Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



TRANSUDE, v.i. [L. trans and sudo, to sweat.] To pass through the pores or interstices of texture, as perspirable matter or other fluid; as, liquor may transude through leather, or through wood.

TRANSUDING, ppr. Passing through the pores of a substance, as sweat or other fluid.

TRANSUME, v.t. [L. transumo; trans and sumo, to take.]

To take from one to another. [Little used.]

TRANSUMPT, n. A copy or exemplification of a record. [Not in use.]

TRANSUMPTION, n. The act of taking from one place to another. [Little used.]

TRANSVECTION, n. [L. transvectio.] The act of conveying or carrying over.

TRANSVERSAL, a. [L. trans and versus.] Running or lying across; as a transversal line.

TRANSVERSALLY, adv. In a direction crosswise.

TRANSVERSE, a. transvers’. [L. transversus; trans and versus, verto.]

1. Lying or being across or in a cross direction; as a transverse diameter of axis. Transverse lines are the diagonals of a square or parallelogram. Lines which intersect perpendiculars, are also called transverse.

2. In botany, a transverse partition, in a pericarp, is at right angles with the valves, as in a silique.

TRANSVERSE, n. The longer axis of an ellipse.
TRANSVERSE, v.t. transvers’. To overturn. [Little used.]

TRANSVERSELY, adv. transvers’ly. In a cross direction; as, to cut a thing transversely.

At Stonehenge, the stones lie transversely upon each other.

TRANTERS, n. plu. Men who carry fish from the sea coast to sell in the inland countries. [Not American.]

TRAP, n.

1. An engine that shuts suddenly or with a spring, used for taking game; as a trap for foxes. A trap is a very different thing from a snare; though the latter word may be used in a figurative sense for a trap.

2. An engine for catching men. [Not used in the U. States.]

3. An ambush; a stratagem; any device by which men or other animals may be caught unawares.

Let their table be made a snare and a trap. Romans 11:9.

4. A play in which a ball is driven with a stick.

TRAP, n. In mineralogy, a name given to rocks characterized by a columnar form, or whose strata or beds have the form of steps or a series of stairs. Kirwan gives this name to two families of basalt. It is now employed to designate a rock or aggregate in which hornblend predominates, but it conveys no definite idea of any one species; and under this term are comprehended hornblend, hornblend slate, greenstone, greenstone slate, amygdaloid, basalt, wacky, clinkstone porphyry, and perhaps hypersthene rock, augite rock, and some varieties of sienite.
TRAP, v.t. To catch in a trap; as, to trap foxes or beaver.

1. To ensnare; to take by stratagem.

I trapp’d the foe.

2. To adorn; to dress with ornaments. [See Trappings.] [the verb is little used.]

TRAP, v.i. To set traps for game; as, to trap for beaver.

TRAPAN, v.t. To ensnare; to catch by stratagem.

TRAPAN, n. A snare; a stratagem.

TRAPANNER, n. One who ensnares.

TRAPANNING, ppr. Ensnaring.

TRAP-DOOR, n. [trap and door.] A door in a floor, which shuts close like a valve.

TRAPE, v.i. To traipse; to walk carelessly and sluttishly. [Not much used.]

TRAPES, n. A slattern; an idle sluttish woman.

TRAPEZIAN, a. [See Trapezium.] In crystallography, having the lateral planes composed of trapeziums situated in two ranges, between two bases.

TRAPEZIFORM, a. Having the form of a trapezium.

TRAPEZIHEDRON, n. [L. trapezium and Gr. side.]

A solid bounded by twenty four equal and similar trapeziums.

TRAPEZIUM, n. plu. trapezia or trapeziums. [L. from Gr. a little table.]

1. In geometry, a plane figure contained under four unequal right lines, none of them parallel.

2. In anatomy, a bone of the carpus.

TRAPEZOID, n. [L. trapezium.] An irregular solid figure having four sides, no two of which are parallel to each other; also, a plane four sided figure having two of the opposite sides parallel to each other.

TRAPEZOIDAL, a. Having the form of a trapezoid.

1. Having the surface composed of twenty four trapeziums, all equal and similar.

TRAPPINGS, n. plu. [from trap. The primary sense is that which is set, spread or put on.]

