Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



VENGER, n. An avenger. [Not in use.]

VENIABLE, a. [See Venial.] Venial; pardonable. [Not in use.]

VENIABLY, adv. Pardonably; excusably. [Not in use.]

VENIAL, a. [L. venia, pardon, leave to depart, from the root of venio, and signifying literally a going or passing.]

1. That may be forgiven; pardonable; as a venial fault or transgression. The reformed churches hold all sins to be venial, through the merits of the Redeemer; but the most trifling sins not to be venial, except through the righteousness and atonement of Christ.

2. In familiar language, excusable; that may be allowed or permitted to pass without censure; as a venial slip or fault.

3. Allowed.

Permitting him the while venial discourse unblam’d.

VENIALNESS, n. State of being excusable or pardonable.

Venire facias, or venire, in law, a writ or precept directed to the sheriff, requiring him to summon twelve men, to try an issue between parties. It is also a writ in the nature of a summons to cause the party indicted on a penal statue, to appear.

VENISON, n. ven’izn, or ven’zn. [L. venactio, a hunting, from venor, to hunt.]

The flesh of beasts of game, or of such wild animals as are taken in the chase. It is however, in the United States, applied exclusively to the flesh of the deer or cervine genus of animals.

VENOM, n. [L. venenum, venor, to hunt, to drive or chase; venio, to come. See Venus, etc.]

1. Poison; matter fatal or injurious to life. Venom is generally used to express noxious matter that is applied externally, or that is discharged from animals, as that of bites and stings of serpents, scorpions, etc.; and poison, to express substances taken into the stomach.

2. Spite; malice.

VENOM, v.t. To poison; to infect with venom. [Little used, but envenom is in use and elegant. Venom may be elegantly used in poetry.]


1. Poisonous; noxious to animal life; as, the bite of a serpent may be venomous. The sack at the base of the rattlesnake’s teeth, contains venomous matter.

2. Noxious; mischievous; malignant; as a venomous progeny.

3. Spiteful; as a venomous writer.

VENOMOUSLY, adv. Poisonously; malignantly; spitefully.


1. Poisonousness; noxiousness to animal life.

2. Malignity; spitefulness.

VENOUS, a. [L. venosus, from vena, a vein.]

1. Pertaining to a vein or to veins; contained in veins; as venous blood, which is distinguishable from arterial blood by its darker color.

2. In botany, veined. A venous leaf, has vessels branching, or variously divided, over its surface.

VENT, n. [L. venio, Eng. wind, etc.; properly a passage.]

1. A small aperture; a hole or passage for air or other fluid to escape; as the vent of a cask.

2. The opening in a cannon or other piece of artillery, by which fire is communicated to the charge.

3. Passage from secrecy to notice; publication.

4. The act of opening.

5. Emission; passage; escape from confinement; as, his smothered passions urge for vent.

6. Discharge; utterance; means of discharge.

Had like grief been dew’d in tears, without the vent of words -;

7. Sale; as the vent of a thousand copies of a treatise.

8. Opportunity to sell; demand.

There is no vent for any commodity except wool.

9. An inn, a baiting place. [Not in use.]

To give vent to, to suffer to escape; to let out; to pour forth.

VENT, v.t.

1. To let out at a small aperture.

2. To let out; to suffer to escape from confinement; to utter; to pour forth; as, to vent passion or complaint.

The queen of heav’n did thus her fury vent.

3. To utter; to report. [Not in use.]

4. To publish.

The sectators did greatly enrich their inventions by venting the stolen treasures of divine letters. [Not used.]

5. To sell.

Therefore did those nations vent such spice. [Not in use.]

[Instead of vent in the latter sense, we use vend.]

VENT, v.i. To snuff. [Not in use.]

VENTAGE, n. A small hole. [Not in use.]

VENTAIL, n. That part of a helmet made to be lifted up; the part intended for the admission of air, or for breathing.

VENTANNA, VENTANA, n. A window. [Not English.]

VENTER, n. One who utters, reports or publishes.

