; as sedateness of temper or soul; sedateness of countenance; sedateness of conversation.
SEDATION, n. The act of calming. [Not in use.]
SEDATIVE, a. [L. sedo, to calm.] In medicine, moderating muscular action or animal energy.
SEDATIVE, n. A midicine that moderates muscular action or animal energy. Se defendendo, in defending himself; the plea of a person charged with murder, who alledges that he committed the act in his own defense.
SEDENTARILY, adv. [from sedentary.] The state of being sedentary, or living without much action.
SEDENTARINESS, n. The state of being sedentary.
SEDENTARY, a. [L. sedentarius, from sedens, sedeo, to sit.]
1. Accustomed to sit much, or to pass most of the time in a sitting posture; as a sedentary man. Students, taylors and women are sedentary persons.
2. Requiring much sitting; as a sedentary occupation or employment.
3. Passed for the most part in sitting; as a sedentary life.
4. Inactive; motionless; sluggish; as the sedentary earth.
The soul, considered abstractly from its passions, is of a remiss sedentary nature. Spectator.
SEDGE, n. [L. seco, to cut; that is sword grass, like L. gladiolus.]
1. A narrow flag, or growth of such flags; called in the north of England, seg or sag.
2. In New England, a species of very coarse grass growing in swamps, and forming bogs or clumps.
SEDGED, a. Composed of flags or sedge.
SEDGY, a. Overgrown with sedge.
On the gentle Severn’s sedgy bank. Shak.
SEDIMENT, n. [L. sedimentum, from sedeo, to settle.] The matter which subsides to the bottom of liquors; settlings; lees; dregs.
SEDITION, n. [L. seditio. The sense of this word is the contrary of that which is naturally deducible from sedo, or sedeo, denoting a rising or raging, rather than an appeasing. But to set is really to throw down, to drive, and sedition may be a setting or rushing together.] A factious commotion of the people, a tumultuous assembly of men rising in opposition to law or the administration of justice, and in disturbance of the public peace. Sedition is a rising or commotion of less extent than an insurrection, and both are less than rebellion; but some kinds of sedition, in Great Britain, amount to high treason. In general, sedition is a local or limited insurrection in opposition to civil authority, as mutiny is to military.
SEDITIONARY, n. An inciter or promoter of sedition.
SEDITIOUS, a. [L. seditiosus.]
1. Pertaining to sedition; partaking of the nature of sedition; as seditious behavior; seditious strife.
2. Tending to excite sedition; as seditious words.
3. Disposed to excite violent or irregular opposition to law or lawful authority; turbulent; factious, or guilty of sedition; as seditious citizens.
SEDITIOUSLY, adv. With tumultious opposition to law; in a manner to violate the public peace.
SEDITIOUSNESS, n. The disposition to excite popular commotion in opposition to law; or the act of exciting such commotion.
SEDUCE, v.t. [L. seduco; se, from, and duco, to lead.]
1. To draw aside or entice from the path of rectitude and duty in any manner, by flattery, promises, bribes or otherwise; to tempt and lead to iniquity; to corrupt; to deprave.
Me the gold of France did not seduce. Shak.
In the latter times, some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits. 1 Timothy 4:1.
2. To entice to a surrender of chastity. He that can seduce a female is base enough to betray her.
SEDUSED, pp. Drawn or enticed from virtue; corrupted; depraved.
1. The act of seducing; seduction.
2. The means employed to seduce; the arts of flattery, falsehood and deception.
1. One that seduces; one that by temptation or arts, entices another to depart from the path of rectitude and duty; pre-eminently, one that by flattery, promises or falsehood, persuades a female to surrender her chastity. The seducer of a female is little less criminal than the murderer.
2. That which leads astray; that which entices to evil.
He whose firm faith no reason could remove,
Will mest before that soft seducer, love. Dryden.
SEDUCIBLE, a. Capable of being drawn aside from the path of rectitude; corruptible.
SEDUCING, ppr. Enticing from the path of virtue or chastity.
SEDUCTION, n. [L. seductio.]
1. The act of seducing or of enticing from the path of duty.
2. Appropriately, the act or crime of persuading a female, by flattery or deception, to surrender her chastity. A woman who is above flattery, is least liable to seduction; but the best safeguard is principle, the love and purity of holiness, the fear of God and reverence forHis commandments.
SEDUCTIVE, a. Tending to lead astray; apt to mislead by flattering appearances.