1. Ornaments of horse furniture.

Caparisons and steeds,

Bases and tinsel trappings--

2. Ornaments; dress; external and superficial decorations.

These but the trappings and the suits of woe.

Trappings of life, for ornament, not use.

Affectation is part of the trappings of folly.

TRAPPOUS, a. [from trap, in geology. It ought to be trappy.]

Pertaining to trap; resembling trap, or partaking of its form or qualities.

TRAP-STICK, n. A stick with which boys drive a wooden ball; hence, a slender leg.

TRAP-TUFF, n. Masses of basalt, amygdaloid, hornblend, sandstones, etc., cemented.


1. Any waste or worthless matter.

Who steals my money, steals trash.

2. Loppings of trees; bruised canes, etc. In the West Indies, the decayed leaves and stems of canes are called field-trash; the bruised or macerated rind of canes is called cane-trash; and both are called trash.

3. Fruit or other matter improper for food, but eaten by children, etc. It is used particularly of unripe fruits.

4. A worthless person. [Not proper.]

5. A piece of leather or other thing fastened to a dog’s neck to retard his speed.

TRASH, v.t. To lop; to crop.

1. To strip of leaves; as, to trash ratoons.

2. To crush; to humble; as, to trash the Jews.

3. To clog; to encumber; to hinder.

TRASH, v.i. To follow with violence and trampling.

TRASHY, a. Waste; rejected; worthless; useless.

TRASS, n. Pumiceous conglomerate, a volcanic production; a gray or yellowish porous substance.

TRAULISM, n. A stammering. [Not in use.]

TRAUMATIC, a. [Gr. a wound.]

1. Pertaining to or applied to wounds.

2. Vulnerary; adapted to the cure of wounds.

TRAUMATIC, n. A medicine useful in the cure of wounds.

TRAVAIL, v.i. [L. trans, over, beyond, and mael, work; Eng. moil.]

1. To labor with pain; to toil.

2. To suffer the pangs of childbirth; to be in labor. Genesis 35:16.

TRAVAIL, v.t. To harass; to tire; as troubles sufficient to travail the realm. [Not in use.]
TRAVAIL, n. Labor with pain; severe toil.

As every thing of price, so doth this require travail.

1. Labor in childbirth; as a severe travail; an easy travail.

TRAVAILING, ppr. Laboring with toil; laboring in childbirth. Isaiah 42:14.


1. A wooden frame to confine a horse while the smith is setting his shoes. This is not used for horses in America, but a similar frame is used for confining oxen for shoeing.

2. Beam; a lay of joints; a traverse.

TRAVEL, v.i. [a different orthography and application of travail.]

1. To walk; to go or march on foot; as, to travel from London to Dover, or from New York to Philadelphia. So we say, a man ordinarily travels three miles an hour. [This is the proper sense of the word, which implies toil.]

2. To journey; to ride to a distant place in the same country; as, a man travels for his health; he is traveling to Virginia. A man traveled from London to Edinburgh in five days.

3. To go to a distant country, or to visit foreign states or kingdoms, either by sea or land. It is customary for men of rank and property to travel for improvement. Englishmen travel to France and Italy. Some men travel for pleasure or curiosity; others travel to extend their knowledge of natural history.

4. To pass; to go; to move. News travels with rapidity.

Time travels in divers paces with divers persons.

5. To labor. [See Travail.]

6. To move, walk or pass, as a beast, a horse, ox or camel. A horse travels fifty miles in a day; a camel; twenty.

TRAVEL, v.t. To pass; to journey over; as, to travel the whole kingdom of England.

I travel this profound.

1. To force to journey.

The corporations--shall not be traveled forth from their franchises. [Not used.]


1. A passing on foot; a walking.

2. Journey; a passing or riding from place to place.

His travels ended at his country seat.

3. Travel or travels, a journeying to a distant country or countries. The gentle man has just returned from his travels.

4. The distance which a man rides in the performance of his official duties; or the fee paid for passing that distance; as the travel of the sheriff is twenty miles; or that of a representative is seventy miles. His travel is a dollar for every twenty miles.

5. Travels, in the plural, an account of occurrences and observations made during a journey; as a book of travels; the title of a book that relates occurrences in traveling; as travels in Italy.

6. Labor; toil; labor in childbirth. [See Travail.]

TRAVELED, pp. Gained or made by travel; as traveled observations.

1. a. Having made journeys.