VENTER, n. [L.]

1. In anatomy, the abdomen, or lower belly; formerly applied to any large cavity containing viscera, as the head, thorax and abdomen, called three venters.

2. The womb; and hence, mother. A has a son B by one venter, and a daughter C by another venter; children by different venters.

3. The belly of a muscle.

VENTIDUCT, n. [L. ventus, wind, and ductus, a canal.]

In building, a passage for wind or air; a subterraneous passage or spiracle for ventilating apartments.

VENTILATE, v.t. [L. ventilo, from ventus, wind.]

1. To fan with wind; to open and expose to the free passage of air or wind; as, to ventilate a room; to ventilate a cellar.

2. To cause the air to pass through; as, to ventilate a mine.

3. To winnow; to fan; as, to ventilate wheat.

4. To examine; to discuss; that is, to agitate; as, to ventilate questions of policy. [Not now in use.]

VENTILATED, pp. Exposed to the action of the air; fanned; winnowed; discussed.

VENTILATING, ppr. Exposing to the action of wind; fanning; discussing.

VENTILATION, n. [L. ventilatio.]

1. The act of ventilating; the act or operation of exposing to the free passage of air, or of causing the air to pass through any place, for the purpose of expelling impure air and dissipating any thing noxious.

2. The act of fanning or winnowing, for the purpose of separating chaff and dust.

3. Vent; utterance. [Not in use.]

4. Refrigeration. [Not in use.]

VENTILATOR, n. An instrument or machine for expelling foul or stagnant air from any close place or apartment, and introducing that which is fresh and pure. Ventilators are of very different constructions and sizes.

VENTOSITY, n. [L. ventosus.] Windiness; flatulence.

VENTRAL, a. [from L. venter, belly.] Belonging to the belly.

The ventral fins, in fishes, are placed between the anus and the throat.

VENTRICLE, n. [L. ventriculus, from venter, belly.]

In a general sense, a small cavity in an animal body. It is applied to the stomach. It is also applied to two cavities of the heart, which propel the blood into the arteries. The word is also applied to cavities in different parts of the brain.

VENTRICOUS, a. [L. ventricosus, from venter, belly.]

In botany, bellied; distended; swelling out in the middle; as a ventricous perianth.

VENTRICULOUS, a. [supra.] Somewhat distended in the middle.

VENTRILOQUISM, VENTRILOQUY, n. [L. venter, belly, and loquor, to speak.]

The act, art or practice of speaking in such a manner that the voice appears to come not from the person, but from some distant place, as from the opposite side of the room, from the cellar, etc.

VENTRILOQUIST, n. One who speaks in such a manner that his voice appears to come from some distant place.

The ancient ventriloquists seems to speak from their bellies.

VENTILOQUOUS, a. Speaking in such a manner as to make the sound appear to come from a place remote from the speaker.

VENTURE, n. [L. venio, ventus, venturus, to come.]

1. A hazard; an undertaking of chance or danger; the risking of something upon an event which cannot be foreseen with tolerable certainty.

I, in this venture, double gains pursue.

2. Chance; hap; contingency; luck; an event that is not or cannot be foreseen.

3. The thing put to hazard; particularly, something sent to sea in trade.

My ventures are not in one bottom trusted.

At a venture, at hazard; without seeing the end or mark; or without foreseeing the issue.

A bargain at a venture made.

A certain man drew a bow at a venture. 1 Kings 22:34.


1. To dare; to have courage or presumption to do, undertake or say. A man ventures to mount a ladder; he ventures into battle; he ventures to assert things which he does not know.

2. To run a hazard or risk.

Who freights a ship to venture on the seas.

To venture at,

To venture on or upon, To dare to engage in; to attempt without any certainty of success. It is rash to venture upon such a project.

And when I venture at the comic style.


1. To expose to hazard; to risk; as, to venture one’s person in a balloon.

2. To put or send on a venture or chance; as, to venture a horse to the West Indies.

VENTURED, pp. Put to the hazard; risked.

VENTURER, n. One who ventures or puts to hazards.

