Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



RECONDUCTED, pp. Conducted back or again.

RECONDUCTING, ppr. Conducting back or again.

RECONFIRM, v.t. [re and confirm.] To confirm anew.

RECONJOIN, v.t. [re and conjoin.] To join or conjoin anew.

RECONJOINED, pp. Joined again.

RECONJOINING, ppr. Joining anew.


To view; to survey; to examine by the eye; particularly in military affairs, to examine the state of an enemy’s army or camp, or the ground for military operations.

RECONNOITERED, pp. Viewed; examined by personal observation.

RECONNOITERING, ppr. Viewing; examining by personal observation.

RECONQUER, v.t. recon’ker. [re and conquer.]

1. To conquer again; to recover by conquest.

2. To recover; to regain.

RECONQUERED, pp. Conquered again; regained.

RECONQUERING, ppr. Conquering again; recovering.

RECONSECRATE, v.t. [re and consecrate.] To consecrate anew.

RECONSECRATED, pp. Consecrated again.

RECONSECRATING, ppr. Consecrating again.

RECONSECRATION, n. A renewed consecration.

RECONSIDER, v.t. [re and consider.]

1. To consider again; to turn in the mind again; to review.

2. To annul; to take into consideration a second time and rescind; as, to reconsider a motion in a legislative body; to reconsider a vote. The vote has been reconsidered, that is, rescinded.


1. A renewed consideration or review in the mind.

2. A second consideration; annulment; recision.

RECONSIDERED, pp. Considered again; rescinded.

RECONSIDERING, ppr. Considering again; rescinding.

RECONSOLATE, v.t. To console or comfort again. [Not in use.]

RECONVENE, v.t. [re and convene.] To convene or call together again.

RECONVENE, v.i. To assemble or come together again.

RECONVENED, pp. Assembled anew.

RECONVENING, ppr. Assembling anew.

RECONVERSION, n. [re and conversion.] A second conversion.

RECONVERT, v.t. [re and convert.] To convert again.

RECONVERTED, pp. Converted again.

RECONVERTING, ppr. Converting again.

RECONVEY, v.t. [re and convey.]

1. To convey back or to its former place; as, to reconvey goods.

2. To transfer back to a former owner; as, to reconvey an estate.

RECONVEYED, pp. Conveyed back; transferred to a former owner.

RECONVEYING, ppr. Conveying back; transferring to a former owner.

RECORD, v.t. [L. recorder, to call to mind, to remember, from re and cor, cordis, the heart or mind.]

1. To register; to enroll; to write or enter in a book or on parchment, for the purpose of preserving authentic or correct evidence of a thing; as, to record the proceedings of a court; to record a deed or lease; to record historical events.

2. To imprint deeply on the mind or memory; as, to record the sayings of another in the heart.

3. To cause to be remembered.

So ev’n and morn recorded the third day.

4. To recite; to repeat. [Not in use.]

5. To call to mind. [Not in use.]

RECORD, v.i. To sing or repeat a tune. [Not in use.]

1. A register; an authentic or official copy of any writing, or account of any facts and proceedings, entered in a book for preservation; or the book containing such copy or account; as the records of statutes or of judicial courts; the records of a town or parish. Records are properly the registers of official transactions, made by officers appointed for the purpose, or by the officer whose proceedings are directed by law to be recorded.

2. Authentic memorial; as the records of past ages.

Court of record, is a court whose acts and judicial proceedings are enrolled on parchment or in books for a perpetual memorial; and their records are the highest evidence of facts, and their truth cannot be called in question.

Debt of record, is a debt which appears to be due by the evidence of a court of record, as upon a judgment or a recognizance.

Trial by record, is where a matter of record is pleaded and the opposite party pleads that there is no such record. In this case, the trial is by inspection of the record itself, no other evidence being admissible.

RECORDATION, n. [L. recordatio.] Remembrance. [Not in use.]

RECORDED, pp. Registered; officially entered in a book or on parchment; imprinted on the memory.