1. One who travels in any way. Job 31:32.

2. One who visits foreign countries.

3. In ships, an iron thimble or thimbles with a rope spliced round them, forming a kind of tail or a species of grommet.


1. Walking; going; making a journey. Matthew 25:14.

2. a. Incurred by travel; as traveling expenses.

3. Paid for travel; as traveling fees.

TRAVEL-TAINTED, a. [travel and tainted.] Harassed; fatigued with travel. [Not in use.]

TRAVERS, adv. Across; athwart. [Not used.]

TRAVERSABLE, a. [See Traverse, in law.] That may be traversed or denied; as a traversable allegation.

TRAVERSE, adv. Athwart; crosswise.

The ridges of the field lay traverse.

TRAVERSE, prep. [supra.] Through crosswise.

He traverse

The whole battalion views their order due. [Little used.]

TRAVERSE, a. [L. versus; transversus.] Lying across; being in a direction across something else; as paths cut with traverse trenches.

Oak--may be trusted in traverse work for summers.

TRAVERSE, n. [supra.] Any thing laid or built across.

There is a traverse placed in the loft where she sitteth.

1. Something that thwarts, crosses or obstructs; a cross accident. He is satisfied he should have succeeded, had it not been for unlucky traverses not in his power.

2. In fortification, a trench with a little parapet for protecting men on the flank; also, a wall raised across a work.

3. In navigation, traverse-sailing is the mode of computing the place of a ship by reducing several short courses made by sudden shifts or turns, to one longer course.

4. In law, a denial of what the opposite party has advanced in any state of the pleadings. When the traverse or denial comes from the defendant, the issue is tendered in this manner, “and of this he puts himself on the country.” When the traverse lies on the plaintiff, he prays “this may be inquired of by the country.”

The technical words introducing a traverse are absque hoc, without this; that is, without this which follows.

5. A turning; a trick.

TRAVERSE, v.t. To cross; to lay in a cross direction.

The parts should be often traversed or crossed by the flowing of the folds.

1. To cross by way of opposition; to thwart; to obstruct.

Frog thought to traverse this new project.

2. To wander over; to cross in traveling; as, to traverse the habitable globe.

What seas you travers’d, and what fields you fought.

3. To pass over and view; to survey carefully.

My purpose is to traverse the nature, principles and properties of this detestable vice, ingratitude.

4. To turn and point in any direction; as, to traverse a cannon.

5. To plane in a direction across the grain of the wood; as, to traverse a board.

6. In law pleadings, to deny what the opposite party has alleged. When the plaintiff or defendant advances new matter, he avers it to be true, and traverses what the other party has affirmed. So to traverse an indictment or an office, is to deny it.

To traverse a yard, in sailing, is to brace it aft.

TRAVERSE, v.i. In fencing, to use the posture or motions of opposition or counteraction.

To see thee fight, to see thee traverse--

1. To turn, as on a pivot; to move round; to swivel. The needle of a compass traverses; if it does not traverse well, it is an unsafe guide.

2. In the manege, to cut the tread crosswise, as a horse that throws his croup to one side and his head to the other.

TRAVERSE-BOARD, n. [traverse and board.] In a ship, a small board to be hung in the steerage, and bored full of holes upon lines, showing the points of compass upon it. By moving a peg on this, the steersman keeps an account of the number of glasses a ship is steered on any point.

TRAVERSE-TABLE, n. [traverse and table.] In navigation, a table of difference of latitude and departure.

TRAVERSING, ppr. Crossing; passing over; thwarting; turning; denying.

TRAVESTIED, pp. Disguised by dress; turned into ridicule.

TRAVESTIN, n. A kind of white spongy stone found in Italy.

TRAVESTY, a. [infra.] Having an unusual dress; disguised by dress so as to be ridiculous. It is applied to a book or composition translated in a manner to make it burlesque.

TRAVESTY, n. A parody; a burlesque translation of a work. Travesty may be intended to ridicule absurdity, or to convert a grave performance into a humorous one.
TRAVESTY, v.t. To translate into such language as to render ridiculous or ludicrous.

G. Battista Lalli travestied Virgil, or turned him into Italian burlesque verse.

TRAY, n. [L. trua.] A small trough or wooden vessel, sometimes scooped out of a piece of timber and made hollow, used for making bread in, chopping meat and other domestic purposes.