SEDULITY, n. [L. sedulitas. See Sedulous.] Diligent and assiduous application to business; constant attention; unremitting industry in any pursuit. It denotes constancy and perseverance rather than intenseness of application.
Let there be but the same propensity and bent of will to religion, and there will be the same sedulity and indefatigable industry in men’s inquiries into it. South.
SEDULOUS, a. [L. sedulus, from the root of sedeo, to sit; as assiduous from assideo.] Literally, sitting close to an employment; hence, assiduous; diligent in application or pursuit; constant, steady and persevering in business or endeavors to effect an object; steadily industrious; as the sedulous bee.
What signifies the sound of words in prayer, without the affection of heart, and a sedulous application of the proper means that may lead to such an end? L’Estrange.
SEDULOUSLY, adv. Assiduously; industriously; diligently; with constant or continued application.
SEDULOUSNESS, n. Assiduity; assiduousness; steady diligence; continued industry or effort.
1. The seat of episcopal power; a diocese; the jurisdiction of a bishop.
2. The seat of an archbishop; a province or jurisdiction of an archbishop; as an archiepiscopal see.
3. The seat, place or office of the pope or Roman pontif; as the papal see.
4. The authority of the pope or court of Rome; as, to appeal to the see of Rome.
SEE, v.t. [L. sequor, and Eng. essay, are all from the same radix. The primary sense of the root is to strain, stretch, extend; and as applied to see, the sense is to extend to, to reach, to strike with the eye or sight.]
1. To perceive by the eye; to have knowledge of the existence and the apparent qualities of objects by the organs of sight; to behold.
I will now turn aside and see this great sight. Exodus 3:3.
We have seen the land, and behold, it is very good. Judges 18:9.
2. To observe; to note or notice; to know; to regard or look to; to take care; to attend, as to the execution of some order, or to the performance of something.
Give them the first one simple idea, and see that they fully comprehend before you go any farther. Locke.
See that ye fall not out by the way. Genesis 45:24.
3. To discover; to descry; to understand. Who so dull as not to see the device or strategem?
Very notable actions often lose much of their excellence when the motives are seen.
4. To converse or have intercourse with. We improve by seeing men of different habits and tempers.
5. To visit; as, to call and see a friend. The physician sees his patient twice a day.
6. To attend; to remark or notice.
I had a mind to see him out, and therefore did not care to contradict him. Addison.
7. To behold with patience or sufferance; to endure.
It was not meet for us to see the king’s dishonor. Ezra 4:14.
8. In Scripture, to hear or attend to.
I turned to see the voice that spoke with me. Revelation 1:12.
9. To feel; to suffer; to experience.
Make us glad according to the days wherein thou hast afflicted us, and the years in which we have seen evil. Psalm 90:15.
10. To know; to learn.
Go, I pray thee, see whether it be well with thy brethren. Genesis 37:14.
11. To perceive; to understand; to comprehend. I see the train of argument; I see his motives.
12. To perceive; to understand experimentally.
I see another law in my members. Romans 7:23.
13. To beware.
See thou do it not. Revelation 19:10.
14. To know by revelation.
15. To have faith in and reliance on.
Seeing him who is invisible. Hebrews 11:27.
16. To enjoy; to have fruition of.
Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. Matthew 5:8.
1. To have the power of perceiving by the proper organs, or the power of sight. Som animals, it is said, are able to see best in the night.
2. To discern; to have intellectual seght; to penetrate; to understand; with through or into; as, to see through the plans or policy of another; to see into artful schemes and pretensions.
3. To eximane or inquere. See wether the estimate is correct.
4. To be attentive.
5. To have full understanding.
But now ye say, we see, therefore your sin remaineth. John 9:41.
Let me see, let us see, are used to express consideration, or to introduce the particular consideration of a subject, or some scheme or calculation.
See is used imperatively, to call the attention of others to an object or a subject. See, see, how the balloon ascends.
See what it is to habe a poet in your house. Pope.
1. The substance, animal or vegetable, which nature prepares for the reproduction and conservation of the species. The seeds of plants are a deciduous part, containing the rudiments of a new vegetable. In some cases, the seeds costitute the fruit or valuable part of plants, as in the case of wheat and other esculent grain; sometimes the seeds are inclosed in fruit, as in apples and melons. When applied to animal matter, it has no plural.
2. That from which any thing springs; first principle; original; as the seeds of virtue or vice.
3. Principle of production.
Praise of great acts he scatters as a seed. Waller.