VENTURESOME, a. Bold; daring; intrepid; as a venturesome boy.

VENTURESOMELY, adv. In a bold, daring manner.

VENTURING, ppr. Putting to hazard; daring.

VENTURING, n. The act of putting to risk; a hazarding.

VENTUROUS, a. Daring; bold; hardy; fearless; intrepid; adventurous; as a venturous soldier.

With vent’rous arm he pluck’d, he tasted.

VENTUROUSLY, adv. Daringly; fearlessly; boldly.

VENTUROUSNESS, n. Boldness; hardiness; fearlessness; intrepidity. The event made then repent of their venturousness.

VENUE, VISNE, n. [L. vicinia.] In law, a neighborhood or near place; the place where an action is laid. In certain cases, the court has power to change the venue.

The twelve men who are to try the cause, must be of the same venue where the demand is made.

VENUE, n. A thrust. [See Veney.]

VENULITE, n. A petrified shell of the genus Venus.

VENUS, n. [L. ventus, venenum; Eng. venom to poison, to fret or irritate. These affinities lead to the true origin of these words. The primary sense of the root is to shoot or rush, as light or wind. From light is derived the sense of white, fair, Venus, or it is from opening, parting; and from rushing, moving, comes wind, and the sense of raging, fury, whence L. venenum, poison, that which frets or causes to rage. These words all coincide with L. venio, which signifies to rush, to fall, to happen; venor, to hunt, etc. The Greeks had the same idea of the goddess of love, viz. that her name signified fairness, whiteness, and hence the fable that she sprung from froth, whence her Green name.]

1. In mythology, the goddess of beauty and love; that is, beauty or love deified; just as the Gaelic and Irish diana, swiftness, impetuosity, is denominated the goddess of hunting.

2. In astronomy, one of the inferior planets, whose orbit is between the earth and Mercury; a star of brilliant splendor.

3. In the old chimistry, a name given to copper.

VENUS’S COMB, n. A plant of the genus Scandix; shepherd’s needle.

VENUS’S LOOKING-GLASS, n. A plant of the genus Campanula.

VENUS’S NAVELWORT, n. A plant of the genus Cynoglossum.

VENUST, a. [L. venustus.] Beautiful. [Not used.]

VERACIOUS, a. [L. verax, from verus, true.]

1. Observant of truth; habitually disposed to speak truth.

2. True. [Little used.]

VERACITY, n. [L. verax, from verus, true.]

1. Habitual observance of truth, or habitual truth; as a man of veracity. His veracity is not called in question. The question of the court is, whether you know the witness to be a man of veracity. We rely on history, when we have confidence in the veracity and industry of the historian.

“The veracity of facts.” is not correct language. Truth is applicable to men and to facts; veracity to men only, or to sentient beings.

2. Invariable expression of truth; as the veracity of our senses.

VERANDA, n. An oriental word denoting a kind of open portico, formed by extending a sloping roof beyond the main building.

VERATRIA, n. [L. veratrum, hellebore.] A newly discovered vegetable alkali, extracted from the white hellebore.

VERB, n. [L. verbum, fero.]

1. In grammar, a part of speech that expresses action, motion, being, suffering, or a request or command to do or forbear any thing. The verb affirms, declares, asks or commands; as, I write; he runs; the river flows; they sleep; we see; they are deceived; depart; go; come; write; does he improve?

When the action expressed by a verb is exerted on an object, or terminates upon it, the act is considered as passing to that object, and the verb is called transitive; as, I read Livy. When the act expressed by the verb, terminates in the agent or subject, the verb is called intransitive; as, I run; I walk, I sleep.

When the agent and object change places, and the agent is considered as the instrument by which the object is affected, the verb is called passive; as, Goliath was slain by David.

2. A word.

VERBAL, a. [L. verbalis.]

