Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



REBUKING, ppr. Chiding; reproving; checking; punishing.

REBULLITION, n. [See Ebullition and Boil.] Act of boiling or effervescing. [Little used.]

REBURY, v.t. reber’ry. [re and bury.] To inter again.

REBUS, n. [L. from res, which is of the class Rd, Rs, and of the same family as riddle. See Riddle, Read and Real.]

1. An enigmatical representation of some name, etc. by using figures or pictures instead of words. A gallant in love with a woman named Rose Hill, painted on the border of his gown, a rose, a hill, an eye, a loaf and a well, which reads, Rose Hill I love well.

2. A sort of riddle.

3. In some chimical writers, sour milk; sometimes, the ultimate matter of which all bodies are composed.

4. In heraldry, a coat of arms which bears an allusion to the name of the person; as three cups, for Butler.

REBUT, v.t. [See Butt and Pout.]

To repel; to oppose by argument, plea or countervailing proof. [It is used by lawyers in a general sense.]

REBUT, v.i.

1. To retire back. Obs.

2. To answer, as a plaintiff’s sur-rejoinder.

The plaintiff may answer the rejoinder by a sur-rejoinder; on which the defendant may rebut.

REBUTTED, pp. Repelled; answered.

REBUTTER, n. In law pleadings, the answer of a defendant to a plaintiff’s sur-rejoinder.

If I grant to a tenant to hold without impeachment of waste, and afterward implead him for waste done, he may debar me of this action by showing my grant, which is a rebutter.

REBUTTING, ppr. Repelling; opposing by argument, countervailing allegation or evidence.

RECALL, v.t. [re and call.]

1. To call back; to take back; as, to recall words or declarations.

2. To revoke; to annul by a subsequent act; as, to recall a decree.

3. To call back; to revive in memory; as, to recall to mind what has been forgotten.

4. To call back from a place or mission; as, to recall a minister from a foreign court; to recall troops from India.


1. A calling back; revocation.

2. The power of calling back or revoking.

‘Tis done, and since ‘tis done, ‘tis past recall.

RECALLABLE, a. That may be recalled.

Delegates recallable at pleasure.

RECALLED, pp. Called back; revoked.

RECALLING, ppr. Calling back; revoking.

RECANT, v.t. [L. recanto; re and canto. See Cant.]

To retract; to recall; to contradict a former declaration.

How soon would ease recant vows made in pain, as violent as void.

RECANT, v.i. To recall words; to revoke a declaration or proposition; to unsay what has been said. Convince me I am wrong, and I will recant.

RECANTATION, n. The act of recalling; retraction; a declaration that contradicts a former one.

RECANTED, pp. Recalled; retracted.

RECANTER, n. One that recants.

RECANTING, ppr. Recalling; retracting.

RECAPACITATE, v.t. [re and capacitate.] To qualify again; to confer capacity on again.

RECAPACITATED, pp. Capacitated again.

RECAPACITATING, ppr. Conferring capacity again.

RECAPITULATE, v.t. [L. capitulum. See Capitulate.]

To repeat the principal things mentioned in a preceding discourse, argument or essay; to give a summary of the principal facts, points or arguments.

RECAPITULATED, pp. Repeated in a summary.

RECAPITULATING, ppr. Repeating the principal things in a discourse or argument.


1. The act of recapitulating.

2. A summary or concise statement or enumeration of the principal points or facts in a preceding discourse, argument or essay.

RECAPITULATORY, a. Repeating again; containing recapitulation.

RECAPTION, n. [L. re and captio; capio, to take.]

The act of retaking; reprisal; the retaking of one’s own goods, chattels, wife or children from one who has taken them and wrongfully detains them.

Writ of recaption, a writ to recover property taken by a second distress, pending a replevin for a former distress for the same rent or service.

RECAPTOR, n. [re and captor.] One who retakes; one that takes a prize which had been previously taken.

RECAPTURE, n. [re and capture.]

1. The act of retaking; particularly, the retaking of a prize or goods from a captor.

2. A prize retaken.

RECAPTURE, v.t. To retake; particularly, to retake a prize which had been previously taken.

RECAPTURED, pp. Retaken.

RECAPTURING, ppr. Retaking, as a prize from the captor.