4. Progeny; offspring; children; descendants; as the seed of Abraham; the seed of David. In this sense, the word is applied to one person, or to any number collectively, and admits of the plural form; but rarely used in the plural.
5. Race; generation; birth.
Of mortal seed they were not held. Waller.
1. To grow to maturity, so as to produce seed. Maiz will not seed in a cool climate.
2. To shed the seed.
SEED, v.t. To sow; to sprinkle with seed, which germinates and takes root.
SEED-BUD, n. [seed and bud.] The germ, germen or rudiment of the fruit in embryo.
SEED-CAKE, n. [seed and cake.] A sweet cake containing aromatic seeds.
SEED-COAT, n. In botany, the aril or outer coat of a seed.
SEED-LEAF, n. In botany, the primary leaf. The seed-leaves are the cotyledons or lobes of a seed expanded and in the vegetation.
SEEDLING, n. A young plant or root just sprung from the seed.
SEEDNESS, n. Seed-time. [Not in use.]
SEED-PEARL, n. [seed and pearl.] Small grains of pearl.
1. The ground on which seeds are sown to produce plants for transplanting; hence,
2. A nursery; a place where any thing is sown or planted for cultivation.
SEEDSMAN, n. [seed and man.] A person who deals in seeds; also, a sower.
SEED-TIME, n. [seed and time] The season proper for sowing.
While the earth remaineth, seed-time and harvest, and cold and heat, and winter, and day and night, shall not cease. Genesis 8:22.
SEED-VESSEL, n. In botany, the pericarp which contains the seeds.
SEEDY, a. [from seed.]
1. Abounding with seeds.
2. Having a peculiar flavor, supposed to be derived from the weeds growing amoung vines; applied to French brandy.
SEEING, ppr. [from see.] Perceiving by the eye; knowing; understanding; observing; beholding.
[Note. This participle appears to be used indefinitely, or without direct reference to a person or persons. “Wherefore come ye to me, seeing ye hate me?” Genesis 26:27. That is, since, or the fact being that or thus; because that. In this form of phraseology, that is understood or implied after seeing; why come ye to me, seeing that, ye hate me? The resolution of the phrase or sentence is, ye hate me; that fact being seen or known by you, why come ye to me? or why come you to me, ye seeing [knowing] that fact which follows, viz. ye hate me. In this case, seeing retains its participial character, although its relation to the pronoun is somewhat obscured. Originally, seeing, in this use, had direct relation to the speaker or to some other person. “Now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast not witheld thy son.” Genesis 22:12. Here seeing refers to I, or according to the language of syntax, agrees or accords with I. I know thou fearest God, for I see thou hast not withheld thine only son; I know thou fearest God by seeing, in consequence of seeing this fact, thou hast not withheld thine only son. But the use of seeing is extended to cases in which it cannot be referred to a specifec person or persons, in which cases it expresses the notoriety or admission of a fact in general, and is left, like the French on, in the phrases on dit, on voit, without application to any particular person.]
SEEK, v.t. pret. and pp. sought, pronounced sawt. [L. sequor, to follow; for to seek is to go after, and the primary sense is to advance, to press, to drive forward, as in the L. peto.]
1. To go in searh or quest of; to look for; to search for by going from place to place.
The man asked him, saying, what seekest thou? And he said, I seek my brethen. Genesis 37:15-16.
2. To inquire for; to ask for; to solicit; to endeavor to find or gain by any means.
The young lions roar after their prey, and seek their meat from God. Psalm 104:21.
He found no place for repentance, though he sought it carefully with tears. Hebrews 12:17.
Others tempting him, sought of him a sign. Luke 11:16.
3.Seek is followed sometimes by out or after. To seek out, properly implies to look for a specific thing among a number. But in general, the use of out and after with seek, is unnecessary and inelegant.
To seek God, his name, or his face, in Scripture, to ask for his favor, direction and assistance. Psalm 83:16.
God seeks men, when he fixes his love on them, and by his word and Spirit, and the righteousness of Christ, reclaims and recovers them from their miserable condition as sinners. Ezekiel 34:4; Psalm 119:176; Luke 15:8.
To seek after the life, or soul, to attempt by arts or machinations; or to attempt to destroy or ruin. Psalm 35:4.
To seek out God’s works, to endeavor to understand them. Psalm 111:2.
1. To make search or inquiry; to endeavor to make discovery.
Seek ye out of the book of the Lord. Isaiah 34:16.
