Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary
RAVELIN - REAPER
In fortification, a detached work with two faces which make a salient angle, without any flanks, and raised before the counterscarp, of the place. In this it differs from a half moon, which is placed before an angle.
RAVELING, ppr. Twisting or weaving; untwisting; disentangling.
RAVEN, n. ra’ven. [Heb. from its color. But this may be L. corvus, rapio.]
A large fowl of a black color, of the genus Corvus.
RAVEN, v.t. rav’n.
1. To devour with great eagerness; to eat with voracity.
Our natures do pursue, like rats that raven down their proper bane, a thirsty evil, and when we drink, we die.
Like a roaring lion, ravening the prey. Ezekiel 22:25.
2. To obtain by violence.
RAVEN, v.i. rav’n. To prey with rapacity.
Benjamin shall raven as a wolf. Genesis 49:27.
RAVEN, n. rav’n.
1. Prey; plunder; food obtained by violence. Nahum 2:12.
2. Rapine; rapacity.
RAVENED, pp. Devoured with voracity.
RAVENER, n. One that ravens or plunders.
RAVENING, ppr. Preying with rapacity; voraciously devouring; as a ravening wolf.
RAVENING, n. Eagerness for plunder. Luke 11:39.
1. Furiously voracious; hungry even to rage; devouring with rapacious eagerness; as a ravenous wolf, lion or vulture.
2. Eager for prey or gratification; as ravenous appetite or desire.
RAVENOUSLY, adv. With raging voracity.
RAVENOUSNESS, n. Extreme voracity; rage for prey; as the ravenousness of a lion.
RAVEN’S DUCK, n. A species of sail cloth.
RAVER, n. [from rave.] One that raves or is furious.
RAVET, n. An insect shaped like a cock-chaffer, which infests the West Indies.
RAVIN, a. Ravenous. [Not in use.]
RAVINE, RAVIN, n. A long deep hollow worn by a stream or torrent of water; hence, any long deep hollow or pass through mountains, etc.
RAVING, ppr. or a. Furious with delirium; mad; distracted.
RAVINGLY, adv. With furious wildness or frenzy; with distraction.
RAVISH, v.t. [L. rapio.]
1. To seize and carry away by violence.
These hairs which thou dost ravish from my chin, will quicken and accuse thee.
This hand shall ravish thy pretended right.
3. To bear away with joy or delight; to delight to ecstasy; to transport.
Thou hast ravished my heart. Song of Solomon 4:9.
RAVISHED, pp. Snatched away by violence; forced to submit to carnal embrace; delighted to ecstasy.
1. One that takes by violence.
2. One that forces a woman to his carnal embrace.
3. One that transports with delight.
1. Snatching or taking by violence; compelling to submit to carnal intercourse; delighting to ecstasy.
2. a. Delighting to rapture; transporting.
1. A seizing and carrying away by violence.
2. Carnal knowledge by force against consent.
3. Ecstatic delight; transport.
RAVISHINGLY, adv. To extremity of delight.
1. The act of forcing a woman to carnal connection; forcible violation of chastity.
2. Rapture; transport of delight; ecstasy; pleasing violence of the mind or senses.
All things joy with ravishment attracted by thy beauty still to gaze.
3. The act of carrying away; abduction; as the ravishment of children from their parents, of a ward from his guardian, or of a wife from her husband.
RAW, a. [L. crudus, rodo.]
1. Not altered from its natural state; not roasted, boiled or cooked; not subdued by heat; as raw meat.
2. Not covered with skin; bare, as flesh.
If there is quick raw flesh in the risings, it is an old leprosy. Leviticus 13:10, 11.
And all his sinews waxen weak and raw through long imprisonment.
4. Immature; unripe; not concocted.
5. Not altered by heat; not cooked or dressed; being in its natural state; as raw fruit.
6. Unseasoned; unexperienced; unripe in skill; as people while young and raw.
So we say, raw troops; and new seamen are called raw hands.
7. New; untried; as a raw trick.
8. Bleak; chilly; cold, or rather cold and damp; as a raw day; a raw cold climate.
Once upon a raw and gusty day -
9. Not distilled; as raw water. [Not used.]
10. Not spun or twisted; as raw silk.
11. Not mixed or adulterated; as raw spirits.
12. Bare of flesh.
13. Not tried or melted and strained; as raw tallow.
14. Not tanned; as raw hides.
RAW-BONED, a. Having little flesh on the bones.
