Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary

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VAUNTING — VENGEMENT

VAUNTING, ppr. Vainly boasting; ostentatiously setting forth what one is or has.

VAUNTINGLY, adv. Boastfully; with vain ostentation.

VAUNT-MURE, n. A false wall; a work raised in front of the main wall.

VAVASOR, n. [This word in old books is variously written, valvasor, vavasour, valvasour. It is said to be from vassal. But qu.]

Camden holds that the vavasor was next below a baron. Du Cange maintains that there were two sorts of vavasors; the greater, who held of the king, such as barons and counts; and the lesser, called valvasini, who held of the former. The dignity or rank is no longer in use, and the name is known only in books.

VAVASORY, n. The quality or tenure of the fee held by a vavasor.

VAWARD, n. [van and ward.] The fore part. Obs.

VEAL, n. [L. vitellus.]

The flesh of a calf killed for the table.

VECTION, n. [L. vectio, from veho, to carry.]

The act of carrying, or state of being carried. [Not in use.]

VECTITATION, n. [L. vectito.] A carrying. [Not in use.]

VECTOR, n. [L. from veho, to carry.] In astronomy, a line supposed to be drawn from any planet moving round a center or the focus of an ellipsis, to that center or focus.

VECTURE, n. [L. vectura, from veho, supra.]

A carrying; carriage; conveyance by carrying. [Little used.]

VEDA, n. vedaw’. The name of the collective body of the Hindoo sacred writings. These are divided into four parts or vedas. the word is sometimes written vedam.

VEDET, VEDETTE, n. [L. video, to see.] a sentinel on horseback.

VEER, v.i. [L. vario and verto. See Ware.]

To turn; to change direction; as, the wind veers to the west or north.

And as he leads, the following navy veers.

And turn your veering heart with ev’ry gale.

To veer and haul, as wind, to alter its direction.

VEER, v.t. To turn; to direct to a different course.

To veer out, to suffer to run or to let out to a greater length; as, to veery out a rope.

To veer away, to let out; to slacken and let run; as, to veer away the cable. this is called also paying out the cable.

To veer and haul, to pull tight and slacken alternately.

VEERABLE, a. Changeable; shifting. [Not in use.]

VEERED, pp. turned; changed in direction; let out.

VEERING, ppr. turning; letting out to a greater length.

VEGETABILITY, n. [from vegetable.] Vegetable nature; the quality of growth without sensation.

VEGETABLE, n. [L. vigeo, to grow.]

1. A plant; an organized body destitute of sense and voluntary motion, deriving its nourishment through pores or vessels on its outer surface, in most instances adhering to some other body, as the earth, and in general, propagating itself by seeds. some vegetables have spontaneous motion, as the sunflower. Vegetables alone have the power of deriving nourishment from inorganic matter, or organic matter entirely decomposed.

2. In a more limited sense, vegetables are such plants as are used for culinary purposes and cultivated in gardens, or are destined for feeding cattle and sheep. Vegetables for these uses are such as are of a more soft and fleshy substance than trees and shrubs; such as cabbage, cauliflower, turnips, potatoes, peas, beans, etc.

VEGETABLE, a.

1. Belonging to plants; as a vegetable nature; vegetable qualities; vegetable juices.

2. Consisting of plants; as the vegetable kingdom.

3. having the nature of plants; as a vegetable body.

VEGETATE, v.i. [L. vegeto, vigeo, to flourish.]

To sprout; to germinate; to grow; as plants; to grow and be enlarged by nutriment imbibed from the earth, air or water, by means of roots and leaves. Plants will not vegetate without a certain degree of heat; but some plants vegetate with less heat than others. Potatoes will vegetate after they are pared.

See dying vegetables life sustain, see life dissolving vegetate again.

VEGETATING, ppr. germinating; sprouting; growing; as plants.

VEGETATION, n.

1. The process of growing; as plants, by means of nourishment derived from the earth, or from water and air, and received through roots and leaves. We observe that vegetation depends on heat as the moving principle, and on certain substances which constitute the nutriment of plants. Rapid vegetation is caused by increased heat and a rich soil.

2. Vegetables or plants in general. In June, vegetation in our climate wears a beautiful aspect.

Vegetation of salts, so called, consists in certain concretions formed by salts, after solution in water, when set in the air for evaporation. these concretions appear round the surface of the liquor, affixed to the sides of the vessel.

VEGETATIVE, a.

1. Growing, or having the power of growing, as plants.

2. Having the power to produce growth in plants; as the vegetative properties of soil.

VEGETATIVENESS, n. the quality of producing growth.

VEGETE, a. [L. vegetus.] Vigorous; active. [Little used.]

