Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary

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TREILLAGE — TRIDENT

TREILLAGE, n. trel’lage. In gardening, a sort of rail-work, consisting of light posts and rails for supporting espaliers, and sometimes for wall trees.

TRELLIS, n. In gardening, a structure or frame of cross-barred work, or lattice work, used like the treillage for supporting plants.

TRELLISED, a. Having a trellis or trellises.

TREMBLE, v.i. [L. tremo.]

1. To shake involuntarily, as with fear, cold or weakness; to quake; to quiver; to shiver; to shudder.

Frighted Turnus trembled as he spoke.

2. To shake; to quiver; to totter.

Sinai’s gray top shall tremble.

3. To quaver; to shake, as sound; as when we say, the voice trembles.

TREMBLEMENT, n. In French music, a trill or shake.

TREMBLER, n. One that trembles.

TREMBLING, ppr. Shaking, as with fear, cold or weakness; quaking; shivering.

TREMBLINGLY, adv. So as to shake; with shivering or quaking.

Tremblingly she stood.

TREMBLING-POPLAR, n. The aspen tree, so called.

TREMENDOUS, a. [L. tremendus, from tremo, to tremble.]

1. Such as may excite fear or terror; terrible; dreadful. Hence,

2. Violent; such as may astonish by its force and violence; as a tremendous wind; a tremendous shower; a tremendous shock or fall; a tremendous noise.

TREMENDOUSLY, adv. In a manner to terrify or astonish; with great violence.

TREMENDOUSNESS, n. The state or quality of being tremendous, terrible or violent.

TREMOLITE, n. A mineral, so called from Tremola, a valley in the Alps, where it was discovered. It is classed by Hauy with hornblend or amphibole, and called amphibole grammatite. It is of three kinds, asbestos, common, and glassy tremolite; all of a fibrous or radiated structure, and of a pearly color.

Tremolite is a subspecies of straight edged augite.

TREMOR, n. [L. from tremo.] An involuntary trembling; a shivering or shaking; a quivering or vibratory motion; as the tremor of a person who is weak, infirm or old.

He fell into a universal tremor.

TREMULOUS, a. [L. tremulus, from tremo, to tremble.]

1. Trembling; affected with fear or timidity; as a trembling christian.

2. Shaking; shivering; quivering; as a tremulous limb; a tremulous motion of the hand or the lips; the tremulous leaf of the poplar.

TREMULOUSLY, adv. With quivering or trepidation.

TREMULOUSNESS, n. The state of trembling or quivering; as the tremulousness of an aspen leaf.

TREN, n. A fish spear.

TRENCH, v.t.

1. To cut or dig, as a ditch, a channel for water, or a long hollow in the earth. We trench land for draining. [This is the appropriate sense of the word.]

2. To fortify by cutting a ditch and raising a rampart or breast-work of earth thrown out of the ditch. [In this sense, entrench is more generally used.]

3. To furrow; to form with deep furrows by plowing.

4. To cut a long gash. [Not in use.]

TRENCH, v.i. To encroach. [See Intrench.]
TRENCH, n. A long narrow cut in the earth; a ditch; as a trench for draining land.

1. In fortification, a deep ditch cut for defense, or to interrupt the approach of an enemy. The wall or breast-work formed by the earth thrown out of the ditch, is also called a trench, as also any raised work formed with bavins, gabions, wool-packs or other solid materials, Hence, the phrases, to mount the trenches, to guard the trenches, to clear the trenches, etc. To open the trenches, to begin to dig, or to form the lines of approach.

TRENCHANT, a. Cutting; sharp. [Little used.]

TRENCHED, pp. Cut into long hollows or ditches; furrowed deep.

TRENCHER, n. A wooden plate. Trenchers were in use among the common people of New England till the revolution.

1. The table.

2. Food; pleasures of the table.

It would be no ordinary declension that would bring some men to place their summum bonum upon their trenchers.

TRENCHER-FLY, n. [trencher and fly.] One that haunts the tables of others; a parasite.

TRENCHER-FRIEND, n. [trencher and friend.] One who frequents the tables of others; a spunger.

TRENCHER-MAN, n. [trencher and man.]

1. A feeder; a great eater.

2. A cook.

TRENCHER-MATE, n. [trencher and mate.] A table companion; a parasite.

TRENCHING, ppr. Cutting into trenches; digging; ditching.