2. To endeavor.
Ask not what pains, nor further seek to know
Their process, or the forms of law below. Dryden.
To seek after, to make pursuit; to attempt to find or take. [See No. 3 supra.]
To seek for, to endeavor to find. Knolles.
To seek to, to apply to; to resort to. 1 Kings 10:24.
To seek, at a loss; without knowledge, measures or experience.
Unpractic’d, unprepar’d and still to seek. Milton. [This phrase, I believe, is wholly obsolete.]
1. One that seeks; an inquirer; as a seeker of truth.
2. One of a sect that profess no determinate religion.
SEEK-SORROW, n. [seek and sorrow.] One that contrives to give himself vexation. [Little used.]
SEEL, v.t. To close the eyes; a term of falconry, from the practice of the closing the eyes of a wild hawk.
SEEL, v.i. [See Sell.] To lean; to incline to one side. Obs.
SEEL, SEELING, n. The rolling or agitation of a ship in a storm. Obs.
SEEL, n. Time; opportunity; season. Obs.
SEELILY, adv. In a silly manner. Obs.
SEELY, a. [from seel.]
1. Lucky; fortunate. Obs.
2. Silly; foolish; simple. Obs. [See Silly.]
1. To appear; to make or have a show or semblance.
Thou art not what thou seems’t. Shak.
All seem’d well pleased; all seem’d, but were not all. Milton.
2. To have the appearance of truth or fact; to be understood as true. It seems that the Turkish power is on the decline.
A prince of Italy, it seems, entertained his mistress on a great lake. Addison.
SEEM, v.t. To become; to befit. Obs.
SEEMER, n. One that carries an appearance or semblance.
Hence we shall see
If pow’r change purpose, what our seemers be. Shak.
1. Appearing; having the appearance or semblance, whether real or not.
2. a. Specious.
1. Appearance; show; semblance.
2. Fair appearance.
These keep Seeming and savor all the winter long. Shak.
3. Opinion or liking; favorable opinion.
Nothing more clear to their seeming. Hooker.
His persuasive words impregn’d with reason to her seeming. Obs. Milton.
SEEMINGLY, adv. In appearance; in show; in semblance.
This the father seemingly complied with. Addison.
They depend often on remote and seemingly disproportioned causes. Atterbury.
SEEMINGNESS, n. Fair appearance; plausibility.
SEEMLESS, a. Unseemly; unfit; indecorous. Obs.
SEEMLINESS, n. [from seemly.] Comliness; grace; fitness; propriety; decency; decorum.
When seemliness combines with portliness. Camden.
SEEMLY, a. Becoming; fit; suited to the object, occasion, purpose or character; suitable.
Suspense of judgement and excercise of charity were safer and seemlier for christian men, than the hot pursuit of these controversies. Hooker.
Honor is not seemly for a fool. Proverbs 26:1.
SEEMLY, adv. In a decent or suitable manner.
SEEMLYHEAD, [See Head and Hood.] Comely or decent appearance. Obs.
SEEN, pp. of see.
1. Beheld; observed; understood.
2. a. Versed; skilled.
Noble Boyle, not less in nature seen- Obs. Dryden.
SEER, n. [from see.]
1. One who sees; as a seer of visions.
2. A prophet; a person who forsees future events.
SEE-SAW, n. [Qu. saw and saw, or sea and saw.] A vibrating or reciprocating motion.
SEE-SAW, v.i. To move with reciprocating motion; to move backward and forward, or upward and downward.
SEETHE, v.t. pret. seethed, sod; pp. seethed, sodden. [Heb. to seethe, to boil, to swell, to be inflated.] To boil; to decoct or prepare for food in hot liquor; as, to seethe flesh.
Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk. Exodus 23:19.
SEETHE, v.i. To be in a state of ebullition; to be hot. [This word is rarely used in the common concerns of life.]
SEETHED, pp. Boiled; decoated.
SEETHER, n. A boiler; a pot for boiling things.
SEETHING, ppr. Boiling; decoating.
SEG, n. Sedge. [Not in use.]
SEGHOL, n. a Hebrew vowel-point, or short vowel.
SEGHOLATE, a. Marked with a seghol.
SEGMENT, n. [L. segmentum, from seco, to cut off.]
1. In geometry, that part of the circle contained between a chord and an arch of that circle, or so much of the circle as is cut off by the chord.
2. In general, a part cut off or divided; as the segments of a calyx.