VEGETIVE, a. [L. vegeto, vigeo.] Vegetable; having the nature of plants; as vegetive life. [Little used.]

VEGETIVE, n. a vegetable. [Not in use.]

VEGETO-ANIMAL, a. Vegeto-animal matter, is a term formerly applied to vegetable gluten, which is found in the seeds of certain plants, in a state of union with farina or starch. It is remarkably elastic, and when dry, semi-transparent. By distillation it affords, like animal substances, alkaline water, concrete volatile alkali, and an empyreumatic oil.

VEGETOUS, a. Vigorous; lively; vegete. [Not in use.]

VEHEMENCE, VEHEMENCY, n. [L. vehemens, from veho, to carry, that is, to rush or drive.]

1. Violence; great force; properly, force derived from velocity; as the vehemence of wind. But it is applied to any kind of forcible action; as, to speak with vehemence.

2. Violent ardor; great heat; animated fervor; as the vehemence of love or affection; the vehemence of anger or other passion.

I tremble at his vehemence of temper.

VEHEMENT, a. [L. vehemens.]

1. Violent; acting with great force; furious; very forcible; as a vehement wind; a vehement torrent; a vehement fire or heat.

2. Very ardent; very eager or urgent; very fervent; as a vehement affection or passion; vehement desire; vehement eloquence.

VEHEMENTLY, adv.

1. With great force and violence.

2. Urgently; forcibly; with great zeal or pathos.

VEHICLE, n. [L. vehiculum, from veho, to carry.]

1. That in which any thing is or may be carried; any kind of carriage moving on land, either on wheels or runners. This word comprehends coaches, chariots, gigs, sullies, wagons, carts of every kind, sleighs and sleds. These are all vehicles. But the word is more generally applied to wheel carriages, and rarely I believe to water craft.

2. That which is used as the instrument of conveyance. Language is the vehicle which conveys ideas to others. Letters are vehicles of communication.

A simple style forms the best vehicle of thought to a popular assembly.

VEHICLED, a. Conveyed in a vehicle.

VEIL, n. [L. velum.]

1. A cover; a curtain; something to intercept the view and lude an object.

2. A cover; a disguise. [See Vail. The latter orthography gives the Latin pronunciation as well as the English, and is to be preferred.]

VEIL, v.t.

1. To cover with a veil; to conceal.

2. To invest; to cover.

3. To hide. [See Vail.]

VEIN, n. [L. vena, from the root of venio, to come, to pass. The sense is a passage, a conduit.]

1. A vessel in animal bodies, which receives the blood from the extreme arteries, and returns it to the heart. The veins may be arranged in three divisions. 1. Those that commence from the capillaries all over the body, and return the blood to the heart. 2. The pulmonary veins. 3. The veins connected with the vena portarum, in which the blood that has circulated through the organs of digestion, is conveyed to the liver.

2. In plants, a tube or an assemblage of tubes, through which the sap is transmitted along the leaves. The term is more properly applied to the finer and more complex ramifications, which interbranch with each other like net-work; the larger and more direct assemblages of vessels being called ribs and nerves. Veins are also found in the calyx and corol of flowers.

The vessels which branch or variously divide over the surface of leaves are called veins.

3. In geology, a fissure in rocks or strata, filled with a particular substance. Thus metallic veins intersect rocks or strata of other substances. Metalliferous veins have been traced in the earth for miles; some in South America are said to have been traced eighty miles. Many species of stones, as granite, porphyry, etc. are often found in veins.

4. A streak or wave of different color, appearing in wood, marble, and other stones; variegation.

5. A cavity or fissure in the earth or in other substance.

6. Tendency or turn of mind; a particular disposition or cast of genius; as a rich vein of wit or humor; a satirical vein

Invoke the muses, and improve my vein.

7. Current.

He can open a vein of true and noble thinking.

8. Humor; particular temper.

9. Strain; quality; as my usual vein.

VEINED, a. [from vein.]

1. Full of veins; streaked; variegated; as veined marble.

2. In botany, having vessels branching over the surface, as a leaf.

VEINLESS, a. In botany, having no veins; as a veinless leaf.

VEINY, a. Full of veins; as veiny marble.

VELIFEROUS, a. [L. velum, a sail, and fero, to bear.] Bearing or carrying sails.

VELITATION, n. [L. velitatio.] A dispute or contest; a slight skirmish. [Not in use.]

VELL, n. A rennet bag. [Local.]

VELL, v.t. To cut off the turf or sward of land. [Local.]

VELLEITY, n. [L. velle, to will.]

A term by which the schools express the lowest degree of desire.

VELLICATE, v.t. [L. vellico, from vello, to pull. It may be from the root of pull.]