TRAY-TRIP, n. A kind of play.


TREACHEROUS, a. trech’erous. [See Treachery.] Violating allegiance of faith pledged; faithless; traitorous to the state or sovereign; perfidious in private life; betraying a trust. A man may be treacherous to his country, or treacherous to his friend, by violating his engagements or his faith pledged.

TREACHEROUSLY, adv. trech’erously. By violating allegiance or faith pledged; by betraying a trust; faithlessly; perfidiously; as, to surrender a fort to an enemy treacherously; to disclose a secret treacherously.

You treacherously practic’d to undo me.

TREACHEROUSNESS, n. trech’erousness. Breach of allegiance or of faith; faithlessness; perfidiousness.

TREACHERY, n. trech’ery. Violation of allegiance or of faith and confidence. The man who betrays his country in any manner, violates his allegiance, and is guilty of treachery. This is treason. The man who violates his faith pledged to his friend, or betrays a trust in which a promise of fidelity is implied, is guilty of treachery. The disclosure of a secret committed to one in confidence, is treachery. This is perfidy.

TREACLE, n. [L. theriaca; Gr. a wild beast.]

1. The spume of sugar in sugar refineries. Treacle is obtained in refining sugar; molasses is the drainings of crude sugar. Treacle however is often used for molasses.

2. A saccharine fluid, consisting of the inspissated juices or decoctions of certain vegetables, as the sap of the birch, sycamore, etc.

3. A medicinal compound of various ingredients. [See Theriaca.]

TREACLE-MUSTARD, n. A plant of the genus Thlaspi, whose seeds are used in the theriaca; Mithridate mustard.

TREACLE-WATER, n. A compound cordial, distilled with a spiritous menstruum from any cordial and sudorific drugs and herbs, with a mixture of Venice treacle.

TREAD, v.i. tred. pret. trod; pp. trod, troden. [L. trudo.]

1. To set the foot.

Where’er you tread, the blushing flow’rs shall rise.

Fools rush in where angels fear to tread.

2. To walk or go.

Every place whereon the soles of your feet shall tread, shall be yours. Deuteronomy 11:24.

3. To walk with form or state.

Ye that stately tread, or lowly creep.

4. To copulate, as fowls.

To tread or tread on, to trample; to set the foot on in contempt.

Thou shalt tread upon their high places. Deuteronomy 33:29.

TREAD, v.t. tred. To step or walk on.

Forbid to tread the promis’d land he saw.

1. To press under the feet.

2. To beat or press with the feet; as, to tread a path; to tread land when too light; a well trodden path.

3. To walk in a formal or stately manner.

He thought she trod the ground with greater grace.

4. To crush under the foot; to trample in contempt or hatred, or to subdue. Psalms 44:5; Psalms 60:12.

5. To compress, as a fowl.

To tread the state, to act as a stage-player; to perform a part in a drama.

To tread or tread out, to press out with the feet; to press out wine or wheat; as, to tread out grain with cattle or horses.

They tread their wine presses and suffer thirst. Job 24:11.

TREAD, n. tred. A step or stepping; pressure with the foot; as a nimble tread; cautious tread; doubtful tread.

1. Way; track; path. [Little used.]

2. Compression of the male fowl.

3. Manner of stepping; as, a horse has a good tread.

TREADER, n. tred’er. One who treads. Isaiah 16:10.

TREADING, ppr. tred’ing. Stepping; pressing with the foot; walking on.

TREADLE, TREDDLE, n. The part of a loom or other machine which is moved by the tread or foot.

1. The albuminous cords which unite the yolk of the egg to the white.

TREAGUE, n. treeg. A truce.

TREASON, n. tree’zn. [L. traho. See Draw and Drag.]

Treason is the highest crime of a civil nature of which a man can be guilty. Its signification is different in different countries. In general, it is the offense of attempting to overthrow the government of the state to which the offender owes allegiance, or of betraying the state into the hands of a foreign power. In monarchies, the killing of the king, or an attempt to take his life, is treason. In England, to imagine or compass the death of the king, or of the prince, or of the queen consort, or of the heir apparent of the crown, is high treason; as are many other offenses created by statute.

In the United States, treason is confined to the actual levying of war against the United States, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort.

