Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



RECUMB, v.i. [L. recumbo; re and cumbo, to lie down.] To lean; to recline; to repose.

RECUMBENCE, n. [from L. recumbens.] The act of reposing or resting in confidence.


1. The posture of leaning, reclining or lying.

2. Rest; repose; idle state.

RECUMBENT, a. [L. recumbens.]

1. Leaning; reclining; as the recumbent posture of the Romans at their meals.

2. Reposing; inactive; idle.

RECUPERATION, n. [L. recuperatio.] Recovery, as of any thing lost.

RECUPERATIVE, RECUPERATORY, a. Tending to recovery; pertaining to recovery.

RECUR, v.i. [L. recurro; re and curro, to run.]

1. To return to the thought or mind.

When any word has been used to signify an idea, the old idea will recur in the mind, when the word is heard.

2. To resort; to have recourse.

If to avoid succession in eternal existence, they recur to the punctum stans of the schools, they will very little help us to a more positive idea of infinite duration.

RECURE, v.t. [re and cure.] To cure; to recover. [Not in use.]

RECURE, n. Cure; recovery. [Not in use.]

RECURELESS, a. Incapable of cure or remedy. [Not in use.]


1. Return; as the recurrence of error.

2. Resort; the having recourse.

RECURRENT, a. [L. recurrens.]

1. Returning from time to time; as recurrent pains of a disease.

2. In crystallography, a recurrent crystal is one whose faces, being counted in annular ranges from one extremity to the other, furnish two different numbers which succeed each other times, as 4, 8, 4, 8, 4.

3. In anatomy, the recurrent nerve is a branch of the par vagum, given off in the upper part of the thorax, which is reflected and runs up along the trachea to the larynx.

RECURSION, n. [L. recursus, recurro; re and curro, to run.] Return. [Little used.]

RECURVATE, v.t. [L. recurro; re and curvo, to bend.] To bend back.


1. In botany, bent, bowed or curved downwards; as a recurvate leaf.

2. Bent outward; as a recurvate prickle, awn, petiole, calyx or corol.

RECURVATION, RECURVITY, n. A bending or flexure backwards.

RECURVE, v.t. recurv’. [L. recurvo, supra.] To bend back.

RECURVED, pp. Bent back or downwards; as a recurved leaf.

RECURVIROSTER, n. [L. recurvus, bent back, and rostrum, a beak.]

A fowl whose beak or bill bends upwards, as the avoset.

RECURVOUS, a. [L. recurvus.] Bent backwards.

RECUSANCY, n. Non-conformity. [See Recusant.]

RECUSANT, a. s as z. [L. recusans, recuso, to refuse; re and the root of causa, signifying to drive. The primary sense is to repel or drive back.]

Refusing to acknowledge the supremacy of the king, or to conform to the established rites of the church; as a recusant lord.

RECUSANT, n. [supra.]

1. In English history, a person who refuses to acknowledge the supremacy of the king in matters of religion; as a popish recusant, who acknowledges the supremacy of the pope.

2. One who refuses communion with the church of England; a non-conformist.

All that are recusants of holy rites.

RECUSATION, n. [L. recusatio.]

1. Refusal.

2. In law, the act of refusing a judge, or challenging that he shall not try the cause, on account of his supposed partiality. [This practice is now obsolete.]

RECUSE, v.t. s as z. [L. recuso.] To refuse or reject, as a judge; to challenge that the judge shall not try the cause. [The practice and the word are obsolete.]

RED, a. [Gr red, and a rose, from its color. Heb. to descend, to bring down. L. gradior, also to correct, to teach, erudio. See also Rad.]

Of a bright color, resembling blood. Red is a simple or primary color, but of several different shades or hues, as scarlet, crimson, vermilion, orange red, etc. We say red color, red cloth, red flame, red eyes, red cheeks, red lead, etc.

Red book of the exchequer, an ancient English record or manuscript containing various treatises relating to the times before the conquest.

Red men, red people, red children, the aboriginals of America, as distinguished from the whites.

RED, n. A red color; as a brighter color, the best of all the reds.

REDACT, v.t. [L. redactus, redigo; red, re, and ago.]

To force; to reduce to form. [Not used.]

REDAN, n. [written sometimes redent and redens; said to be contracted from L. recedens. Lunier.]

In fortification, a work indented, or formed with salient and re-entering angles, so that one part may flank and defend another.

REDARGUE, v.t. [L. redarguo; red, re, and arguo.] To refute. [Not in use.]

REDARGUTION, n. [supra.] Refutation; conviction. [Not in use.]

RED-BERRIED, a. Having or bearing red berries; as red-berried shrub cassia.

RED-BIRD, n. The popular name of several birds in the United States, as the Tanagra aestiva or summer red-bird, the Tanagra rubra, and the Baltimore oriole or hangnest.

REDBREAST, n. A bird so called from the color of its breast, a species of Motacilla. In America, this name is given to the robin, so called, a species of Turdus.