To twitch; to stimulate; applied to the muscles and fibers of animals; to cause to twitch convulsively.

VELLICATED, pp. Twitched or caused to twitch.

VELLICATING, ppr. Twitching; convulsing.

VELLICATION, n.

1. The act of twitching, or of causing to twitch.

2. A twitching or convulsive motion of a muscular fiber.

VELLUM, n. [L. vello.]

A finer kind of parchment or skin, rendered clear and white for writing.

VELOCITY, n. [L. velositas, from velox, swift, allied to volo, to fly.]

1. Swiftness; celerity; rapidity; as the velocity of wind; the velocity of a planet or comet in its orbit or course; the velocity of a cannon ball; the velocity of light. In these phrases, velocity is more generally used than celerity. We apply celerity to animals; as, a horse or an ostrich runs with celerity, and a stream runs with rapidity or velocity; but bodies moving in the air or in etherial space, move with greater or less velocity, not celerity. This usage is arbitrary, and perhaps not universal.

2. In philosophy, velocity is that affection of motion by which a body moves over a certain space in a certain time. Velocity is in direct proportion to the space over which a body moves. Velocity is absolute or relative; absolute, when a body moves over a certain space in a certain time; relative, when it has respect to another moving body. Velocity is also uniform or equal; or it is unequal, that is, retarded or accelerated.

VELURE, n. Velvet. Obs.

VELVET, n. [L. vellus, hair, nap.]

A rich silk stuff, covered on the outside with a close, short, fine, soft shag or nap. The name is given also to cotton stuffs.

VELVET, v.t. To paint velvet.
VELVET, VELVETED, a. Made of velvet; or soft and delicate, like velvet.

VELVETEEN, n. A kind of cloth made in imitation of velvet.

VELVETING, n. The fine shag of velvet.

VELVETY, a. Made of velvet, or like velvet; soft; smooth; delicate.

VENAL, a. [L. vena, a vein.] Pertaining to a vein or to veins; contained in the veins; as venal blood. [See Venous, which is generally used.]

VENAL, a. [L. venalis, from venco, to be sold.]

1. Mercenary; prostitute; that may be bought or obtained for money or other valuable consideration; as a venal muse; venal services.

2. That may be sold; set to sale; as, all offices are venal in a corrupt government.

3. Purchased; as a venal vote.

VENALITY, n. Mercenariness; the state of being influenced by money; prostitution of talents, offices or services for money or reward; as the venality of a corrupt court.

VENARY, a. [L. venor, to hunt.] Relating to hunting.

VENATIC, VENATICAL, a. [L. venaticus, from venor, to hunt.] Used in hunting.

VENATION, n. [L. venatio, from venor, to hunt.]

1. The act or practice of hunting.

2. The state of being hunted.

VEND, v.t. [L. vendo.]

To sell; to transfer a thing and the exclusive right of possessing it, to another person for a pecuniary equivalent; as, to vend goods; to vend meat and vegetables in market. Vending differs from barter. We vend for money; we barter for commodities. Vend is applicable only to wares, merchandize, or other small articles, not to lands and tenements. We never say, to vend a farm, a lease, or a bond, a right or a horse.

VENDED, pp. Sold; transferred for money; as goods.

VENDEE, n. The person to whom a thing is sold.

VENDER, n. A seller; one who transfers the exclusive right of possessing a thing, either his own, or that of another as his agent. Auctioneers are the venders of goods for other men.

VENDIBILITY, VENDIBLENESS, n. The state of being vendible or salable.

VENDIBLE, a. [L. vendibilis.] Salable; that may be sold; that can be sold; as vendible goods. Vendible differs from marketable; the latter signifies proper or fit for market, according to the laws or customs of a place. Vendible has no reference to such legal fitness.

VENDIBLE, n. Something to be sold or offered for sale.

VENDIBLY, adv. In a salable manner.

VENDITATION, n. [L. venditatio.] A boastful display. [Not in use.]

VENDITION, n. [L. venditio.] The act of selling; sale.

VENDOR, n. A vender; a seller.

VENDUE, n. Auction; a public sale of any thing by outcry, to the highest bidder.

VENDUE-MASTER, n. One who is authorized to make sale of any property to the highest bidder, by notification and public outcry; an auctioneer.

VENEER, v.t.

To inlay; to lay thin slices or leaves of fine wood of different kinds on a ground of common wood.

VENEER, n. Thin slices of wood for inlaying.

VENEERED, pp. Inlaid; ornamented with marquetry.

VENEERING, ppr. Inlaying; adorning with inlaid work.

VENEERING, n. The act or art of inlaying, of which there are two kinds; one, which is the most common, consists in making compartments of different woods; the other consists in making representations of flowers, birds and other figures. The first is more properly veneering; the last is marquetry.