TRENCH-PLOW, n. [trench and plow.] A kind of plow for opening land to a greater depth than that of common furrows.

TRENCH-PLOW, v.t. [trench and plow.] To plow with deep furrows.

TRENCH-PLOWING, n. The practice or operation of plowing with deep furrows, for the purpose of loosening the land to a greater depth than usual.

TREND, v.i. [This word seems to be allied to trundle, or to run.]

To run; to stretch; to tend; to have a particular direction; as, the shore of the sea trends to the southwest.

TREND, n. That part of the stock of an anchor from which the size is taken.
TREND, v.t. In rural economy, to free wool from its filth. [Local.]

TRENDER, n. One whose business is to free wool from its filth. [Local.]

TRENDING, ppr. Running; tending.

1. Cleaning wool. [Local.]

TRENDING, n. The operation of freeing wool from filth of various kinds.

TRENDLE, n. Any thing round used in turning or rolling; a little wheel.

TRENTAL, TRENTALS, n. [L. triginta.] An office for the dead in the Romish service, consisting of thirty masses rehearsed for thirty days successively after the party’s death.

TREPAN, n. [L. tero, terebra, on the root Rp.] In surgery, a circular saw for perforating the skull. It resembles a wimble.

TREPAN, v.t. To perforate the skull and take out a piece; a surgical operation for relieving the brain from pressure or irritation.

Trepan, a snare, and trepan, to ensnare, are from trap, and written trepan, which see.

TREPANNED, pp. Having the skull perforated.

TREPANNER, n. One who trepans.

TREPANNING, ppr. Perforating the skull with a trepan.

TREPANNING, n. The operation of making an opening in the skull, for relieving the brain from compression or irritation.

TREPHINE, n. [See Trepan.] An instrument for trepanning, more modern than the trepan. It is a circular or cylindrical saw, with a handle like that of a gimblet, and a little sharp perforator, called the center-pin.

TREPHINE, v.t. To perforate with a trephine; to trepan.

TREPID, a. [L. trepidus.] Trembling; quaking. [Not used.]

TREPIDATION, n. [L. trepidatio, form trepido, to tremble.]

1. An involuntary trembling; a quaking or quivering, particularly from fear or terror; hence, a state of terror. The men were in great trepidation.

2. A trembling of the limbs, as in paralytic affections.

3. In the old astronomy, a libration of the eighth sphere, or a motion which the Ptolemaic system ascribes to the firmament, to account for the changes and motion of the axis of the world.

4. Hurry; confused haste.

TRESPASS, v.i. [L. trans, beyond, and passer, to pass.]

1. Literally, to pass beyond; hence primarily, to pass over the boundary line of another’s land; to enter unlawfully upon the land of another. A man may trespass by walking over the ground of another, and the law gives a remedy for damages sustained.

2. To commit any offense or to do any act that injures or annoys another; to violate any rule of rectitude to the injury of another.

If any man shall trespass against his neighbor, and an oath be laid upon him-- 1 Kings 8:31. See Luke 17:3, 4.

3. In a moral sense, to transgress voluntarily any divine law or command; to violate any known rule of duty.

In the time of his disease did he trespass yet more. 2 Chronicles 28:22.

We have trespassed against our God. Ezra 10:2.

4. To intrude; to go too far; to put to inconvenience by demand or importunity; as, to trespass upon the time or patience of another.

TRESPASS, n. In law, violation of another’s rights, not amounting to treason, felony, or misprision of either. Thus to enter another’s close, is a trespass; to attack his person is a trespass. When violence accompanies the act, it is called a trespass vi et armis.

1. Any injury or offense done to another.

If ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses. Matthew 6:14.

2. Any voluntary transgression of the moral law; any violation of a known rule of duty; sin. Colossians 2:13.

You hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins. Ephesians 2:1.

TRESPASSER, n. One who commits a trespass; one who enters upon another’s land or violates his rights.

1. A transgressor of the moral law; an offender; a sinner.

TRESPASSING, ppr. Entering another man’s inclosure; injuring or annoying another; violating the divine law or moral duty.

TRESS, n. A knot or curl of hair; a ringlet.

Fair tresses man’s imperial race ensnare.

TRESSED, a. Having tresses.

1. Curled; formed into ringlets.

TRESSURE, n. In heraldry, a kind of border.

TRESTLE, n. tres’l.