REDBUD, n. A plant or tree of the genus Cercis.

RED-CHALK, n. A kind of clay ironstone; reddle.

RED-COAT, n. A name given to a soldier who wears a red coat.

REDDEN, v.t. red’n. [from red.] To make red.

REDDEN, v.i. red’n.

1. To grow or become red.

- The coral redden and the ruby glow.

2. To blush.

Appius reddens at each word you speak.

REDDENDUM, n. In law, the clause by which rent is reserved in a lease.

REDDISH, a. Somewhat red; moderately red. Leviticus 13:19.

REDDISHNESS, n. Redness in a moderate degree.

REDDITION, n. [L. reddo, to return.]

1. A returning of any thing; restitution; surrender.

2. Explanation; representation.

REDDITIVE, a. [L. redditivus, from reddo.]

Returning; answering to an interrogative; a term of grammar.

REDDLE, n. [from red.] Red chalk, commonly used as a pigment. It is a mineral of a florid color, but not of a deep red.

REDE, n. Counsel; advice. Obs.

REDE, v.t. To counsel or advise. Obs.

REDEEM, v.t. [L. redimo; red, re, and emo, to obtain or purchase.]

1. To purchase back; to ransom; to liberate or rescue from captivity or bondage, or from any obligation or liability to suffer or to be forfeited, by paying an equivalent; as, to redeem prisoners or captured goods; to redeem a pledge.

2. To repurchase what has been sold; to regain possession of a thing alienated, by repaying the value of it to the possessor.

If a man [shall] sell a dwelling house in a walled city, then he may redeem it within a whole year after it is sold. Leviticus 25:29.

3. To rescue; to recover; to deliver from.

Th’ Almighty from the grave hath me redeem’d.

Redeem Israel, O God, out of all his troubles. Psalm 25:22; Deuteronomy 7:8.

The mass of earth not yet redeemed from chaos.

4. To compensate; to make amends for.

It is a chance which does redeem all sorrows.

By lesser ills the greater to redeem.

5. To free by making atonement.

Thou hast one daughter who redeems nature from the general curse.

6. To pay the penalty of.

Which of you will be mortal to redeem man’s mortal crime?

7. To save.

He could not have redeemed a portion of his time for contemplating the powers of nature.

8. To perform what has been promised; to make good by performance. He has redeemed his pledge or promise.

9. In law, to recall an estate, or to obtain the right to re-enter upon a mortgaged estate by paying to the mortgagee his principal, interest, and expenses or costs.

10. In theology, to rescue and deliver from the bondage of sin and the penalties of God’s violated law, by obedience and suffering in the place of the sinner, or by doing and suffering that which is accepted in lieu of the sinner’s obedience.

Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us. Galatians 3:13; Titus 2:14.

11. In commerce, to purchase or pay the value in specie, of any promissory note, bill or other evidence of debt, given by the state, by a company or corporation, or by an individual. The credit of a state, a banking company or individuals, is good when they can redeem all their stock, notes or bills, at par.

To redeem time, is to use more diligence in the improvement of it; to be diligent and active in duty and preparation. Ephesians 5:16.


1. That may be redeemed; capable of redemption.

2. That may be purchased or paid for in gold and silver, and brought into the possession of government or the original promiser.

The capital of the debt of the United States may be considered in the light of an annuity redeemable at the pleasure of the government.

REDEEMABLENESS, n. The state of being redeemable.

REDEEMED, pp. Ransomed; delivered from bondage, distress, penalty, liability, or from the possession of another, by paying an equivalent.


1. One who redeems or ransoms.

2. The Savior of the world, Jesus Christ.

REDEEMING, ppr. Ransoming; procuring deliverance from captivity, capture, bondage, sin, distress or liability to suffer, by the payment of an equivalent.

REDELIBERATE, v.i. [re and deliberate.] To deliberate again.

REDELIBERATE, v.t. To reconsider. [Not in use.]

REDELIVER, v.t. [re and deliver.]

1. To deliver back.

2. To deliver again; to liberate a second time.

REDELIVERANCE, n. A second deliverance.

REDELIVERED, pp. Delivered back; liberated again.

REDELIVERING, ppr. Delivering back; liberating again.

REDELIVERY, n. The act of delivering back; also, a second delivery or liberation.

REDEMAND, v.t. [re and demand.]

To demand back; to demand again.

REDEMAND, n. A demanding back again.

REDEMANDABLE, a. That may be demanded back.

REDEMANDED, pp. Demanded back or again.

REDEMANDING, ppr. Demanding back or again.

REDEMISE, v.t. s as z. [re and demise.] To convey or transfer back, as an estate in fee simple, fee tail, for life or a term of years.

REDEMISE, n. Reconveyance; the transfer of an estate back to the person who has demised it; as the demise and redemise of an estate in fee simple, fee tail, or for life or years, by mutual leases.

REDEMISED, pp. Reconveyed, as an estate.

REDEMISING, ppr. Reconveying.

REDEMPTION, n. [L. redemptio. See Redeem.]