VENEFICE, n. [L. veneficium.] The practice of poisoning. [Not in use.]

VENEFICIAL, VENEFICIOUS, a. [L. veneficium.] Acting by poison; bewitching. [Little used.]

VENEFICIOUSLY, adv. By poison or witchcraft. [Little used.]

VENEMOUS, [See Venomous.]

VENENATE, v.t. [L. veneno; venenum, poison.]

To poison; to infect with poison. [Not used.]

VENENATION, n.

1. The act of poisoning.

2. Poison; venom. [Not used.]

VENENE, VENENOSE, a. Poisonous; venomous. [Not used.]

VENERABILITY, n. State or quality of being venerable. [Not used.]

VENERABLE, a. [L. venerabilis, from veneror, to honor, to worship.]

1. Worthy of veneration or reverence; deserving of honor and respect; as a venerable magistrate; a venerable parent.

2. Rendered sacred by religious associations, or being consecrated to God and to his worship; to be regarded with awe and treated with reverence; as the venerable walls of a temple or church.

The places where saints have suffered for the testimony of Christ - rendered venerable by their death.

VENERABLENESS, n. The state or quality of being venerable.

VENERABLY, adv. In a manner to excite reverence.

- An awful pile! stands venerably great.

VENERATE, v.t. [L. veneror.]

To regard with respect and reverence; to reverence; to revere. We venerate parents and elders; we venerate men consecrated to sacred offices. We venerate old age or gray hairs. We venerate, or ought to venerate, the gospel and its precepts.

And seem’d to venerate the sacred shade.

VENERATED, pp. Reverenced; treated with honor and respect.

VENERATING, ppr. Regarding with reverence.

VENERATION, n. [L. veneratio.]

The highest degree of respect and reverence; respect mingled with some degree of awe; a feeling or sentiment excited by the dignity and superiority of a person, or by the sacredness of his character, and with regard to place, by its consecration to sacred services.

We find a secret awe and veneration for one who moves above us in a regular and illustrious course of virtue.

VENERATOR, n. One who venerates and reverences.

VENEREAL, a. [L. venereus, from Venus. See Venus.]

1. Pertaining to the pleasures of sexual commerce. A venereal person is one addicted to sexual pleasures or venery.

2. Proceeding from sexual intercourse; as the venereal disease; venereal virus or poison.

3. Adapted to the cure of the lues venerea; as venereal medicines.

4. Adapted to excite venereal desire; aphrodisiac; provocative.

5. Consisting of copper, called by chimists formerly Venus. Obs.

VENEREAN, a. Venereal. [Not used.]

VENEREOUS, a. [L. venereus.] Lustful; libidinous.

VENEROUS, for venereous. [Not used.]

VENERY, n. [from Venus.] The pleasures of the bed.

Contentment, without the pleasure of lawful venery, is continence; of unlawful, chastity.

VENERY, n. [L. venor, to hunt, that is, to drive or rush.]

The act or exercise of hunting; the sports of the chase.

Beasts of venery and fishes.

VENESECTION, n. [L. vena, vein, and sectio, a cutting.]

The act or operation of opening a vein for letting blood; blood-letting; phlebotomy.

VENEY, n. A bout; a thrust; a hit; a turn at fencing.

Three veneys for a dish of stewed prunes. Obs.

VENGE, v.t. venj. To avenge; to punish. [Not in use.] [See Avenge and Revenge.]

VENGEABLE, a. venj’able. [from venge.] Revengeful; as vengeable despite. [Not in use.]

VENGEANCE, n. venj’ance. [L. vindico.]

The infliction of pain on another, in return for an injury or offense. Such infliction, when it proceeds from malice or more resentment, and is not necessary for the purposes of justice, is revenge, and a most heinous crime. When such infliction proceeds from a mere love of justice, and the necessity of punishing offenders for the support of the laws, it is vengeance, and is warrantable and just. In this case, vengeance is a just retribution, recompense or punishment. In this latter sense the word is used in Scripture, and frequently applied to the punishments inflicted by God on sinners.

To me belongeth vengeance and recompense. Deuteronomy 32:35.

The Lord will take vengeance on his adversaries. Nahum 1:2.

With a vengeance, in familiar language, signifies with great violence or vehemence; as, to strike one with a vengeance.

Formerly, what a vengeance, was a phrase used for what emphatical.

But what a vengeance makes thee fly?

VENGEFUL, a. venj’ful.

1. Vindictive; retributive; as God’s vengeful ire.

2. Revengeful.

VENGEMENT, n. venj’ment. Avengement; penal retribution. [Avengement is generally used.]