1. The frame of a table.

2. A movable form for supporting any thing.

3. In bridges, a frame consisting of two posts with a head or cross beam and braces, on which rest the string-pieces. [This is the use of the word in New England. It is vulgarly pronounced trussel or trussl.]

Trestle-trees, in a ship, are two strong bars of timber, fixed horizontally on the opposite sides of the lower mast-head, to support the frame of the top and the top-mast.

TRET, n. [probably from L. tritus, tero, to wear.]

In commerce, an allowance to purchasers, for waste or refuse matter, of four per cent on the weight of commodities. It is said this allowance is nearly discontinued.

TRETHINGS, n. Taxes; imposts. [I know not where used. It is unknown, I believe, in the United States.]

TREVET, n. [three-feet, tripod.] A stool or other thing that is supported by three legs.

TREY, n. [L. tres; Eng. three.] A three at cards; a card of three spots.

TRI, a prefix in words of Greek and Latin origin, signifies three.

TRIABLE, a. [from try.] That may be tried; that may be subjected to trial or test.

1. That may undergo a judicial examination; that may properly come under the cognizance of a court. A cause may be triable before one court, which is not triable in another. In England, testamentary causes are triable in the ecclesiastical courts.

TRIACONTAHEDRAL, a. [Gr. thirty, and side.] Having thirty sides. In mineralogy, bounded by thirty rhombs.

TRIACONTER, n. [Gr.] In ancient Greece, a vessel of thirty oars.

TRIAD, n. [L. trias, from tres, three.] The union of three; three united. In music, the common chord or harmony, consisting of the third, fifth and eighth.

TRIAL, n. [from try.] Any effort or exertion of strength for the purpose of ascertaining its effect, or what can be done. A man tries to lift a stone, and on trial finds he is not able. A team attempts to draw a load, and after unsuccessful trial, the attempt is relinquished.

1. Examination by a test; experiment; as in chimistry and metallurgy.

2. Experiment; act of examining by experience. In gardening and agriculture, we learn by trial what land will produce; and often, repeated trials are necessary.

3. Experience; suffering that puts strength, patience of faith to the test; afflictions or temptations that exercise and prove the graces or virtues of men.

Others had trial of cruel mockings and scourgings. Hebrews 11:36.

4. In law, the examination of a cause in controversy between parties, before a proper tribunal. Trials are civil or criminal. Trial in civil causes, may be by record or inspection; it may be by witnesses and jury, or by the court. By the laws of England and of the United States, trial by jury, in criminal cases, is held sacred. No criminal can be legally deprived of that privilege.

5. Temptation; test of virtue.

Every station is exposed to some trials.

6. State of being tried.

TRIALITY, n. [form three.] Three united; state of being three. [Little used.]

TRIANDER, n. [Gr. three, and a male.] A plant having three stamens.

TRIANDRIAN, a. Having three stamens.

TRIANGLE, n. [L. triangulum; tres, tria, three, and angulus, a corner.] In geometry, a figure bounded by three lines, and containing three angles. The three angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles, or the number of degrees in a semicircle.

If the three lines or sides of a triangle are all right, it is a plane or rectilinear triangle.

If all the three sides are equal, it is an equilateral triangle.

If two of the sides only are equal, it is an isosceles or equicrural triangle.

If all the three sides are unequal, it is a scalene or scalenous triangle.

If one of the angles is a right angle, the triangle is rectangular.

If one of the angles is obtuse, the triangle is called obtusangular or amblygonous.

If all the angles are acute, the triangle is acutangular or oxygonous.

If the three lines of a triangle are all curves, the triangle is said to be curvilinear.

If some of the sides are right and others curve, the triangle is said to be mixtilinear.

If the sides are all arcs of great circles of the sphere, the triangle is said to be spherical.

TRIANGLED, a. Having three angles.

TRIANGULAR, a. Having three angles.

In botany, a triangular stem has three prominent longitudinal angles; a triangular leaf has three prominent angles, without any reference to their measurement or direction.

TRIANGULARLY, adv. After the form of a triangle.

TRIARIAN, a. [L. triarii.] Occupying the third post or place.

TRIBE, n. [L. tribus.]

1. A family, race or series of generations, descending from the same progenitor and kept distinct, as in the case of the twelve tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of Jacob.