Treason in Great Britain, is of two kinds, high treason and petit treason. High treason is a crime that immediately affects the king or state; such as the offenses just enumerated. Petit treason involves a breach of fidelity, but affects individuals. Thus for a wife to kill her husband, a servant his master or lord, or an ecclesiastic his lord or ordinary, is petit treason. But in the United States this crime is unknown; the killing in the latter cases being murder only.

TREASONABLE, a. tree’znable. Pertaining to treason; consisting of treason; involving the crime of treason, or partaking of its guilt.

Most men’s heads had been intoxicated with imaginations of plots and treasonable practices.

TREASONOUS, for treasonable, is not in use.

TREASURE, n. trezh’ur. [L. thesaurus.]

1. Wealth accumulated; particularly, a stock or store of money in reserve. Henry VII. was frugal and penurious, and collected a great treasure of gold and silver.

2. A great quantity of any thing collected for future use.

We have treasures in the field, of wheat and of barley, and of oil and of honey. Jeremiah 41:8.

3. Something very much valued. Psalm 135:4.

Ye shall be a peculiar treasure to me. Exodus 19:5.

4. Great abundance.

In whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. Colossians 2:3.

TREASURE, v.t. trezh’ur. To hoard; to collect and reposit, either money or other things, for future use; to lay up; as, to treasure gold and silver; usually with up. Sinners are said to treasure up wrath against the day of wrath. Romans 2:5.

TREASURE-CITY, n. trezh’ur-city. A city for stores and magazines. Exodus 1:11.

TREASURED, pp. trezh’ured. Hoarded; laid up for future use.

TREASURE-HOUSE, n. trezh’ur-house. A house or building where treasures and stores are kept.

TREASURER, n. trezh’urer. One who has the care of a treasure or treasury; an officer who receives the public money arising from taxes and duties or other sources of revenue, takes charge of the same, and disburses it upon orders drawn by the proper authority. Incorporated companies and private societies have also their treasurers.

In England, the lord high treasurer is the principal officer of the crown, under whose charge is all the national revenue.

The treasurer of the household, in the absence of the lord-steward, has power with the controller and other officers of the Green-cloth, and the steward of the Marshalsea, to hear and determine treasons, felonies and other crimes committed within the king’s palace. There is also the treasurer of the navy, and the treasurers of the county.

TREASURERSHIP, n. trezh’ureship. The office of treasurer.

TREASURESS, n. trezh’uress. A female who has charge of a treasure.

TREASURE-TROVE, n. trezh’ur-trove. Any money, bullion and the like, found in the earth, the owner of which is not known.

TREASURY, n. trezh’ury. A place or building in which stores of wealth are reposited; particularly, a place where the public revenues are deposited and kept, and where money is disbursed to defray the expenses of government.

1. A building appropriated for keeping public money. John 8:20.

2. The officer or officers of the treasury department.

3. A repository of abundance. Psalm 135:7.

TREAT, v.t. [L. tracto.]

1. To handle; to manage; to use. Subjects are usually faithful or treacherous, according as they are well or ill treated. To treat prisoners ill, is the characteristic of barbarians. Let the wife of your bosom be kindly treated.

2. To handle in a particular manner, in writing or speaking; as, to treat a subject diffusely.

3. To entertain without expense to the guest.

4. To negotiate; to settle; as, to treat a peace. [Not in use.]

5. To manage in the application of remedies; as, to treat a disease or a patient.

TREAT, v.i. To discourse; to handle in writing or speaking; to make discussion. Cicero treats of the nature of the gods; he treats of old age and of duties.

1. To come to terms of accommodation.

Inform us, will the emp’ror treat?

2. To make gratuitous entertainment. It is sometimes the custom of military officers to treat when first elected.

To treat with, to negotiate; to make and receive proposals for adjusting differences. Envoys were appointed to treat with France, but without success.

TREAT, n. An entertainment given; as a parting treat.

1. Something given for entertainment; as a rich treat.

2. Emphatically, a rich entertainment.

TREATABLE, a. Moderate; not violent.

The heats or the colds of seasons are less treatable than with us. [Not in use.]

TREATABLY, adv. Moderately. [Not in use.]

TREATED, pp. Handled; managed; used; discoursed on; entertained.

TREATER, n. One that treats; one that handles or discourses on; one that entertains.