RECARNIFY, v.t. [re and carnify, from L. caro, flesh.]

To convert again into flesh. [Not much used.]

RECARRIED, pp. Carried back or again.

RECARRY, v.t. [re and carry.] To carry back.

RECARRYING, ppr. Carrying back.

RECAST, v.t. [re and cast.]

1. To cast again; as, to recast cannon.

2. To throw again.

3. To mold anew.

4. To compute a second time.

RECAST, pp. Cast again; molded anew.

RECASTING, ppr. Casting again; molding anew.

RECEDE, v.i. [L. recedo; re and cedo.]

1. To move back; to retreat; to withdraw.

Like the hollow roar of tides receding from th’ insulted shore.

All bodies moved circularly, endeavor to recede from the center.

2. To withdraw a claim or pretension; to desist from; to relinquish what had been proposed or asserted; as, to recede from a demand; to recede from terms or propositions.

RECEDE, v.t. [re and cede.] To cede back; to grant or yield to a former possessor; as, to recede conquered territory.

RECEDED, pp. Ceded back; regranted.


1. Withdrawing; retreating; moving back.

2. Ceding back; regranting.

RECEIPT, RECEIT, n. rece’t. [L. receptus. This word wought to follow the analogy of conceit, deceit, from L. conceptus, deceptus, and be written without p, receit.]

1. The act of receiving; as the receit of a letter.

2. The place of receiving; as the receit of custom. Matthew 9:9.

3. Reception; as the receit of blessings or mercies.

4. Reception; welcome; as the kind receit of a friend. Obs.

[In this sense, reception is now used.]

5. Recipe; prescription of ingredients for any composition, as of medicines, etc.

6. In commerce, a writing acknowledging the taking of money or goods. A receit of money may be in part or in full payment of a debt, and it operates as an acquittance or discharge of the debt either in part or in full. A receit of goods makes the receiver liable to account for the same, according to the nature of the transaction, or the tenor of the writing. It is customary for sheriffs to deliver goods taken in execution, to some person who gives his receit for them, with a promise to redeliver them to the sheriff at or before the time of sale.

RECEIPT, RECEIT, v.t. rece’t. To give a receit for; as, to receit goods delivered by a sheriff.

RECEIVABLE, a. That may be received.

RECEIVABLENESS, n. Capability of being received.

RECEIVE, v.t. [L. recipio; re and capio, to take.]

1. To take, as a thing offered or sent; to accept. He had the offer of a donation, but he would not receive it.

2. To take as due or as a reward. He received the money on the day it was payable. He received ample compensation.

3. To take or obtain from another in any manner, and either good or evil.

Shall we receive good at the hand of God, and shall we not receive evil? Job 2:10.

4. To take, as a thing communicated; as, to receive a wound by a shot; to receive a disease by contagion.

The idea of a solidity we receive by our touch.

5. To take or obtain intellectually; as, to receive an opinion or notion from others.

6. To embrace.

Receive with meekness the engrafted word. James 1:21.

7. To allow; to hold; to retain; as a custom long received.

8. To admit.

Thou shalt guide me with thy counsel, and afterward receive me to glory. Psalm 73:24.

9. To welcome; to lodge and entertain; as a guest.

They kindled a fire and received us every one, because of the present rain and because of the cold. Acts 28:2.

10. To admit into membership or fellowship.

Him that is weak in the faith, receive ye. Romans 14:1.

11. To take in or on; to hold; to contain.

The brazen altar was too little to receive the burnt-offering. 1 Kings 8:64.

12. To be endowed with.

Ye shall receive power after that the Holy Spirit has come upon you. Acts 1:8.

13. To take into a place or state.

After the Lord had spoken to them, he was received up into heaven. Mark 16:19.

14. To take or have as something ascribed; as, to receive praise or blame. Revelation 4:11; Revelation 5:12.

15. To bear with or suffer. 2 Corinthians 11:16.

16. To believe in. John 1:11-12.

17. To accept or admit officially or in an official character. The minister was received by the emperor or court.

18. To take stolen goods from a thief, knowing them to be stolen.

RECEIVED, pp. Taken; accepted; admitted; embraced; entertained; believed.

