Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary

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REAPING — REBUKER

REAPING, ppr. Cutting grain with a sickle; receiving as the fruit of labor or the reward of works.

REAPING-HOOK, n. An instrument used in reaping; a sickle.

REAPPAREL, v.t. [re and apparel.] To clothe again.

REAPPARELED, pp. Clothed again.

REAPPARELING, ppr. Clothing again.

REAPPEAR, v.i. [re and appear.] To appear a second time.

REAPPEARANCE, n. A second appearance.

REAPPEARING, ppr. Appearing again.

REAPPLICATION, n. [See Reapply. A second application.]

REAPPLY, v.t. or i. [re and apply.] To apply again.

REAPPLYING, ppr. Applying again.

REAPPOINT, v.t. To appoint again.

REAPPOINTMENT, n. A second appointment.

REAPPORTION, v.t. To apportion again.

REAPPORTIONED, pp. Apportioned again.

REAPPORTIONING, ppr. Apportioning. again.

REAPPORTIONMENT, n. A second apportionment.

REAR, n.

1. In a general sense, that which is behind or backwards; appropriately, the part of an army which is behind the other, either when standing on parade or when marching; also, the part of a fleet which is behind the other. It is opposed to front or van. Bring up the rear.

2. The last class; the last in order.

Coins I place in the rear.

In the rear, behind the rest; backward, or in the last class. In this phrase, rear signifies the part or place behind.

REAR, a.

1. Raw; rare; not well roasted or boiled.

2. Early. [A provincial word.]

REAR, v.t.

1. To raise.

Who now shall rear you to the sun, or rank your tribes?

2. To lift after a fall.

In adoration at his feet I fell submiss; he rear’d me.

3. To bring up or to raise to maturity, as young; as, to rear a numerous offspring.

4. To educate; to instruct.

He wants a father to protect his youth, and rear him up to virtue.

5. To exalt; to elevate.

Charity, decent, modest, easy, kind, softens the high, and rears the abject mind.

6. To rouse; to stir up.

And seeks the tusky boar to rear.

7. To raise; to breed; as cattle.

8. To achieve; to obtain.

To rear the steps, to ascend; to move upward.

REAR-ADMIRAL. [See Admiral.]

REARED, pp. Raised; lifted; brought up; educated; elevated.

REAR-GUARD, n. The body of an army that marches in the rear of the main body to protect it.

REARING, ppr. Raising; educating; elevating.

REAR-LINE, n. The line in the rear of an army.

REAR-MOUSE, n. The leather-winged bat.

REAR-RANK, n. The rank of a body of troops which is in the rear.

REARWARD, n. [from rear. See Rereward.]

1. The last troop; the rear-guard.

2. The end; the tail; the train behind.

3. The latter part.

REASCEND, v.i. [re and ascend.] To rise, mount or climb again.

REASCEND, v.t. To mount or ascend again.

He mounts aloft and reascends the skies.

REASCENDED, pp. Ascended again.

REASCENDING, ppr. Ascending again.

REASCENSION, n. The act of reascending; a remounting.

REASCENT, n. A returning ascent; acclivity.

REASON, n. re’zn. [L. ratio, which is from ratus, and which proves reor to be contracted from redo, redor, and all unite with rod, L. radius, etc. Gr. to say or speak, whence rhetoric. See Read.]

1. That which is thought or which is alleged in words, as the ground or cause of opinion, conclusion or determination. I have reasons which I may choose not to disclose. You ask me my reasons. I freely give my reasons. The judge assigns good reasons for his opinion, reasons which justify his decision. Hence in general,

2. The cause, ground, principle or motive of any thing said or done; that which supports or justifies a determination, plan or measure.

Virtue and vice are not arbitrary things; but there is a natural and eternal reason for that goodness and virtue, and against vice and wickedness. 1 Peter 3:15.

3. Efficient cause. He is detained by reason of sickness.

Spain in thin sown of people, partly by reason of its sterility of soil

The reason of the motion of the balance in a wheel-watch is by motion of the next wheel.

4. Final cause.

Reason, in the English language, is sometimes taken for true and clear principles; sometimes for clear and fair deductions; sometimes for the cause, particularly the final cause.

5. A faculty of the mind by which it distinguishes truth from falsehood, and good from evil, and which enables the possessor to deduce inferences from facts or from propositions.

Self-love, the spring of motion, acts the soul, reason’s comparing balance rules the whole - That sees immediate good by present sense, reason the future and the consequence.