RAWHEAD, n. The name of a specter, mentioned to frighten children; as rawhead and bloody bones.
RAWISH, a. Somewhat raw; cool and damp. [Not much used.]
1. In a raw manner.
2. Unskillfully; without experience.
1. The state of being raw; uncooked; unaltered by heat; as the rawness of flesh.
2. Unskillfulness; state of being inexperienced; as the rawness of seamen or troops.
3. Hasty manner. [Not legitimate.]
4. Chilliness with dampness.
RAY, n. [L. radius.]
1. a line of light, or the right line supposed to be described by a particle of light. a collection of parallel rays constitutes a beam; a collection of diverging or converging rays, a pencil.
The mixed solar beam contains, 1st. calorific rays, producing heat and expansion, but not vision and color; 2d. colorific rays, producing vision and color, but not heat nor expansion; 3d. chimical rays, producing certain effects on the composition of bodies, but neither heat, expansion, vision or color; 4th. a power producing magnetism, but whether a distinct or associated power, is not determined. It seems to be associated with the violet, more than with the other rays.
2. Figuratively, a beam of intellectual light.
3. Light; luster.
The air sharpen’d his visual ray.
4. In botany, the outer part or circumference of a compound radiate flower.
5. In ichthyology, a bony or cartilaginous ossicle in the fins of fishes, serving to support the membrane.
6. A plant, [lolium.]
7. Ray, for array. [Not in use.]
Pencil of rays, a number of rays of light issuing from a point and diverging.
RAY, n. A fish; a common name for the species of the genus Raia, including the skate, thornback, torpedo, stingray, etc.
1. To streak; to mark with long lines.
2. To foul; to beray. [Not in use.]
3. To array. [Not in use.]
4. To shoot forth.
RAYLESS, a. Destitute of light; dark; not illuminated.
Race-ginger, under Race.]
1. To subvert from the foundation; to overthrow; to destroy; to demolish; as, to raze a city to the ground.
The royal hand that raz’d unhappy Troy.
2. To erase; to efface; to obliterate.
Razing the characters of your renown.
[In this sense, rase and erase are now used.]
3. To extirpate.
And raze their factions and their family.
RAZED, pp. Subverted; overthrown; wholly ruined; erased; extirpated.
RAZEE, n. A ship of war cut down to a smaller size.
RAZING, ppr. subverting; destroying; erasing; extirpating.
RAZOR, n. [L. rasus, rado, to scrape.]
An instrument for shaving off beard or hair. Razors of a boar, a boar’s tusks.
RAZORABLE, a. Fit to be shaved. [Not in use.]
RAZOR-BILL, n. An aquatic fowl, the Alca torda; also, the Rhynchops nigra or cut-water.
RAZOR-FISH, n. A species of fish with a compressed body.
RAZURE, n. [L. rasura, from rado.]
The act of erasing or effacing; obliteration.
RE, a prefix or inseparable particle in the composition of words, denotes return, repetition, iteration. It is contracted from red, which the Latins retained in words beginning with a vowel, as in redamo, redeo, redintegro. In a few English words, all or most of which, I believe, we receive from the French, it has lost its appropriate signification, as in rejoice, recommend, receive.
REABSORB, v.t. [re and absorb.]
1. To draw in or inbibe again what has been effused, extravasated or thrown off; used of fluids; as, to reabsorb chyle, lymph, blood, gas, etc.
2. To swallow up again.
REABSORBED, pp. Imbibed again.
REABSORBING, ppr. Reimbibing.
REABSORPTION, n. The act or process of inbibing what has been previously thrown off, effused or extravasated; the swallowing a second time.
REACCESS, n. [re and access.] A second access or approach; a visit renewed.
REACH, v.t. [Raught, the ancient preterit, is obsolete. The verb is now regular; pp. reached. L. rego, to rule or govern, to make right or straight, that is, to strain or stretch, the radical sense. The English sense of reach appears in L. porrigo and porricio. Greek, to reach, to stretch, the radical sense of desiring. L. fragro. But the primary sense is the same, to reach, to extend, to shoot forth, to urge.]