1. Spoken; expressed to the ear in words; not written; as a verbal message; a verbal contract; verbal testimony.

2. Oral; uttered by the mouth.

3. Consisting in mere words; as a verbal reward.

4. Respecting words only; as a verbal dispute.

5. Minutely exact in words, or attending to words only; as a verbal critic.

6. Literal; having word answering to word; as a verbal translation.

7. In grammar, derived from a verb; as a verbal noun.

8. Verbose; abounding with words. [Not in use.]

VERBALITY, n. Mere words; bare literal expressions.

VERBALIZE, v.t. To convert into a verb.


1. In words spoken; by words uttered; orally.

2. Word for word; as, to translate verbally.

VERBATIM, adv. [L.] Word for word; in the same words; as, to tell a story verbatim as another has related it.

VERBERATE, v.t. [L. verbero.] To beat; to strike. [Not in use.]


1. A beating or striking; blows.

2. The impulse of a body, which causes sound.

VERBIAGE, n. Verbosity; use of many words without necessity; superabundance of words.

VERBOSE, a. [L. verbosus.] Abounding in words; using or containing more words than are necessary; prolix; tedious by a multiplicity of words; as a verbose speaker; a verbose argument.


1. Employment of a superabundance of words; the use of more words than are necessary; as the verbosity of a speaker.

2. Superabundance of words; prolixity; as the verbosity of a discourse or argument.

VERDANCY, n. [See Verdant.] Greenness.

VERDANT, a. [L. vividans, from viridis, from vireo, to be green.] The radical sense of the verb is to grow or advance with strength.

1. Green; fresh; covered with growing plants or grass; as verdant fields; a verdant lawn.

2. Flourishing.

VERDERER, VERDEROR, n. [Low L. viridarius.]

An officer in England, who has the charge of the king’s forest, to preserve the vert and venison, keep the assizes, view, receive and enroll attachments and presentments of all manner of trespasses.

VERDICT, n. [L. verum dictum, true declaration.]

1. The answer of a jury given to the court concerning any matter of face in any cause, civil or criminal, committed to their trial and examination. In criminal causes, the jury decide the law as well as the fact. Verdicts are general or special; general, when they decide in general terms, or in the terms of the general issue, as no wrong, no disseisin; special, when the jury find and state the facts at large, and as to the law, pray the judgment of the court.

2. Decision; judgment; opinion pronounced; as, to be condemned by the verdict of the public.

These enormities were condemned by the verdict of common humanity.


Rust of copper, or an acetate of copper, formed by the combination of an acid with copper.

VERDITER, n. [verde-terre, green earth; terre-verde.]

A preparation of copper sometimes used by painters, etc. for a blue, but more generally mixed with a yellow for a green color. It is a factitious substance of blue pigment, obtained by adding chalk or whiting to a solution of copper in nitric acid or aqua fortis.

VERDURE, n. [L. vireo.] Green; greenness; freshness of vegetation; as the verdure of the meadows in June; the verdure of spring.

VERDUROUS, a. Covered with green; clothed with the fresh color of vegetables; as verdurous pastures.

VERECUND, a. [L. vrcundus.] Bashful; modest. [Not much used.]

VERECUNDITY, n. Bashfulness; modesty; blushing. [Not in much use.]

VERGE, n. verj. [L. virga, a rod, that is, a shoot.]

1. A rod, or something in the form of a rod or staff, carried as an emblem of authority; the mace of a dean.

2. The stick or wand with which persons are admitted tenants, by holding it in the hand, and swearing fealty to the lord. On this account, such tenants are called tenants by the verge.

3. In law, the compass or extent of the king’s court, within which is bounded the jurisdiction of the lord steward of the king’s household; so called from the verge or staff which the marshal bears.

4. The extreme side or end of any thing which has some extent of length; the brink; edge; border; margin. [This seems to be immediately connected with the L. vergo.]

5. Among gardeners, the edge or outside of a border; also, a slip of grass adjoining to gravel-walks, and dividing them from the borders in the parterre-garden.

6. A part of a time piece.

VERGE, v.i. [L. vergo.]

1. To tend downwards; to bend; to slope; as, a hill verges to the north.

2. To tend; to incline; to approach.

I find myself verging to that period of life which is to be labor and sorrow.