2. A division, class or distinct portion of people, from whatever cause that distinction may have originated. The city of Athens was divided into ten tribes. Rome was originally divided into three tribes; afterward the people were distributed into thirty tribes, and afterwards into thirty five.

3. A number of things having certain characters or resemblances, in common; as a tribe of plants; a tribe of animals.

Linneus distributed the vegetable kingdom into three tribes, viz. monocotyledonous, dicotyledonous, and acotyledonous plants, and these he subdivided into gentes or nations.

By recent naturalists, tribe has been used for a division of animals or vegetables, intermediate between order and genus. Cuvier divides his orders into families, and his families into tribes, including under the latter one or more genera. Leach, in his arrangement of insects, makes his tribes, on the contrary, the primary subdivisions of his orders, and his families subordinate to them, and immediately including the genera.

Tribes of plants, in gardening, are such as are related to teach other by some natural affinity or resemblance; as by their duration, the annual, biennial, and perennial tribes; by their roots, as the bulbous, tuberous, and fibrous-rooted tribes; by the loss or retention of their leaves, as the deciduous and ever-green tribes; by their fruits and seeds, as the leguminous, bacciferous, coniferous, nuciferous and pomiferous tribes, etc.

4. A division; a number considered collectively.

5. A nation of savages; a body of rude people united under one leader or government; as the tribes of the six nations; the Seneca tribe in America.

6. A number of persons of any character or profession; in contempt; as the scribbling tribe.

TRIBE, v.t. To distribute into tribes or classes. [Not much used.]

TRIBLET, TRIBOULET, n. A goldsmith’s tool for making rings.

TRIBOMETER, n. [Gr. to rub or wear, and measure.] An instrument to ascertain the degree of friction.

TRIBRACH, n. [Gr. three, and short.] In ancient prosody, a poetic foot of three short syllables, as melius.

TRIBRACTEATE, a. Having three bracts about the flower.

TRIBULATION, n. [L. tribulo, to thrash, to beat.] Severe affliction; distresses of life; vexations. In Scripture, it often denotes the troubles and distresses which proceed from persecution.

When tribulation or persecution ariseth because of the word, he is offended. Matthew 13:21.

In the world ye shall have tribulation. John 16:33.

TRIBUNAL, n. [L. tribunal, from tribunus, a tribune, who administered justice.]

1. Properly, the seat of a judge; the bench on which a judge and his associates sit for administering justice.

2. More generally, a court of justice; as, the house of lords in England is the highest tribunal in the kingdom.

3. In France, a gallery or eminence in a church or other place, in which the musical performers are placed for a concert.

TRIBUNARY, a. [from tribune.] Pertaining to tribunes.

TRIBUNE, n. [L. tribunus, from tribus, tribe.]

1. In ancient Rome, an officer or magistrate chosen by the people to protect them from the oppression of the patricians or nobles, and to defend their liberties against any attempts that might be made upon them by the senate and consuls. These magistrates were at first two, but their number was increased ultimately to ten. There were also military tribunes, officers of the army, each of whom commanded a division or legion. In the year of Rome 731, the senate transferred the authority of the tribunes to Augustus and his successors. There were also other officers called tribunes; as tribunes of the treasury, of the horse, of the making of arms, etc.

2. In France, a pulpit or elevated place in the chamber of deputies, where a speaker stands to address the assembly.

TRIBUNESHIP, n. The office of a tribune.

TRIBUNICIAN, TRIBUNITIAL, a. Pertaining to tribunes; as tribunician power or authority.

1. Suiting a tribune.

TRIBUTARY, a. [from tribute.] Paying tribute to another, either from compulsion, as an acknowledgment of submission, or to secure protection, or for the purpose of purchasing peace. The republic of Ragusa is tributary to the grand seignor. Many of the powers of Europe are tributary to the Barbary states.

1. Subject; subordinate.

He, to grace his tributary gods--

2. Paid in tribute.

No flatt’ry tunes these tributary lays.

3. Yielding supplies of any thing. The Ohio has many large tributary streams; and is itself tributary to the Mississippi.

TRIBUTARY, n. One that pays tribute or a stated sum to a conquering power, for the purpose of securing peace and protection, or as an acknowledgment of submission, or for the purchase of security. What a reproach to nations that they should be the tributaries of Algiers!

TRIBUTE, n. [L. tributum, from tribuo, to give, bestow or divide.]