1. To extend; to stretch; in a general sense; sometimes followed by out and forth; as, to reach out the arm. Hence,
2. To extend to; to touch by extending either the arm alone, or with an instrument in the hand; as, to reach a book on the shelf; I cannot reach the object with my cane; the seaman reaches the bottom of the river with a pole or a line.
3. To strike from a distance.
O patron power, thy present aid afford, that I may reach the beast.
4. To deliver with the hand by extending the arm; to hand. He reached [to] me an orange.
He reached me a full cup.
5. To extend or stretch from a distance.
Reach hither thy finger - reach hither thy hand. John 20:27.
6. To arrive at; to come to. The ship reached her port in safety. We reached New York on Thursday. The letter reached me at seven o’clock.
7. To attain to or arrive at, by effort, labor or study; hence, to gain or obtain. Every artist should attempt to reach the point of excellence.
The best accounts of the appearances of nature which human penetration can reach, come short of its reality.
8. To penetrate to.
Whatever alterations are made in the body, if they reach not the mind, there is no perception.
9. To extend to so as to include or comprehend in fact or principle.
The law reached the intention of the promoters, and this act fixed the natural price of money.
If these examples of grown men reach not the case of children, let them examine.
10. To extend to.
Thy desire leads to no excess that reaches blame.
11. To extend; to spread abroad.
Trees reach’d too far their pampered boughs.
12. To take with the hand.
Lest therefore now his bolder hand reach also of the tree of life and eat. [Unusual.]
13. To overreach; to deceive.
1. To be extended.
The new world reaches quite across the torrid zone.
The border shall descend, and shall reach to the side of the sea of Chinnereth eastward. Numbers 34:11.
And behold, a ladder set on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven. Genesis 28:12.
2. To penetrate.
Ye have slain them in a rage that reacheth to heaven. 2 Chronicles 28:9.
3. To make efforts to vomit. [See Retch.]
To reach after, to make efforts to attain to or obtain.
He would be in a posture of mind, reaching after a positive idea of infinity.
1. In a general sense, extension; a stretching; extent.
2. The power of extending to, or of taking by the hand, or by any instrument managed by the hand. The book is not within my reach. The bottom of the sea is not within the reach of a line or cable.
3. Power of attainment or management, or the limit of power, physical or moral. He used all the means within his reach. The causes of phenomena are often beyond the reach of human intellect.
Be sure yourself and your own reach to know.
4. Effort of the mind in contrivance or research; contrivance; scheme.
- Drawn by others who had deeper reaches than themselves to matters which they least intended.
5. A fetch; an artifice to obtain an advantage.
The duke of Parma had particular reaches and ends of his own underhand, to cross the design.
6. Tendency to distant consequences.
Strain not my speech to grosser issues, nor to larger reach than to suspicion.
And on the left hand, hell with long reach interpos’d.
8. Among seamen, the distance between two points on the banks of a river, in which the current flows in a straight course.
9. An effort to vomit.
REACHED, pp. Stretched out; extended; touched by extending the arm; attained to; obtained.
REACHER, n. One that reaches or extends; one that delivers by extending the arm.
REACHING, ppr. Stretching out; extending; touching by extension of the arm; attaining to; gaining; making efforts to vomit.
REACT, v.t. [re and act.] To act or perform a second time; as, to react a play. The same scenes were reacted at Rome.
1. To return an impulse or impression; to resist the action of another body by an opposite force. Every elastic body reacts on the body that impels it from its natural state.
2. To act in opposition; to resist any influence or power.
REACTED, pp. Acted or performed a second time.
REACTING, ppr. Acting again; in physics, resisting the impulse of another body.
1. In physics, counteraction; the resistance made by a body to the action or impulse of another body, which endeavors to change its state, either of motion or rest. Action and reaction are equal.
2. Any action in resisting other action or power.
READ, n. [See the Verb.]