1. He that carries the mace before the bishop, dean, etc.

2. An officer who carries a white wand before the justices of either bend in England.

VERGING, ppr. Bending or inclining; tending.

VERGOULEUSE, n. A species of pear; contracted to vergaloo.

VERIDICAL, a. [L. veridicus; verus and dico.] Telling truth. [Not used.]

VERIFIABLE, a. [from verify.] That may be verified; that may be proved or confirmed by incontestable evidence.

VERIFICATION, n. [See Verify.] The act of verifying or proving to be true; the act of confirming or establishing the authenticity of any powers granted, or of any transaction, by legal or competent evidence.

VERIFIED, pp. Proved; confirmed by competent evidence.

VERIFIER, n. One that proves or makes appear to be true.

VERIFY, v.t. [L. verus, true, and facio, to make.]

1. To prove to be true; to confirm.

This is verified by a number of examples.

2. To fulfill, as a promise; to confirm the truth of a prediction; to show to be true. The predictions of this venerable patriot have been verified. Genesis 42:20; 1 Kings 8:26.

3. To confirm or establish the authenticity of any thing by examination or competent evidence. The first act of the house of representatives is to verify their powers, by exhibiting their credentials to a committee of the house, or other proper authority.

VERIFYING, ppr. Proving to be true; confirming; establishing as authentic.

VERILY, adv. [from very.]

1. In truth; in fact; certainly.

2. Really; truly; with great confidence. It was verily thought the enterprise would succeed.

VERISIMILAR, a. [L. verisimilis; verus, true, and similis, like.] having the appearance of truth; probable; likely.

VERISIMILITUDE, n. [L. verisimilitudo.] the appearance of truth; probability; likelihood.

Verisimilitude and opinion are an easy purchase; but true knowledge is dear and difficult.

VERISIMILITY, for verisimilitude, is not in use.

VERITABLE, a. True; agreeable to fact. [Little used.]

VERITABLY, adv. In a true manner. [Not in use.]

VERITY, n. [L. veritas, from verus, true.]

1. Truth; consonance of a statement, proposition or other thing to fact. 1 Timothy 2:7.

It is a proposition of eternal verity, that none can govern while he is despised.

2. A true assertion or tenet.

By this it seems to be a verity.

3. Moral truth; agreement of the words with the thoughts.


A liquor expressed from wild apples, sour grapes, etc. used in sauces, ragouts and the like. it is used also in the purification of wax for candles, in poultices, etc.

VERMEIL. [See Vermilion.]

VERMEOLOGIST, n. [infra.] One who treats of vermes.

VERMEOLOGY, n. [L. vermes, worms, and Gr. discourse.]

A discourse or treatise on vermes, or that part of natural history which treats of vermes. [Little used.]

VERMICELLI, n. [L. vermiculus, from vermis, a worm.]

A cookery, little rolls or threads of paste, or a composition of flour, eggs, sugar and saffron, used in soups and pottages.

VERMICULAR, a. [L. vermiculus, a little worm, from vermis, a worm.]

Pertaining to a worm; resembling a worm; particularly, resembling the motion of a worm; as the vermicular motion of the intestines, called also peristaltic.

Vermicular or vermiculated work, in sculpture, a sort of ornament consisting of frets or knobs, in Mosaic pavements, winding and representing the tracks of worms.

VERMICULATE, v.t. [L. vermiculatus.] To inlay; to form work by inlaying, resembling the motion or the tracks of worms.

VERMICULATED, pp. Formed in the likeness of the motion of a worm.

VERMICULATING, ppr. Forming so as to resemble the motion of a worm.


1. The act or operation of moving in the form of a worm; continuation of motion from one part to another, as in the peristaltic motion of the intestines.

2. The act of forming so as to resemble the motion of a worm.

VERMICULE, n. [L. vermiculus.] A little worm or grub.

VERMICULOUS, a. [L. vermiculosus.]

1. Full of worms or grubs.

2. Resembling worms.