1. A person whose official duty is to register writings or transactions; one who enrolls or records.

2. An officer of a city who is keeper of the rolls or records, or who is invested with judicial powers.

3. Formerly, a kind of flute, flageolet or wind instrument.

The figures of recorders, flutes and pipes are straight; but the recorder hath a less bore and a greater above and below.

RECORDING, ppr. Registering; enrolling; imprinting on the memory.

RECOUCH, v.i. [re and couch.] To retire again to a lodge, as lions.

RECOUNT, v.t. [re and count.]

To relate in detail; to recite; to tell or narrate the particulars; to rehearse.

Say from these glorious seeds what harvest flows, recount our blessings, and compare our woes.

RECOUNTED, pp. Related or told in detail; recited.

RECOUNTING, ppr. Relating in a series; narrating.

RECOUNTMENT, n. Relation in detail; recital. [Little used.]

RECOURED, for recovered or recured. [Not used.]

RECOURSE, n. [L. recursus; re and cursus, curro, to run.] Literally, a running back; a return.

1. Return; a new attack. [Not in use.]

2. A going to with a request or application, as for aid or protection. Children have recourse to their parents for assistance.

3. Application of efforts, art or labor. The general had recourse to stratagem to effect his purpose.

Our last recourse is therefore to our art.

4. Access. [Little used.]

5. Frequent passage.

RECOURSE, v.i. To return. [Not used.]

RECOURSEFUL, a. Moving alternately. [Not in use.]

RECOVER, v.t. [L. recupero; re and capio, to take.]

1. To regain; to get or obtain that which was lost; as, to recover stolen goods; to recover a town or territory which an enemy had taken; to recover sight or senses; to recover health or strength after sickness.

David recovered all that the Amalekites had carried away. 1 Samuel 30:18.

2. To restore from sickness; as, to recover one from leprosy. 2 Kings 5:3.

3. To revive from apparent death; as, to recover a drowned man.

4. To regain by reparation; to repair the loss of, or to repair an injury done by neglect; as, to recover lost time.

Good men have lapses and failings to lament and recover.

5. To regain a former state by liberation from capture or possession.

That they may recover themselves out of the snare of the devil. 2 Timothy 2:26.

6. To gain as a compensation; to obtain in return for injury or debt; as, to recover damages in trespass; to recover debt and cost in a suit at law.

7. To reach; to come to.

The forest is not three leagues off; if we recover that, we’re sure enough.

8. To obtain title to by judgment in a court of law; as, to recover lands in ejectment or common recovery.


1. To regain health after sickness; to grow well; followed by of or from.

Go, inquire of Beelzebub, the god of Ekron, whether I shall recover of this disease. 2 Kings 1:2.

2. To regain a former state or condition after misfortune; as, to recover from a state of poverty or depression.

3. To obtain a judgment in law; to succeed in a lawsuit. The plaintiff has recovered in his suit.


1. That may be regained or recovered. Goods lost or sunk in the ocean are not recoverable.

2. That may be restored from sickness.

3. That may be brought back to a former condition.

A prodigal course is like the sun’s, but not like his recoverable.

4. That may be obtained from a debtor or possessor. The debt is recoverable.

RECOVERED, pp. Regained; restored obtained by judicial decision.

RECOVEREE, n. In law, the tenant or person against whom a judgment is obtained in common recovery.

RECOVERING, ppr. Regaining; obtaining in return or by judgment in law; regaining health.

RECOVEROR, n. In law, the demandant or person who obtains a judgment in his favor in common recovery.


1. The act of regaining, retaking or obtaining possession of anything lost. The crusades were intended for the recovery of the holy land from the Saracens. We offer a reward for the recovery of stolen goods.

2. Restoration from sickness or apparent death. The patient has a slow recovery from a fever. Recovery from a pulmonary affection is seldom to be expected. Directions are given for the recovery of drowned persons.

3. The capacity of being restored to health. The patient is past recovery.

4. The obtaining of right to something by a verdict and judgment of court from an opposing party in a suit; as the recovery of debt, damages and costs by a plaintiff; the recovery of cost by a defendant; the recovery of land in ejectment.