TREATING, ppr. Handling; managing; using; discoursing on; entertaining.

TREATISE, n. [L. tractatus.] A tract; a written composition on a particular subject, in which the principles of it are discussed or explained. A treatise is of an indefinite length; but it implies more form and method than an essay, and less fullness or copiousness than a system.

TREATISER, n. One who writes a treatise. [Not used.]

TREATMENT, n. Management; manipulation; manner of mixing or combining, of decomposing and the like; as the treatment of substances in chimical experiments.

1. Usage; manner of using; good of bad behavior towards.

Accept such treatment as a swain affords.

2. Manner of applying remedies to cure; mode or course pursued to check and destroy; as the treatment of a disease.

3. Manner of applying remedies to; as the treatment of a patient.

TREATY, n. Negotiation; act of treating for the adjustment of differences, or for forming an agreement; as, a treaty is on the carpet.

He cast by treaty and by trains

Her to persuade.

1. An agreement, league or contract between two or more nations or sovereigns, formally signed by commissioners properly authorized, and solemnly ratified by the several sovereigns or the supreme power of each state. Treaties are of various kinds, as treaties for regulating commercial intercourse, treaties of alliance, offensive and defensive, treaties for hiring troops, treaties of peace, etc.

2. Intreaty. [Not in use.]

TREATY-MAKING, a. The treaty-making power is lodged in the executive government. In monarchies, it is vested in the king or emperor; in the United States of America, it is vested in the president, by and with the consent of the senate.

TREBLE, a. trib’l. [L. triplex, triplus; tres, three, and plexus, fold. This should be written trible.]

1. Threefold; triple; as a lofty tower with treble walls.

2. In music, acute; sharp; as a treble sound.

3. That plays the highest part or most acute sounds; that plays the treble; as a treble violin.

TREBLE, n. trib’l. In music, the part of a symphony whose sounds are highest or most acute. This is divided into first or highest treble, and second or base treble.
TREBLE, v.t. trib’l. [L. triplico.] To make thrice as much; to make threefold. Compound interest soon trebles a debt.
TREBLE, v.i. trib’l. To become threefold. A debt at compound interest soon trebles in amount.

TREBLENESS, n. trib’lness. The state of being treble; as the trebleness of tones.

TREBLY, adv. trib’ly. In a threefold number or quantity; as a good deed trebly recompensed.

TREE, n.

1. The general name of the largest of the vegetable kind, consisting of a firm woody stem springing from woody roots, and spreading above into branches which terminate in leaves. A tree differs from a shrub principally in size, many species of trees growing to the highth of fifty or sixty feet, and some species to seventy or eighty, and a few, particularly the pine, to a much greater highth.

Trees are of various kinds; as nuciferous, or nut-bearing trees; bacciferous, or berry-bearing; coniferous, or cone-bearing, etc. Some are forest-trees, and useful for timber or fuel; others are fruit trees, and cultivated in gardens and orchards; others are used chiefly for shade and ornament.

2. Something resembling a tree, consisting of a stem or stalk and branches; as a genealogical tree.

3. In ship-building, pieces of timber are called chess-trees, cross-trees, roof-trees, tressel-trees, etc.

4. In Scripture, a cross.

--Jesus, whom they slew and hanged on a tree. Acts 10:39.

5. Wood.

TREE-FROG, n. [tree and frog.] A species of frog, the Rana arborea, found on trees and shrubs; called by the older writers, Ranunculus viridis.

TREE-GERMANDER, n. A plant of the genus Teucrium.

TREE-LOUSE, n. [tree and louse.] An insect of the genus Aphis.

TREE-MOSS, n. A species of lichen.

TREEN, a. Wooden; made of wood.

TREEN, n. The old plural of tree.

TREE-NAIL, n. [tree and nail; commonly pronounced trunnel.]

A long wooden pin, used in fastening the planks of a ship to the timbers.

TREE-OF-LIFE, n. An evergreen tree of the genus Thuja.

TREE-TOAD, n. [tree and toad.] A small species of toad in N. America, found on trees. This animal croaks chiefly in the evening and after a rain.

TREFOIL, n. [L. trifolium; tres, three, and folium, leaf.]

The common name for many plants of the genus Trifolium; also, in agriculture, a name of the medicago tupulina, a plant resembling clover, with yellow flowers, much cultivated for hay and fodder.