1. Counsel. [Obs.]
2. Saying; sentence. Obs.
READ, v.t. The preterit and pp. read, is pronounced red. [Gr. to say or tell, to flow; a speaker, a rhetorician. The primary sense of read is to speak, to utter, that is, to push, drive or advance. This is also the primary sense of ready, that is, prompt or advancing, quick. L. gratia, the primary sense of which is prompt to favor, advancing towards, free. The elements of these words are the same as those of ride and L. gradior, etc. The sense of reason is secondary, that which is uttered, said or set forth; hence counsel also. See Ready.]
1. To utter or pronounce written or printed words, letters or characters in the proper order; to repeat the names or utter the sounds customarily annexed to words, letters or characters; as, to read a written or printed discourse; to read the letters of an alphabet; to read figures; to read the notes of music, or to read music.
2. To inspect and understand words or characters; to peruse silently; as, to read a paper or letter without uttering the words; to read to one’s self.
3. To discover or understand by characters, marks or features; as, to read a man’s thoughts in his countenance.
To read the interior structure of the globe.
An armed corse did lie, in whose dead face he read great magnanimity.
4. To learn by observation.
Those about her from her shall read the perfect ways of honor.
5. To know fully.
Who is’t can read a woman?
6. To suppose; to guess. Obs.
7. To advise. Obs.
1. To perform the act of reading.
So they read in the book of the law of God distinctly, and gave the sense. Nehemiah 8:8.
2. To be studious; to practice much reading.
It is sure that Fleury roads.
3. To learn by reading.
I have read of an eastern king who put a judge to death for an iniquitous sentence.
4. To tell; to declare. [Not in use.]
READ, pp. red.
1. Uttered; pronounced, as written words in the proper order; as, the letter was read to the family.
2. Silently perused.
READ, a. red. Instructed or knowing by reading; versed in books; learned. Well read is the phrase commonly used; as well read in history; well read in the classics.
A poet well read in Longinus -
READABLE, a. That may be read; fit to be read.
READEPTION, n. [from L. re and adeptus, obtained.]
A regaining; recovery of something lost. [Not much used.]
1. One that reads; any person who pronounces written words; particularly, one whose office is to read prayers in a church.
2. By way of distinction, one that reads much; one studious in books.
Read.] the office of reading prayers in a church.
1. Quickly; promptly; easily. I readily perceive the distinction you make.
2. Cheerfully; without delay or objection; without reluctance. He readily granted my request.
READINESS, n. red’iness. [from ready.]
1. Quickness; promptness; promptitude; facility; freedom from hinderance or obstruction; as readiness of speech; readiness of thought; readiness of mind in suggesting an answer; readiness of reply.
2. Promptitude; cheerfulness; willingness; alacrity; freedom from reluctance; as, to grant a request or assistance with readiness.
They received the word with all readiness of mind. Acts 17:11.
3. A state of preparation; fitness of condition. The troops are in readiness.
1. Pronouncing or perusing written or printed words or characters of a book or writing.
2. Discovering by marks; understanding.
1. The act of reading; perusal.
2. Study of books; as a man of extensive reading.
3. A lecture or prelection.
4. Public recital.
The Jews had their weekly readings of the law.
5. In criticism, the manner of reading the manuscripts of ancient authors, where the words or letters are obscure. No small part of the business of critics is to settle the true reading, or real words used by the author; and the various readings of different critics are often perplexing.
6. A commentary or gloss on a law, text or passage.
7. In legislation, the formal recital of a bill by the proper officer, before the house which is to consider it. In Congress and in the state legislatures, a bill must usually have three several readings on different days, before it can be passed into a law.
READJOURN, v.t. [re and adjourn.]
1. To adjourn a second time.
2. To cite or summon again. [Not used.]
READJUST, v.t. [re and adjust.] To settle again; to put in order again what had been discomposed.
READJUSTED, pp. Adjusted again; resettled.
READJUSTING, ppr. Adjusting again.
READJUSTMENT, n. A second adjustment.
READMISSION, n. [re and admission.] The act of admitting again what had been excluded; as the readmission of fresh air into an exhausted receiver; the readmission of a student into a seminary.
READMIT, v.t. [re and admit.] To admit again.
Whose ear is ever open and his eye gracious to readmit the suppliant.
READMITTANCE, n. A second admittance; allowance to enter again.
READOPT, v.t. [re and adopt.] To adopt again.
READORN, v.t. To adorn anew; to decorate a second time.