RECEIVEDNESS, n. General allowance or belief; as the receivedness of an opinion.


1. One who takes or receives in any manner.

2. An officer appointed to receive public money; a treasurer.

3. One who takes stolen goods from a thief, knowing them to be stolen, and incurs the guilt of partaking in the crime.

4. A vessel for receiving and containing the product of distillation.

5. The vessel of an air pump, for containing the thing on which an experiment is to be made.

6. One who partakes of the sacrament.

RECEIVING, ppr. Taking; accepting; admitting; embracing; believing; entertaining.

RECELEBRATE, v.t. [re and celebrate.] To celebrate again.

RECELEBRATED, pp. Celebrated anew.

RECELEBRATING, ppr. Celebrating anew.

RECELEBRATION, n. A renewed celebration.

RECENCY, n. [L. recens.]

1. Newness; new state; late origin; as the recency of a wound or tumor.

2. Lateness in time; freshness; as the recency of a transaction.

RECENSE, v.t. recens’. [L. recenso; re and censeo.]

To review; to revise.

RECENSION, n. [L. recensio.] Review; examination; enumeration.

RECENT, a. [L. recens.]

1. New; being of late origin or existence.

The ancients believed some parts of Egypt to be recent, and formed by the mud discharged into the sea by the Nile.

2. Late; modern; as great and worthy men ancient or recent. [Modern is now used.]

3. Fresh; lately received; as recent news or intelligence.

4. Late; of late occurrence; as a recent event or transaction.

5. Fresh; not long dismissed, released or parted from; as Ulysses, recent from the storms.

RECENTLY, adv. Newly; lately; freshly; not long since; as advices recently received; a torn recently built or repaired; an isle recently discovered.

RECENTNESS, n. Newness; freshness; lateness of origin or occurrence; as the recentness of alluvial land; the recentness of news or of events.

RECEPTACLE, n. [L. receptaculum, from receptus, recipio.]

1. A place or vessel into which something is received or in which it is contained, as a vat, a tun, a hollow in the earth, etc. The grave is the common receptacle of the dead.

2. In botany, one of the parts of the fructification; the base by which the other parts of the fructification are connected. A proper receptacle belongs to one fructification only; a common receptacle connects several florets or distinct fructifications. The receptacle of the fructification is common both to the flower and the fruit, or it embraces the corol and germ. The receptacle of the flower, is the base to which the parts of the flower, exclusive of the germ, are fixed. The receptacle of the fruit, is the base of the fruit only. The receptacle of the seeds, is the base to which the seeds are fixed.

3. In anatomy, the receptacle of the chyle is situated on the left side of the upper verteber of the loins, under the aorta and the vessels of the left kidney.

RECEPTACULAR, a. In botany, pertaining to the receptacle or growing on it, as the nectary.

RECEPTARY, n. Thing received. [Not in use.]

RECEPTIBILITY, n. The possibility of receiving.

RECEPTION, n. [L. receptio.]

1. The act of receiving; in a general sense; as the reception of food into the stomach, or of air into the lungs.

2. The state of being received.

3. Admission of any thing sent or communicated; as the reception of a letter; the reception of sensation or ideas.

4. Readmission.

All hope is lost of my reception into grace.

5. Admission of entrance for holding or containing; as a sheath fitted for the reception of a sword; a channel for the reception of water.

6. A receiving or manner of receiving for entertainment; entertainment. The guests were well pleased with their reception. Nothing displeases more than a cold reception.

7. A receiving officially; as the reception of an envoy by a foreign court.

8. Opinion generally admitted.

Philosophers who have quitted the popular doctrines of their countries, have fallen into as extravagant opinions, as even common reception countenanced. [Not in use.]

9. Recovery. [Not in use.]

RECEPTIVE, a. Having the quality of receiving or admitting what is communicated.

Imaginary space is receptive of all bodies.

RECEPTIVITY, n. The state or quality of being receptive.

RECEPTORY, a. Generally or popularly admitted or received. [Not in use.]

RECESS, n. [L. recessus, from recedo. See Recede.]

1. A withdrawing or retiring; a moving back; as the recess of the tides.

2. A withdrawing from public business or notice; retreat; retirement.

My recess hath given them confidence that I may be conquered.