Common recovery, in law, is a species of assurance by matter of record, or a suit or action, actual or fictitious, by which lands are recovered against the tenant of the freehold; which recovery binds all persons, and vests an absolute fee simple in the recoveror.

RECREANT, a. [See Craven.]

1. Crying for mercy, as a combatant in the trial by battle; yielding; hence, cowardly; mean spirited.

2. Apostate; false.

Who for so many benefits receiv’d, turn’d recreant to God, ingrate and false.

RECREANT, n. One who yields in combat and cries craven; one who begs for mercy; hence, a mean spirited, cowardly wretch.

RECREATE, v.t. [L. recero; re and creo, to create.]

1. To refresh after toil; to reanimate, as languid spirits or exhausted strength; to amuse or divert in weariness.

Painters when they work on white grounds, place before them colors mixed with blue and green, to recreate their eyes.

St. John is said to have recreated himself with sporting with a tame partridge.

2. To gratify; to delight.

These ripe fruits recreate the nostrils with their aromatic scent.

3. To relieve; to revive; as, to recreate the lungs with fresh air.

RECREATE, v.i. To take recreation.

RE-CREATE, v.t. To create or form anew.

An opening the campaign of 1776, instead of reinforcing, it was necessary to re-create the army.

RECREATED, pp. Refreshed; diverted; amused; gratified.

RE-CREATED, pp. Created or formed anew.

RECREATING, ppr. Refreshing after toil; reanimating the spirits or strength; diverting; amusing.

RE-CREATING, ppr. Creating or forming anew.


1. Refreshment of the strength and spirits after toil; amusement; diversion.

2. Relief from toil or pain; amusement in sorrow or distress.

RE-CREATION, n. A forming anew.

RECREATIVE, a. Refreshing; giving new vigor or animation; giving relief after labor or pain; amusing; diverting. Choose such sports as are recreative and healthful.

Let the music be recreative.

RECREATIVELY, adv. With recreation or diversion.

RECREATIVENESS, n. The quality of being refreshing or diverting.

RECREMENT, n. [L. recrementum; probably re and cerno, to secrete.]

Superfluous matter separated from that which is useful; dross; scoria; spume; as the recrement of ore or of the blood.

RECREMENTAL, RECREMENTITIAL, RECREMENTITIOUS, a. Drossy; consisting of superfluous matter separated from that which is valuable.

RECRIMINATE, v.i. [L. re and criminor, to accuse.]

1. To return one accusation with another.

It is not my business to recriminate.

2. To charge an accuser with the like crime.

RECRIMINATE, v.t. To accuse in return.

RECRIMINATING, ppr. Returning one accusation with another.


1. The return of one accusation with another.

2. In law, an accusation brought by the accused against the accuser upon the same fact.

RECRIMINATOR, n. He that accuses the accuser of a like crime.

RECRIMINATORY, a. Retorting accusation.

RECROSS, v.t. To cross a second time.

RECROSSED, pp. Crossed a second time.

RECROSSING, ppr. Crossing a second time.

RECRUDESCENCE, RECRUDESCENCY, n. [from L. recrudescens; re and crudesco, to grow raw; crudus, raw.]

The state of becoming sore again.

RECRUDESCENT, a. Growing raw, sore or painful again.

RECRUIT, v.t. [L. cresco.]

1. To repair by fresh supplies any thing wasted. We say, food recruits the flesh; fresh air and exercise recruit the spirits.

Her cheeks glow the bright, recruiting their color.

2. To supply with new men any deficiency of troops; as, to recruit an army.


1. To gain new supplies of any thing wasted; to gain flesh, health, spirits, etc.; as, lean cattle recruit in fresh pastures.

2. To gain new supplies of men; to raise new soldiers.

RECRUIT, n. The supply of any thing wasted; chiefly, a new raised soldier to supply the deficiency of an army.

RECRUITED, pp. Furnished with new supplies of what is wasted.