READVERTENCY, n. [re and advertency.] The act of reviewing.
1. Quick; prompt; not hesitating; as ready wit; a ready consent.
2. Quick to receive or comprehend; not slow or dull; as a ready apprehension.
3. Quick in action or execution; dextrous; as an artist ready in his business; a ready writer. Psalm 45:1.
4. Prompt; not delayed present in hand. He makes ready payment; he pays ready money for every thing he buys.
5. Prepared; fitted; furnished with what is necessary, or disposed in a manner suited to the purpose; as a ship ready for sea.
My oxen and fatlings are killed, and all things are ready. Matthew 22:4.
6. Willing; free; cheerful to do or suffer; not backward or reluctant; as a prince always ready to grant the reasonable requests of his subjects.
The spirit is ready, but the flesh is weak. Mark 14:38.
I am ready not to be bound only, but also to die at Jerusalem for the name of the Lord Jesus. Acts 21:13.
7. Willing; disposed. Men are generally ready to impute blame to others. They are more ready to give than to take reproof.
8. Being at the point; near; not distant; about to do or suffer.
9. Being nearest or at hand.
A sapling pine he wrench’d from out the ground, the readiest weapon that his fury found.
10. Easy; facile; opportune; short; near, or most convenient; the Greek sense.
Sometimes the readiest way which a wise man has to conquer, is to flee.
Through the wild desert, not the readiest way.
The ready way to be thought mad, is to contend you are not so.
1. To make ready, to prepare; to provide and put in order.
2. An elliptical phrase, for make things ready; to make preparations; to prepare.
READY, adv. red’y. In a state of preparation, so as to need no delay.
We ourselves will go ready armed before the house of Israel. Numbers 32:17.
READY, n. red’y. For ready money.
Lord Strut was not flush in ready, either to go to law, or to clear old debts. [A low word.]
READY, v.t. red’y. To dispose in order; to prepare. [Not in use.]
REAFFIRM, v.t. [re and affirm.] To affirm a second time.
REAFFIRMANCE, n. A second confirmation.
REAGENT, n. [re and agent.] In chimistry, a substance employed to precipitate another in solution, or to detect the ingredients of a mixture.
Bergman reckons barytic muriate to be one of the most sensible reagents.
REAGGRAVATION, n. [re and aggravation.]
In the Romish ecclesiastical law, the last monitory, published after three admonitions and before the last excommunication. Before they proceed to fulminate the last excommunication, they publish an aggravation and a reaggravation.
REAK, n. A rush. [Not in use.]
1. Actually being or existing; not fictitious or imaginary; as a description of real life. The author describes a real scene or transaction.
2. True; genuine; not artificial, counterfeit or factitious; as real Madeira wine; real ginger.
3. True; genuine; not affected; not assumed. The woman appears in her real character.
4. Relating to things, not to persons; not personal.
Many are perfect in men’s humors, that are not greatly capable of the real part of business. [Little used or obsolete.]
5. In law, pertaining to things fixed, permanent or immovable, as to lands and tenements; as real estate, opposed to personal or movable property.
Real action, in law, is an action which concerns real property.
Real assets, assets consisting in real estate, or lands and tenements descending to an heir, sufficient to answer the charges upon the estate created by the ancestor.
Chattels real, are such chattels as concern or savor of the reality; as a term for years of land, wardships in chivalry, the next presentation to a church, estate by statue-merchant, elegit, etc.
Real composition, is when an agreement is made between the owner of lands and the parson or vicar, with consent of the ordinary, that such lands shall be discharged from payment of tithes, in consequence of other land or recompense given to the parson in lieu and satisfaction thereof.
Real presence, in the Romish church, the actual presence of the body and blood of Christ in the eucharist, or the conversion of the substance of the bread and wine into the real body and blood of Christ.
REAL, REALIST, n. A scholastic philosopher, who maintains that things and not words, are the objects of dialectics; opposed to nominal or nominalist.
REAL, n. A small Spanish coin of the value of forty maravedis; but its value is different in different provinces, being from five or six to ten cents, or six pence sterling. It is sometimes written rial.
A combination of sulphur and arsenic; red sulphuret of arsenic. Realgar differs from orpiment in having undergone a greater degree of heat.