Reason is the director of man’s will.

6. Ratiocination; the exercise of reason.

But when by reason she the truth has found -

7. Right; justice; that which is dictated or supported by reason. Every man claims to have reason on his side.

I was promised on a time to have reason for my rhyme.

8. Reasonable claim; justice.

God brings good out of evil, and therefore it were but reason we should trust God to govern his own world.

9. Rationale; just account.

This reason did the ancient fathers render, why the church was called catholic.

10. Moderation; moderate demands; claims which reason and justice admit or prescribe.

The most probable way of bringing France to reason, would be by the making an attempt on the Spanish West Indies -

In reason, in all reason, in justice; with rational ground.

When any thing is proved by as good arguments as a thing of that kind is capable of, we ought not in reason to doubt of its existence.

REASON, v.i.

1. To exercise the faculty of reason; to deduce inferences justly from premises. Brutes do not reason; children reason imperfectly.

2. To argue; to infer conclusions from premises, or to deduce new or unknown propositions from previous propositions which are known or evident. To reason justly is to infer from propositions which are known, admitted or evident, the conclusions which are natural, or which necessarily result from them. Men may reason within themselves; they may reason before a court or legislature; they may reason wrong as well as right.

3. To debate; to confer or inquire by discussion or mutual communication of thoughts, arguments or reasons.

And they reasoned among themselves. Matthew 16:7.

1. To reason with, to argue with; to endeavor to inform, convince or persuade by argument. Reason with a profligate son, and if possible, persuade him of his errors.

2. To discourse; to talk; to take or give an account.

Stand still, that I may reason with you before the Lord, of all the righteous acts of the Lord. Obs. 1 Samuel 12:7.

REASON, v.t.

1. To examine or discuss by arguments; to debate or discuss. I reasoned the matter with my friend.

When they are clearly discovered, well digested and well reasoned in every part, there is beauty in such a theory.

2. To persuade by reasoning or argument; as, to reason one into a belief of truth; to reason one out of his plan; to reason down a passion.

REASONABLE, a.

1. Having the faculty of reason; endued with reason; as a reasonable being. [In this sense, rational is now generally used.]

2. Governed by reason; being under the influence of reason; thinking, speaking or acting rationally or according to the dictates of reason; as, the measure must satisfy all reasonable men.

3. Conformable or agreeable to reason; just; rational.

By indubitable certainty, I mean that which does not admit of any reasonable cause of doubting.

A law may be reasonable in itself, though a man does not allow it.

4. Not immoderate.

Let all things be thought upon, that may with reasonable swiftness add more feathers to our wings.

5. Tolerable; being in mediocrity; moderate; as a reasonable quantity.

6. Not excessive; not unjust; as a reasonable fine; a reasonable sum in damages.

REASONABLENESS, n.

1. The faculty of reason. [In this sense, little used.]

2. Agreeableness to reason; that state or quality of a thing which reason supports or justifies; as the reasonableness of our wishes, demands or expectations.

The reasonableness and excellency of charity.

3. Conformity to rational principles.

The whole frame and contexture of a watch carries in it a reasonableness - the passive impression of the reason or intellectual idea that was in the artist. [Unusual.]

4. Moderation; as the reasonableness of a demand.

REASONABLY, adv.

1. In a manner or degree agreeable to reason; in consistency with reason. We may reasonably suppose self interest to be the governing principle of men.

2. Moderately; in a moderate degree; not fully; in a degree reaching to mediocrity.

If we can be industry make our deaf and dumb persons reasonably perfect in the language -

REASONER, n. One who reasons or argues; as a fiar reasoner; a close reasoner; a logical reasoner.

REASONING, ppr. arguing; deducing inferences from premises; debating; discussing.

REASONING, n. The act or process of exercising the faculty of reason; that act or operation of the mind by which new or unknown propositions are deduced from previous ones which are known and evident, or which are admitted or supposed for the sake of argument; argumentation; ratiocination; as fair reasoning; false reasoning; absurd reasoning; strong or weak reasoning. The reasonings of the advocate appeared to the court conclusive.

REASONLESS, a.

1. Destitute of reason; as a reasonless man or mind.

2. Void of reason; not warranted or supported by reason.

This proffer is absurd and reasonless.

REASSEMBLAGE, n. assemblage a second time.

REASSEMBLE, v.t. [re and assemble.] to collect again.

REASSEMBLE, v.i. to assemble or convene again.

REASSEMBLED, pp. assembled again.

