Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



RECKONED, pp. rek’nd. Counted; numbered; esteemed; reputed; computed; set or assigned to in account.

RECKONER, n. rek’ner. One who reckons or computes.

Reckoners without their host must reckon twice.

RECKONING, ppr. rek’ning. Counting; computing; esteeming; reputing; stating an account mutually.


1. The act of counting or computing; calculation.

2. An account of time.

3. A statement of accounts with another; a statement and comparison of accounts mutually for adjustment; as in the proverb, “short reckonings make long friends.”

The way to make reckonings even, is to make them often.

4. The charges or account made by a host.

A coin would have a nobler use than to pay a reckoning.

5. Account taken. 2 Kings 22:7.

6. Esteem; account; estimation.

You make no further reckoning of the beauty, than of an outward fading benefit nature bestowed.

7. In navigation, an account of the ship’s course and distance calculated from the log-board without the aid of celestial observation. This account from the log-board, is called the dead reckoning.

RECKONING-BOOK, n. a book in which money received and expended is entered.

RECLAIM, v.t. [L. reclama. re and clamo, to call. See Claim.]

1. To claim back; to demand to have returned. The vender may reclaim the goods.

2. To call back from error, wandering or transgression, to the observance of moral rectitude; to reform; to bring back to correct deportment or course of life.

It is the intention of Providence in its various expressions of goodness, to reclaim mankind.

3. To reduce to the state desired.

Much labor is requir’d in trees, to tame their wild disorder, and in ranks reclaim.

4. To call back; to restrain.

Or is her tow’ring flight reclaim’d by seas from Icarus’ downfall nam’d?

5. To recall; to cry out against.

The headstrong horses hurried Octavius along, and were deaf to his reclaiming them. [Unusual.]

6. To reduce from a wild to a tame or domestic state; to tame; to make gentle; as, to reclaim a hawk, an eagle or a wild beast.

7. To demand or challenge; to make a claim; a French use.

8. To recover.

9. In ancient customs, to pursue and recall, as a vassal.

10. To encroach on what has been taken from one; to attempt to recover possession.

A tract of land [Holland snatched from an element perpetually reclaiming its prior occupancy.]

RECLAIM, v.i. To cry out; to exclaim.

RECLAIMABLE, a. That may be reclaimed, reformed or tamed.

RECLAIMANT, n. One that opposes, contradicts or remonstrates against.

RECLAIMED, pp. Recalled from a vicious life; reformed; tamed; domesticated; recovered.

RECLAIMING, ppr. Recalling to a regular course of life; reforming; recovering; taking; demanding.


1. Recovery.

2. Demand; challenge of something to be restored; claim made.

RECLINATE, a. [L. reclinatus. See Recline.]

In botany, reclined, as a leaf; bend downwards, so that the point of the leaf is lower than the base.

A reclinate stem is one that bends in an arch towards the earth.

RECLINATION, n. That act of leaning or reclining.

RECLINE, v.t. [L. reclino; re and clino, to lean.]

To lean back; to lean to one side or sideways; as, to recline the head on a pillow, or on the bosom of another, or on the arm.

The mother reclin’d her dying head upon his breast.

RECLINE, v.i. To lean; to rest or repose; as, to recline on a couch.
RECLINE, a. [L. reclinis.] Leaning; being in a leaning posture.

They sat recline on the soft downy bank damask’d with flowers. [Little used.]

RECLINED, pp. Inclined back or sideways.

RECLINING, ppr. Leaning back or sideways; resting; lying.

RECLOSE, v.t. s as z. [re and close.] To close or shut again.

RECLOSED, pp. Closed again.

RECLOSING, ppr. Closing again.

RECLUDE, v.t. [L. recludo; re and claudo, cludo.] To open. [Little used.]


Shut up; sequestered; retired from the world or from public notice; solitary; as a recluse monk or hermit; a recluse life.

I all the live-long day consume in meditation deep, recluse from human converse.


1. A person who live in retirement or seclusion from intercourse with the world; as a hermit or monk.

2. A person who confines himself to a cell in a monastery.

RECLUSELY, adv. In retirement or seclusion from society.

RECLUSENESS, n. Retirement; seclusion from society.