1. Actual being or existence of any thing; truth; fact; in distinction from mere appearance.
A man may fancy he understands a critic, when in reality he does not comprehend his meaning.
2. Something intrinsically important, not merely matter of show.
And to realities yield all her shows.
3. In the schools, that may exist of itself, or which has a full and absolute being of itself, and is not considered as a part of any thing else.
4. In law, immobility, or the fixed, permanent nature of property; as chattels which savor of the reality. [This word is so written in law, for reality.]
REALIZATION, n. [from realize.]
1. The act of realizing or making real.
2. The act of converting money into land.
3. The act of believing or considering as real.
4. The act of bringing into being or act.
1. To bring into being or act; as, to realize a scheme or project.
We realize what Archimedes had only in hypothesis, weighing a single grain of sand against the globe of earth.
2. To convert money into land, or personal into real estate.
3. To impress on the mind as a reality; to believe, consider or treat as real. How little do men in full health realize their frailty and mortality.
Let the sincere christian realize the closing sentiment.
4. To bring home to one’s own case or experience; to consider as one’s own; to feel in all its force. Who, at his fire side, can realize the distress of shipwrecked mariners?
This allusion must have had enhanced strength and beauty to the eye of a nation extensively devoted to a pastoral life, and therefore realizing all its fine scenes and the tender emotions to which they gave birth.
5. To bring into actual existence and possession; to render tangible or effective. He never realized much profit from his trade or speculations.
REALIZED, pp. Brought into actual being; converted into real estate; impressed, received or treated as a reality; felt in its true force; rendered actual, tangible or effective.
1. Bringing into actual being; converting into real estate; impressing as a reality; feeling as one’s own or in its real force; rendering tangible or effective.
2. a. That makes real, or that brings home as a reality; as a realizing view of eternity.
REALLEDGE, v.t. reallej’. [re and alledge.] To alledge again.
1. With actual existence.
2. In truth; in fact; not in appearance only; as things really evil.
The anger of the people is really a short fit of madness.
In this sense, it is used familiarly as a slight corroboration of an opinion or declaration.
Why really, sixty five is somewhat old.
REALM, n. relm. [L. rex, king, whence regalis, royal.]
1. A royal jurisdiction or extent of government; a kingdom; a king’s dominions; as the realm of England.
2. Kingly government; as the realm of bees. [Unusual.]
REALTY, n. [L. rex.]
1. Lovalty. [Not in use.]
2. Reality. [Not in use.]
3. In law, immobility. [See Reality.]
A bundle or package of paper, consisting of twenty quires.
REANIMATE, v.t. [re and animate.]
1. To revive; to resuscitate; to restore to life; as a person dead or apparently dead; as, to reanimate a drowned person.
2. To revive the spirits when dull or languid; to invigorate; to infuse new life or courage into; as, to reanimate disheartened troops; to reanimate drowsy senses or languid spirits.
REANIMATED, pp. Restored to life or action.
REANIMATING, ppr. Restoring life to; invigorating with new life and courage.
REANIMATION, n. The act or operation of reviving from apparent death; the act or operation of giving fresh spirits, courage or vigor.
REANNEX, v.t. [re and annex.] To annex again; to reunite; to annex what has been separated.
REANNEXATION, n. The act of annexing again.
REANNEXED, pp. Annexed or united again.
REANNEXING, ppr. Annexing again; reuniting.
REAP, v.t. [L. rapio, carpo; Gr. a sickle, to reap; Eng. crop.]
1. To cut grain with a sickle; as, to reap wheat or rye.
When ye reap the harvest, thou shalt not wholly reap the corners of thy field. Leviticus 19:9.
2. To clear of a crop by reaping; as, to reap a field.
3. To gather; to obtain; to receive as a reward, or as the fruit of labor or of works; in a good or bad sense; as, to reap a benefit from exertions.
He that soweth to the flesh, shall of the flesh reap corruption. Galatians 6:8.
Ye have plowed wickedness; ye have reaped iniquity. Hosea 10:13.
1. To perform the act or operation of reaping. In New England, farmers reap in July and August.
2. To receive the fruit of labor or works.
They that sow in tears, shall reap in joy. Psalm 126:5.