1. An annual or stated sum of money or other valuable thing, paid by one prince or nation to another, either as an acknowledgment of submission, or as the price of peace and protection, or by virtue of some treaty. The Romans made all their conquered countries pay tribute, as do the Turks at this day; and in some countries the tribute is paid in children.

2. A personal contribution; as a tribute of respect.

3. Something given or contributed.

TRICAPSULAR, a. [L. tres, three, and capsula, a little chest.]

In botany, three-capsuled; having three capsules to each flower.

TRICE, v.t. In seamen’s language, to haul and tie up by means of a small rope or line.

TRICE, n. A very short time; an instant; a moment.

If they get never so great spoil at any time, they waste the same in a trice.

A man shall make his fortune in a trice.

TRICHOTOMOUS, a. [See Trichotomy.] Divided into three parts, or divided by threes; as a trichotomous stem.

TRICHOTOMY, n. [Gr. three, and to cut or divide.] Division into three parts.

TRICK, n. [L. tricor, to play tricks, to trifle, to baffle. We see the same root in the Low L. intrico, to fold, and in intrigue. Trick is from drawing, that is, a drawing aside, or a folding, interweaving, implication.]

1. An artifice or stratagem for the purpose of deception; a fraudful contrivance for an evil purpose, or an underhand scheme to impose upon the world; a cheat or cheating. We hear of tricks in bargains, and tricks of state.

He comes to me for counsel, and I show him a trick.

2. A dexterous artifice.

On one nice trick depends the gen’ral fate.

3. Vicious practice; as the tricks of youth.

4. The sly artifice or legerdemain of a juggler; as the tricks of a merry Andrew.

5. A collection of cards laid together.

6. An unexpected event.

Some trick not worth an egg. [Unusual.]

7. A particular habit or manner; as, he has a trick of drumming with his fingers, or a trick of frowning. [This word is in common use in America, and by no means vulgar.]

TRICK, v.t. To deceive; to impose on; to defraud; to cheat; as, to trick another in the sale of a horse.
TRICK, v.t. To dress; to decorate; to set off; to adorn fantastically.

Trick her off in air.

It is often followed by up, off, or out.

People are lavish in tricking up their children in fine clothes, yet starve their minds.

TRICK, v.i. To live by deception and fraud.

TRICKED, pp. Cheated; deceived; dressed.

TRICKER, TRICKSTER, n. One who tricks; a deceiver; a cheat.

TRICKER, n. A trigger. [See Trigger.]

TRICKERY, n. The art of dressing up; artifice; stratagem.

TRICKING, ppr. Deceiving; cheating; defrauding.

1. Dressing; decorating.

TRICKING, n. Dress; ornament.

TRICKISH, a. Artful in making bargains; given to deception and cheating; knavish.

TRICKLE, v.i. [allied perhaps to Gr. to run, and a diminutive.]

To flow in a small gentle stream; to run down; as, tears trickle down the cheek; water trickles from the eaves.

Fast beside there trickled softly down

A gentle stream.

TRICKLING, ppr. Flowing down in a small gentle stream.

TRICKLING, n. The act of flowing in a small gentle stream.

He wakened by the trickling of his blood.

TRICKMENT, n. Decoration. [Not used.]

TRICKSY, a. [from trick.] Pretty; brisk. [Not much used.]

TRICK-TRACK, n. A game at tables.

TRICLINIARY, a. [L. tricliniaris, from triclinium, a couch to recline on at dinner.] Pertaining to a couch for dining, or to the ancient mode of reclining at table.

TRICOCCOUS, a. [L. tres, three, and coccus, a berry.] A tricoccous or three-grained capsule is one which is swelling out in three protuberances, internally divided into three cells, with one seed in each; as in Euphorbia.

TRICORPORAL, a. [L. tricorpor; tres and corpus.] Having three bodies.

TRICUSPIDATE, a. [L. tres, three, and cuspis, a point.]

In botany, three-pointed; ending in three points; as a tricuspidate stamen.

TRIDACTYLOUS, a. [Gr. three, and a toe.] Having three toes.

TRIDE, a. Among hunters, short and ready; fleet; as a tride pace.

TRIDENT, n. [L. tridens; tres, three, and dens, tooth.]

In mythology, a kind of scepter or spear with three prongs, which the fables of antiquity put into the hands of Neptune, the deity of the ocean.

TRIDENT, TRIDENTED, a. Having three teeth or prongs.