REASSEMBLING, ppr. assembling again.

REASSERT, v.t. [re and asset.] To assert again; to maintain after suspension or cessation.

Let us hope - we may have a body of authors who will reassert our claim to respectability in literature.

REASSERTED, pp. Asserted or maintained anew.

REASSERTING, ppr. Asserting again; vindicating anew.

REASSIGN, v.t. [re and assign.] To assign back; to transfer back what has been assigned.

REASSIMILATE, v.t. [re and assimilate.]

To assimilate or cause to resemble anew; to change again into a like or suitable substance.

REASSIMILATED, pp. Assimilated anew; changed again to a like substance.

REASSIMILATING, ppr. Assimilating again.

REASSIMILATION, n. A second or renewed assimilation.

REASSUME, v.t. [re and assume.] To resume; to take again.

REASSUMED, pp. Resumed; assumed again.

REASSUMING, ppr. Assuming or taking again.

REASSUMPTION, n. A resuming; a second assumption.

REASSURANCE, n. [See Sure and Assurance.]

A second assurance against loss; or the assurance of property by an underwriter, to relieve himself from a risk he has taken.

REASSURE, v.t. reashu’re. [re and assure.]

1. To restore courage to; to free from fear or terror.

They rose with fear, till dauntless Pallas reassur’d the rest.

2. To insure a second time against loss, or rather to insure by another what one has already insured; to insure against loss that may be incurred by taking a risk.

REASSURED, pp.

1. Restored from fear; re-encouraged.

2. Insured against loss by risk taken, as an underwriter.

REASSURER, n. One who insures the first underwriter.

REASSURING, ppr.

1. Restoring from fear, terror or depression of courage.

2. Insuring against loss by insurance.

REASTINESS, n. Rancidness. [Not in use or local.]

REASTY, a. Covered with a kind of rust and having a rancid taste; applied to dried meat. [Not in use or local.]

REATE, n. A kind of long small grass that grows in water and complicates itself. [Not in use or local.]

REATTACH, v.t. [re and attach.] To attach a second time.

REATTACHMENT, n. A second attachment.

REATTEMPT, v.t. [re and attempt.] To attempt again.

REAVE, v.t. To take away by stealth or violence; to bereave. Obs. [See Bereave.]

REBAPTISM, n. A second baptism.

REBAPTIZATION, n. [from rebaptize.] A second baptism.

REBAPTIZE, v.t. [re and baptize.] To baptize a second time.

REBAPTIZED, pp. Baptized again.

REBAPTIZING, ppr. Baptizing a second time.

REBATE, v.t.

To blunt; to beat to obtuseness; to deprive of keenness.

He doth rebate and blunt his natural edge.

The keener edge of battle to rebate.

REBATE, REBATEMENT, n.

1. Diminution.

2. In commerce, abatement in price; deduction.

3. In heraldry, a diminution or abatement of the bearings in a coat of arms.

REBATO, n. A sort of ruff. [See Rabato.]

REBECK, n. A three stringed fiddle. [Not much used.]

REBEL, n. [L. rebellis, making war again.]

1. One who revolts from the government to which he owes allegiance, either by openly renouncing the authority of that government, or by taking arms and openly opposing it. A rebel differs from an enemy, as the latter is one who does not owe allegiance to the government which he attacks. Numbers 17:10.

2. One who willfully violates a law.

3. One who disobeys the king’s proclamation; a contemner of the king’s laws.

4. A villain who disobeys his lord.

REBEL, a. Rebellious; acting in revolt.
REBEL, v.i. [L. rebello, to make war again; re and bello.]

1. To revolt; to renounce the authority of the laws and government to which one owes allegiance. Subjects may rebel by an open renunciation of the authority of the government, without taking arms; but ordinarily, rebellion is accompanied by resistance in arms.

Ye have built you an altar, that ye might rebel this day against the Lord. Joshua 22:16; Isaiah 1:20.

2. To rise in violent opposition against lawful authority.

How could my hand rebel against my heart? How could your heart rebel against your reason?

REBELLED, pp. or a. Rebellious; guilty of rebellion.

REBELLER, n. One that rebels.

REBELLING, ppr. Renouncing the authority of the government to which one owes allegiance; rising in opposition to lawful authority.

REBELLION, n. [L. rebellio. among the Romans, rebellion was originally a revolt or open resistance to their government by nations that had been subdued in war. It was a renewed war.]