RECLUSION, n. s as z. A state of retirement from the world; seclusion.

RECLUSIVE, a. Affording retirement from society.

RECOAGULATION, n. [re and coagulation.] A second coagulation.

RECOCT, a. [L. recoctus, recoquo.] New vamped. [Not used.]

RECOGNITION, n. reconish’on or recognish’on. [L. recognitio.]

1. Acknowledgment; formal avowal; as the recognition of a final concord on a writ of covenant.

2. Acknowledgment; memorial.

3. Acknowledgment; solemn avowal by which a thing is owned or declared to belong to, or by which the remembrance of it is revived.

The lives of such saints had, at the time of their yearly memorials, solemn recognition in the church of God.

4. Knowledge confessed or avowed; as the recognition of a thing present; memory of it as passed.

RECOGNITOR, n. recon’itor. One of a jury upon assize.

RECOGNIZABLE, a. recon’izable. [from recognize.] That may be recognized or acknowledged.

RECOGNIZANCE, n. recon’izance.

1. Acknowledgment of a person or thing; avowal; profession; as the recognizance of christians, by which they avow their belief in their religion.

2. In law, an obligation of record which a man enters into before some court of record or magistrate duly authorized, with condition to do some particular act, as to appear at the assizes, to keep the peace or pay a debt. This recognizance differs from a bond, as it does not create a new debt, but it is the acknowledgment of a former debt or record. This is witnessed by the record only, and not by the party’s seal. There is also a recognizance in the nature of a statute staple, acknowledged before either of the chief justices or their substitutes, the mayor of the staple at Westminster and the recorder of London, which is to be enrolled and certified into chancery.

3. The verdict of a jury impaneled upon assize.

RECOGNIZE, v.t. rec’onize. [L. recognosco; re and cognosco, to know. The g in these words has properly no sound in English.]

1. To recollect or recover the knowledge of, either with an avowal of that knowledge or not. We recognize a person at a distance, when we recollect that we have seen him before, or that we have formerly known him. We recognize his features or his voice.

Speak, vassal; recognize thy sovereign queen.

2. To review; to re-examine.

RECOGNIZE, v.i. To enter an obligation of record before a proper tribunal. A B recognized in the sum of twenty pounds.

RECOGNIZED, pp. Acknowledged; recollected as known; bound by recognizance.

RECOGNIZEE, n. reconizee’. The person to whom a recognizance is made.

RECOGNIZING, ppr. Acknowledging; recollecting as known; entering a recognizance.

RECOGNIZOR, n. reconizor’. One who enters into a recognizance.

RECOIL, v.i.

1. To move or start back; to roll back; as, a cannon recoils when fired; waves recoil from the shore.

2. To fall back; to retire.

3. To rebound; as, the blow recoils.

4. To retire; to flow back; as, the blood recoils with horror at the sight.

5. To start back; to shrink. Nature recoils at the bloody deed.

6. To return. The evil will recoil upon his own head.

RECOIL, v.t. To drive back. [Not used.]
RECOIL, n. A starting or falling back; as the recoil of fire-arms; the recoil of nature of the blood.

RECOILING, ppr. Starting or falling back; retiring; shrinking.

RECOILING, n. The act of starting or falling back; a shrinking; revolt.

RECOILINGLY, adv. With starting back or retrocession.

RECOIN, v.t. [re and coin.] To coin again; as, to recoin gold or silver.


1. The act of coining anew.

2. That which is coined anew.

RECOINED, pp. Coined again.

RECOINING, ppr. Coining anew.

RECOLLECT, v.t. [re and collect; L. recolligo, recollectus.]

1. To collect again; applied to ideas that have escaped from the memory; to recover or call back ideas to the memory. I recollect what was said at a former interview; or I cannot recollect what was said.

2. To recover or recall the knowledge of; to bring back to the mind or memory. I met a man whom I thought I had seen before, but I could not recollect his name or the place where I had seen him. I do not recollect you, sir.

3. To recover resolution or composure of mind.

The Tyrian queen admir’d his fortunes, more admir’d the man, then recollected stood.

[In this sense, collected is more generally used.]

RE-COLLECT, v.t. To gather again; to collect what has been scattered; as, to re-collect routed troops.