And every neighboring grove sacred to soft recess and gentle love.

3. Departure.

4. Place of retirement or secrecy; private abode.

This happy place, our sweet recess.

5. State of retirement; as lords in close recess.

In the recess of the jury, they are to consider their evidence.

6. Remission or suspension of business or procedure; as, the house of representatives had a recess of half an hour.

7. Privacy; seclusion from the world or from company.

Good verse recess and solitude requires.

8. Secret or abstruse part; as the difficulties and recesses of science.

9. A withdrawing from any point; removal to a distance.

10. An abstract or registry of the resolutions of the imperial diet. [Not in use.]

11. The retiring of the shore of the sea or of a lake from the general line of the shore, forming a bay.

RECESSION, n. [L. recessio.]

1. The act of withdrawing, retiring or retreating.

2. The act of receding from a claim, or of relaxing a demand.

3. A cession or granting back; as the recession of conquered territory to its former sovereign.

RECHANGE, v.t. [re and change.] To change again.

RECHANGED, pp. Changed again.

RECHANGING, ppr. Changing again.

RECHARGE, v.t. [re and charge.]

1. To charge or accuse in return.

2. To attack again; to attack anew.

RECHARGED, pp. Accused in return; attacked anew.

RECHARGING, ppr. Accusing in return; attacking anew.


Among hunters, a lesson which the huntsman winds on the horn when the hounds have lost the game, to call them back from pursuing a counter scent.

RECHEAT, v.t. To blow the recheat.

RECHOOSE, v.t. rechooz’. To choose a second time.

RECHOSEN, pp. or a. recho’zn. Re-elected; chosen again.

RECIDIVATION, n. [L. recidivus, from recido, to fall back; re and cado, to fall.]

A falling back; a backsliding. [Not much used.]

RECIDIVOUS, a. [L. recidivus.] Subject to backslide. [Little used.]

RECIPE, n. res’ipy. [L. imperative of recipio, to take.]

A medical prescription; a direction of medicines to be taken by a patient.

RECIPIENT, n. [L. recipiens, recipio.]

1. A receiver; the person or thing that receives; he or that to which any thing is communicated.

2. The receiver of a still.

RECIPROCAL, a. [L. reciprocus.]

1. Acting in vicissitude or return; alternate.

Corruption is reciprocal to generation.

2. Mutual; done by each to the other; as reciprocal love; reciprocal benefits or favors; reciprocal duties; reciprocal aid.

3. Mutually interchangeable.

These two rules will render a definition reciprocal with the thing defined.

Reciprocal terms, in logic, those terms that have the same signification, and consequently are convertible and may be used for each other.

Reciprocal quantities, in mathematics, are those which, multiplied together, produce unity.

Reciprocal figures, in geometry, are those which have the antecedents and consequents of the same ratio in both figures.

Reciprocal ratio, is the ratio between the reciprocals of two quantities; as, the reciprocal ratio of 4 to 9, is that of 1/4 to 1/9.

RECIPROCAL, n. The reciprocal of any quantity, is unity divided by that quantity. Thus the reciprocal of 4 is 1/4.

RECIPROCALLY, adv. Mutually; interchangeably; in such a manner that each affects the other and is equally affected by it.

These two particles do reciprocally affect each other with the same force.

RECIPROCALNESS, n. Mutual return; alternateness.

RECIPROCATE, v.i. [L. reciproco.] To act interchangeably; to alternate.

One brawny smith the puffing bellows plies, and draws and blows reciprocating air.

RECIPROCATE, v.t. To exchange; to interchange; to give and return mutually; as, to reciprocate favors.

RECIPROCATED, pp. Mutually given and returned; interchanged.

RECIPROCATING, ppr. Interchanging; each giving or doing to the other the same thing.

RECIPROCATION, n. [L. reciprocatio.]

1. Interchange of acts; a mutual giving and returning; as the reciprocation of kindnesses.

2. Alternation; as the reciprocation of the sea in the flow and ebb of tides.

3. Regular return or alternation of two symptoms or diseases.

RECIPROCITY, n. Reciprocal obligation or right; equal mutual rights or benefits to be yielded or enjoyed. The commissioners offered to negotiate a treaty on principles of reciprocity.