RECRUITING, ppr. Furnishing with fresh supplies; raising new soldiers for an army.

RECRUITING, n. The business of raising new soldiers to supply the loss of men in an army.

RECRUITMENT, n. The act or business of raising new supplies of men for an army.

RECRYSTALIZE, v.i. To crystalize a second time.

RECTANGLE, n. [L. rectangulus; rectus, right, and angulus, angle.]

1. A right angled parallelogram.

2. In arithmetic, the product of two lines multiplied into each other.

RECTANGLED, a. Having right angles, or angles of ninety degrees.

RECTANGULAR, a. Right angled; having angles of ninety degrees.

RECTANGULARLY, adv. with or at right angles.

RECTIFIABLE, a. [from rectify.] that may be rectified; capable of being corrected or set right; as a rectifiable mistake.


1. The act or operation of correcting, amending or setting right that which is wrong or erroneous; as the retification of errors, mistakes or abuses.

2. In chimistry, the process of refining or purifying any substance by repeated distiliation, which separates the grosser parts; as the rectification of spirits or sulphuric acid.

RECTIFIED, pp. Corrected; set or made right; refined by repeated distiliation or sublimation.


1. One that corrects or amends.

2. One who refines a substance by repeated distiliation.

3. An instrument that shows the variations of the compass, and rectifies the course of a ship.

RECTIFY, v.t. [L. rectus, right, and facio, to make.]

1. To make right; to correct that which is wrong, erroneous or false; to amend; as, to rectify errors, mistakes or abuses; to rectify the will, the judgment, opinions; to rectify disorders.

2. In chimistry, to refine by repeated distiliation or sublimation, by which the fine parts of a substance are separated from the grosser; as, to rectify spirit or wine.

3. To rectify the globe, is to bring the sun’s place in the ecliptic on the globe to the brass meridian.

RECTIFYING, ppr. Correcting; amending; refining by repeated distiliation or sublimation.

RECTILINEAL, RECTILINEAR, a. [L. rectus, right, and linea, line.]

Right lined; consisting of a right line or of right lines; straight; as a rectilinear figure or course; a rectilinear side or way.

RECTILINEOUS, a. Rectilinear. Obs.

RECTITUDE, n. [L. rectus, right, straight.]

In morality, rightness of principle or practice; uprightness of mind; exact conformity to truth, or to the rules prescribed for moral conduct, either by divine or human laws. Rectitude of mind is the disposition to act in conformity to any known standard of right, truth or justice; rectitude of conduct is the actual conformity to such standard. Perfect rectitude belongs only to the Supreme Being. The more nearly the rectitude of men approaches to the standard of the divine law, the more exalted and dignified is their character. Want of rectitude is not only sinful, but debasing.

There is a sublimity in conscious rectitude - in comparison with which the treasures of earth are not worth naming.

RECTOR, n. [L. rector, from rego, rectum, to rule.]

1. A ruler or governor.

God is the supreme rector of the world.

[This application of the word is unusual.]

2. A clergyman who has the charge and cure of a parish, and has the tithes, etc.; or the parson of an unimpropriated parish.

3. The chief elective officer of some universities, as in France and Scotland. The same title was formerly given to the president of a college in New England, but it is now in disuse. In Scotland, it is still the title of the head master of a principal school.

4. The superior officer or chief of a convent or religious house; and among the Jesuits, the superior of a house that is a seminary or college.

RECTORAL, RECTORIAL, a. Pertaining to a rector.

RECTORSHIP, n. The office or rank of a rector.


1. A parish church, parsonage or spiritual living, with all its rights, tithes and glebes.

2. A rector’s mansion or parsonage house.

RECTRESS, RECTRIX, n. [L. rectrix.] A governess.

RECTUM, n. [L.] In anatomy, the third and last of the large intestines.

RECUBATION, n. [L. recubo; re and cubo, to lie down.]

The act of lying or leaning. [Little used.]

RECULE, v.i. To recoil. [Not used. See Recoil.]