RECOLLECTED, pp. Recalled to the memory.

RECOLLECTING, ppr. Recovering to the memory.


1. The act of recalling to the memory, as ideas that have escaped; or the operation by which ideas that have escaped; or the operation by which ideas are recalled to the memory or revived in the mind. Recollection differs from remembrance, as it is the consequence of volition, or an effort of the mind to revive ideas; whereas remembrance implies no such volition. We often remember things without any voluntary effort. Recollection is called also reminiscence.

2. The power of recalling ideas to the mind, or the period within which things can be recollected; remembrance. The events mentioned are not within my recollection.

3. In popular language, recollection is used as synonymous with remembrance.

RECOLLECTIVE, a. Having the power of recollecting.

RECOLLET, n. A monk of a reformed order of Franciscans.

RECOMBINATION, n. Combination a second time.

RECOMBINE, v.t. [re and combine.] To combine again.

If we recombine these two elastic fluids.

RECOMBINED, pp. Combined anew.

RECOMBINING, ppr. Combining again.

RECOMFORT, v.t. [re and comfort.]

1. To comfort again; to console anew.

2. To give new strength.

RECOMFORTED, pp. Comforted again.

RECOMFORTING, ppr. Comforting again.

RECOMFORTLESS, a. Without comfort. [Not used.]

RECOMMENCE, v.t. recommens’. [re and commence.] To commence again; to begin anew.

RECOMMENCED, pp. Commenced anew.

RECOMMENCING, ppr. Beginning again.

RECOMMEND, v.t. [re and commend.]

1. To praise to another; to offer or commend to another’s notice, confidence or kindness by favorable representations.

Maecenas recommended Virgil and Horace to Augustus.

[In this sense, commend, though less common, is the preferable word.]

2. To make acceptable.

A decent boldness ever meets with friends, succeeds, and ev’n a stranger recommends.

3. To commit with prayers.

Paul chose Silas and departed, being recommended by the brethren to the grace of God. Acts 15:40.

[Commend here is much to be preferred.]

RECOMMENDABLE, a. That may be recommended; worthy of recommendation or praise.


1. The act of recommending or of commending; the act of representing in a favorable manner for the purpose of procuring the notice, confidence or civilities of another. We introduce a friend to a stranger by a recommendation of his virtues or accomplishments.

2. That which procures a kind or favorable reception. The best recommendation of a man to favor is politeness. Misfortune is a recommendation to our pity.

RECOMMENDATORY, a. That commends to another; that recommends.

RECOMMENDED, pp. Praised; commended to another.

RECOMMENDER, n. One who commends.

RECOMMENDING, ppr. Praising to another; commending.

RECOMMISSION, v.t. [re and commission.] To commission again.

Officers whose time of service had expired, were to be recommissioned.

RECOMMISSIONED, pp. Commissioned again.

RECOMMISSIONING, ppr. Commissioning again.

RECOMMIT, v.t. [re and commit.]

1. To commit again; as, to recommit persons to prison.

2. To refer again to a committee; as, to recommit a bill to the same committee.

RECOMMITMENT, n. A second or renewed commitment; a renewed reference to a committee.

RECOMMITTED, pp. Committed anew; referred again.

RECOMMITTING, ppr. Committing again; referring again to a committee.

RECOMMUNICATE, v.i. [re and communicate.] To communicate again.

RECOMPACT, v.t. [re and compact.] To join anew.

Repair and recompact my scatter’d body.

RECOMPENSATION, n. Recompense. [Not used.]


1. To compensate; to make return of an equivalent for any thing given, done or suffered; as, to recompense a person for services, for fidelity or for sacrifices of time, for loss or damages.

The word is followed by the person or the service. We recompense a person for his services, or we recompense his kindness. It is usually found more easy to neglect than to recompense a favor.

2. To require; to repay; to return an equivalent; in a bad sense.

Recompense to no man evil for evil. Romans 12:17.

3. To make an equivalent return in profit or produce. The labor of man is recompensed by the fruits of the earth.

4. To compensate; to make amends by any thing equivalent.

Solyman - said he would find occasion for them to recompense that disgrace.

5. To make restitution or an equivalent return for. Numbers 5:7.


1. An equivalent returned for any thing given, done or suffered; compensation; reward; amends; as a recompense for services, for damages, for loss, etc.