RECISION, n. s as z. [L. recisio, from recido, to cut off; re and caedo.]

The act of cutting off.

RECITAL, n. [from recite.]

1. Rehearsal; the repetition of the words of another or of a writing; as the recital of a deed; the recital of testimony.

2. Narration; a telling of the particulars of an adventure or of a series of events.

3. Enumeration.

RECITATION, n. [L. recitatio.]

1. Rehearsal; repetition of words.

2. In colleges and schools, the rehersal of a lesson by pupils before their instructor.

RECITATIVE, a. [See Recite.]

Reciting; rehearsing; pertaining to musical pronunciation.

RECITATIVE, n. a kind of musical pronunciation, such as that in which the several parts of the liturgy are rehearsed in churches, or that of actors on the stage, when they express some action or passion, relate some event or reveal some design.

In recitative, the composer and the performer endeavor to imitate the inflections, accent and emphasis of natural speech.

[Note. The natural and proper English accent of this word is on the second syllable. The foreign accent may well be discarded.]

RECITATIVELY, adv. In the manner of recitative.

RECITE, v.t. [L. recito; re and cito, to call or name.]

1. To rehearse; to repeat the words of another or of a writing; as, to recite the words of an author or of a deed or covenant.

2. In writing, to copy; as, the words of a deed are recited in the pleading.

3. To tell over; to relate; to narrate; as to recite past events; to recite the particulars of a voyage.

4. To rehearse, as a lesson to an instructor.

5. To enumerate.

RECITE, v.i. To rehearse a lesson. The class will recite at eleven o’clock.
RECITE. for recital. [Not in use.]

RECITED, pp. Rehearsed; told; repeated; narrated.

RECITER, n. One that recites or rehearses; a narrator.

RECITING, ppr. Rehearsing; telling; repeating narrating.

RECK, v.i. [L. rego. See Rack and Reckon.]

To care; to mind; to rate at much; as we say, to reckon much of; followed by of. Obs.

Thou’s but a lazy loorde, and recks much of thy swinke.

I reck as little what betideth me, as much I wish all good befortune you.

Of night or loneliness it recks me not.

RECK, v.t. To heed; to regard; to care for.

This son of mine not recking danger.

[This verb is obsolete unless in poetry. We observe the primary sense and application in the phrase, “it recks me not,” that is, it does not strain or distress me; it does not rack my mind. To reck danger is a derivative form of expression, and a deviation from the proper sense of the verb.]

RECKLESS, a. Careless; heedless; mindless.

I made the king reckless, as them diligent.

RECKLESSNESS, n. Heedlessness; carelessness; negligence.

[These words, formerly disused, have been recently revived.]

RECKON, v.t. rek’n. [L. rego, rectus, whence regnum, regno, Eng. to reign and right.]

1. To count; to number; that is, to tell the particulars.

The priest shall reckon to him the money, according to the years that remain, even to the year of jubilee, and it shall be abated. Leviticus 27:18.

I reckoned above two hundred and fifty on the outside of the church.

2. To esteem; to account; to repute. Romans 8:18.

For him I reckon not in high estate.

3. To repute; to set in the number or rank of.

He was reckoned among the transgressors. Luke 22:37.

4. To assign in an account. Romans 4:4.

5. to compute; to calculate.

RECKON, v.i.

1. To reason with one’s self and conclude from arguments.

I reckoned till morning, that as a lion, so will he break all my bones. Isaiah 38:13.

2. To charge to account; with on.

I call posterity into the debt, and reckon on her head.

3. To pay a penalty; to be answerable; with for.

If they fall in their bounden duty, they shall reckon for it one day.

1. To reckon with, to state an account with another, compare it with his account, ascertain the amount of each and the balance which one owes to the other. In this manner the countrymen of New England who have mutual dealings, reckon with each other at the end of each year, or as often as they think fit.

After a long time the lord of those servants cometh, and reckoneth with them. Matthew 25:19.

2. To call to punishment.

God suffers the most grievous sins of particular persons to go unpunished in this world, because his justice will have another opportunity to meet and reckon with them.

To reckon on or upon, to lay stress or dependence on. He reckons on the support of his friends.