1. An open and avowed renunciation of the authority of the government to which one owes allegiance; or the taking of arms traitorously to resist the authority of lawful government; revolt. Rebellion differs from insurrection and from mutiny. Insurrection may be a rising in opposition to a particular act or law, without a design to renounce wholly all subjection to the government. Insurrection may be, but is not necessarily, rebellion. Mutiny is an insurrection of soldiers or seamen against the authority of their officers.

No sooner is the standard of rebellion displayed, than men of desperate principles resort to it.

2. Open resistance to lawful authority.

Commission of rebellion, in law, a commission awarded against a person who treats the king’s authority with contempt, in not obeying his proclamation according to his allegiance, and refusing to attend his sovereign when required; in which case, four commissioners are ordered to attach him wherever he may be found.

REBELLIOUS, a. Engaged in rebellion; renouncing the authority and dominion of the government to which allegiance is due; traitorously resisting government or lawful authority. Deuteronomy 9:7, 24; Deuteronomy 21:18, 20.

REBELLIOUSLY, adv. With design to throw off the authority of legitimate government; in opposition to the government, to which one is bound by allegiance; with violent or obstinate disobedience to lawful authority.

REBELLIOUSNESS, n. The quality or state of being rebellious.

REBELLOW, v.i. [re and bellow.] To bellow in return; to echo back a loud roaring noise.

The cave rebellow’d and the temple shook.

REBELLOWING, ppr. Bellowing in return or in echo.

REBLOSSOM, v.i. [re and blossom.] To blossom again.

REBOATION, n. [L. rebo; re and boo.]

The return of a loud bellowing sound. [Not used.]

REBOIL, v.i. [L. re and bullio.] To take fire; to be hot.

REBOUND, v.i.

To spring back; to start back; to be reverberated by an elastic power resisting force or impulse impressed; as a rebounding echo.

Bodies absolutely hard, or so soft as to be void of elasticity, will not rebound from one another.

REBOUND, v.t. To drive back; to reverberate.

Silenus sung; the vales his voice rebound.

REBOUND, n. The act of flying back in resistance of the impulse of another body; resilience.

Put back as from a rock with swift rebound.

REBOUNDING, ppr. Springing or flying back; reverberating.

REBRACE, v.t. [re and brace.] To brace again.

REBREATHE, v.i. [re and breathe.] To breathe again.

REBUFF, n.

1. Repercussion, or beating back; a quick and sudden resistance.

The strong rebuff of some tumultuous cloud.

2. Sudden check; defeat.

3. Refusal; rejection of solicitation.

REBUFF, v.t. To beat back; to offer sudden resistance to; to check.

REBUILD, REBILD, v.t. [re and build.] To build again; to renew a structure; to build or construct what has been demolished; as, to rebuild a house, a wall, a wharf or a city.

REBUILDING, REBILDING, ppr. Building again.

REBUILT, REBILT, pp. Built again; reconstructed.

REBUKABLE, a. [from rebuke.] Worthy of reprehension.

REBUKE, v.t. [See Pack and Impeach.]

1. To chide; to reprove; to reprehend for a fault; to check by reproof.

The proud he tam’d, the penitent he cheer’d, not to rebuke the rich offender fear’d.

Thou shalt in any wise rebuke thy neighbor. Leviticus 19:17.

2. To check or restrain.

The Lord rebuke thee, O Satan. Zechariah 3:2; Isaiah 17:13.

3. To chasten; to punish; to afflict for correction.

O Lord, rebuke me not in thine anger. Psalm 6:1.

4. To check; to silence.

Master, rebuke thy disciples. Luke 19:39.

5. To check; to heal.

And he stood over her and rebuked the fever. Luke 4:39.

6. To restrain; to calm.

He arose and rebuked the winds and the sea. Matthew 8:26.

REBUKE, n.

1. A chiding; reproof for faults; reprehension.

Why bear you these rebukes and answer not?

2. In Scripture, chastisement; punishment; affliction for the purpose of restraint and correction. Ezekiel 5:15; Hosea 5:9.

3. In low language, any kind of check.

To suffer rebuke, to endure the reproach and persecution of men. Jeremiah 15:15.

To be without rebuke, to live without giving cause of reproof or censure; to be blameless.

REBUKED, pp. Reproved; reprehended; checked; restrained; punished for faults.

REBUKEFUL, a. Containing or abounding with rebukes.

REBUKEFULLY, adv. With reproof or reprehension.

REBUKER, n. One that rebukes; a chider; one that chastises or restrains.