1. Repurchase of captured goods or prisoners; the act of procuring the deliverance of persons or things from the possession and power of captors by the payment of an equivalent; ransom; release; as the redemption of prisoners taken in war; the redemption of a ship and cargo.

2. Deliverance from bondage, distress, or from liability to any evil or forfeiture, either by money, labor or other means.

3. Repurchase, as of lands alienated. Leviticus 25:24; Jeremiah 32:7-8.

4. The liberation of an estate from a mortgage; or the purchase of the right to re-enter upon it by paying the principal sum for which it was mortgaged with interest and cost; also, the right of redeeming and re-entering.

5. Repurchase of notes, bills or other evidence of debt by paying their value in specie to their holders.

6. In theology, the purchase of God’s favor by the death and sufferings of Christ; the ransom or deliverance of sinners from the bondage of sin and the penalties of God’s violated law by the atonement of Christ.

In whom we have redemption through his blood. Ephesians 1:7; Colossians 1:14.

REDEMPTIONER, n. One who redeems himself, or purchases his release from debt or obligation to the master of a ship by his services; or one whose services are sold to pay the expenses of his passage to America.

REDEMPTORY, a. Paid for ransom; as Hector’s redemptory price.

REDENTED, a. Formed like the teeth of a saw; indented.

REDESCEND, v.i. [re and descent.] To descend again.

REDESCENDING, ppr. Descending again.

REDEYE, n. [red and eye.] A fish of a red color, particularly the iris.

REDGUM, n. A disease of new born infants; an eruption of red pimples in early infancy.

RED-HAIRED, a. Having hair of a red or sandy color.

RED-HOT, n. Red with heat; heated to redness; as red-hot iron; red-hot balls.

REDIENT, a. [L. rediens, redeo, to return.] Returning.

REDIGEST, v.t. To digest or reduce to form a second time.

REDIGESTED, pp. Digested again.

REDIGESTING, ppr. Digesting a second time; reducing again to order.

REDINTEGRATE, v.t. [L. redintegro; red, re, and integro, from integer, whole.]

To make whole again; to renew; to restore to a perfect state.

REDINTEGRATE, a. Renewed; restored to wholeness or a perfect state.

REDINTEGRATED, pp. Renewed; restored to entireness.

REDINTEGRATING, ppr. Restoring to a perfect state.


1. Renovation; restoration to a whole or sound state.

2. In chimistry, the restoration of any mixed body or matter to its former nature and constitution.

REDISBURSE, v.t. redisburs’. [re and disburse.] To repay or refund.

REDISPOSE, v.t. s as z. [re and dispose.] To dispose or adjust again.

REDISPOSED, pp. Disposed anew.

REDISPOSING, ppr. Disposing or adjusting anew.

REDISSEIZIN, n. [re and disseizin.] In law, a writ of redisseizin, is a writ to recover seizin of lands or tenements against a redisseizor.

REDISSEIZOR, n. [re and disseizor.] A person who disseizes lands or tenements a second time, or after a recovery of the same from him in an action of novel disseizin.

REDISSOLVE, v.t. redizolv’. [re and dissolve.] To dissolve again.

REDISSOLVED, pp. Dissolved a second time.

REDISSOLVING, ppr. Dissolving again.

REDISTRIBUTE, v.t. [re and distribute.] To distribute again; to deal back again.

REDISTRIBUTED, pp. Distributed again or back.

REDISTRIBUTING, pp. Distributing again or back.

REDISTRIBUTION, n. A dealing back, or a second distribution.

RED-LED, n. red-led. [red and lead.] Minium, or red oxyd of lead, composed of 88 parts of lead and 12 of oxygen.

REDLY, adv. With redness.

REDNESS, n. [See Red.] The quality of being red; red color.

REDOLENCE, REDOLENCY, n. [from redolent.] Sweet scent.

REDOLENT, a. [L. redolens, redoleo; red, re, and oleo, to smell.]

Having or diffusing a sweet scent.

REDOUBLE, v.t. redub’l. [re and double.]

1. To repeat in return.

2. To repeat often; as, to redouble blows.

3. To increase by repeated or continued additions.

And AEtna rages with redoubl’d heat.

REDOUBLE, v.i. redub’l. To become twice as much.

The argument redoubles upon us.

REDOUBLED, pp. redub’ld. Repeated in return; repeated over and over; increased by repeated or continued additions.

REDOUBLING, ppr. redub’ling. Repeating in return; repeating again and again; increasing by repeated or continued additions.

REDOUND, v.i. [L. redundo; red, re, and undo, to rise or swell, as waves.]

1. To be sent, rolled or driven back.

The evil, soon driven back, redounded as a flood on those from whom it sprung.

2. To conduce in the consequence; to contribute; to result.

The honor done to our religion ultimately redounds to God the author of it.

3. To proceed in the consequence or effect; to result.

There will no small use redound from them to that manufactures.

REDOUNDING, ppr. Conducing; contributing; resulting.