2. Requital; return of evil or suffering or other equivalent; as a punishment.

To me belongeth vengeance and recompense. Deuteronomy 32:35.

And every transgression and disobedience received a just recompense of reward. Hebrews 2:2.

RECOMPENSED, pp. Rewarded; requited.

RECOMPENSING, ppr. Rewarding; compensating; requiting.

RECOMPILEMENT, n. [re and compilement.] New compilation or digest; as a recompilement of laws.

RECOMPOSE, v.t. s as z. [re and compose.]

1. To quiet anew; to compose or tranquilize that which is ruffled or disturbed; as, to recompose the mind.

2. To compose anew; to form or adjust again.

We produced a lovely purple which we can destroy or recompose at pleasure.

RECOMPOSED, pp. Quieted again after agitation; formed anew; composed a second time.

RECOMPOSING, ppr. Rendering tranquil after agitation; forming or adjusting anew.

RECOMPOSITION, n. Composition renewed.


1. Capable of being reconciled; capable of renewed friendship. The parties are not reconcilable.

2. That may be made to agree to be consistent; consistent.

The different accounts of the numbers of ships are reconcilable.

3. Capable of being adjusted; as, the difference between the parties is reconcilable.


1. The quality of being reconcilable; consistency; as the reconcilableness of parts of Scripture which apparently disagree.

2. Possibility of being restored to friendship and harmony.

RECONCILE, v.t. [L. reconcilio; re and concilio; con and calo, to call, Gr. The literal sense is to call back into union.]

1. To conciliate anew; to call back into union and friendship the affections which have been alienated; to restore to friendship or favor after estrangement; as, to reconcile men or parties that have been at variance.

Go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother - Matthew 5:24.

We pray you in Christ’s stead, be ye reconciled to God. 2 Corinthians 5:20; Ephesians 2:16; Colossians 1:20-21.

2. To bring to acquiescence, content or quiet submission; with to; as, to reconcile one’s self to afflictions. It is our duty to be reconciled to the dispensations of Providence.

3. To make consistent or congruous; to bring to agreement or suitableness; followed by with or to.

The great men among the ancients understood how to reconcile manual labor with affairs of state.

Some figures monstrous and misshap’d appear, considered singly, or beheld too near; which but proportion’d to their light and place, due distance reconciles to form and grace.

4. To adjust; to settle; as, to reconcile differences or quarrels.

RECONCILED, pp. Brought into friendship from a state of disagreement or enmity; made consistent; adjusted.


1. Reconciliation; renewal of friendship. Animosities sometimes make reconcilement impracticable.

2. Friendship renewed.

No cloud of anger shall remain, but peace assured and reconcilement.


1. One who reconciles; one who brings parties at variance into renewed friendship.

2. One who discovers the consistence of proposition.

RECONCILIATION, n. [L. reconciliatio.]

1. The act of reconciling parties at variance; renewal of friendship after disagreement or enmity.

Reconciliation and friendship with God, really form the basis of all rational and true enjoyment.

2. In Scripture, the means by which sinners are reconciled and brought into a state of favor with God, after natural estrangement or enmity; the atonement; expiation.

Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression and to make an end of sin, and to make reconciliation for iniquity. Daniel 9:24; Hebrews 2:17.

3. Agreement of things seemingly opposite, different or inconsistent.

RECONCILIATORY, a. Able or tending to reconcile.

RECONCILING, ppr. Bringing into favor and friendship after variance; bringing to content or satisfaction; showing to be consistent; adjusting; making to agree.

RECONDENSATION, n. The act of recondensing.

RECONDENSE, v.t. recondens’. [re and condense.] To condense again.

RECONDENSED, pp. Condensed anew.

RECONDENSING, ppr. Condensing again.

RECONDITE, a. [L. reconditus, recondo; re and condo to conceal.]

1. Secret; hidden from the view or intellect; abstruse; as recondite causes of things.

2. Profound; dealing in things abstruse; as recondite studies.

RECONDITORY, n. [supra.] A repository; a store-house or magazine. [Little used.]

RECONDUCT, v.t. [re and conduct.] To conduct back or again.