Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary




1. Supplication; entreaty.

2. Solemn injunction.

OBTESTING, ppr. Beseeching; supplicating.

OBTRECTATION, n. [L. obtrectatio, from obtrecto; ob and tracto.]

Slander; detraction; calumny. [Little used.]

OBTRUDE, v.t. [L. obltrudo; ob and trudo, Eng. to thrust.]

1. To thrust in or on; to throw, crowd or thrust into any place or state by force or imposition, or without solicitation. Men obtrude their vain speculations upon the world.

A cause of common error is the credulity of men, that is, an easy assent to what is obtruded.

The objects of our senses obtrude their particular ideas upon our minds, whether we will or not.

2. To offer with unreasonable importunity; to urge upon against the will.

Why shouldst thou then obtrude this diligence in vain, where no acceptance it can find?

To obtrude one’s self, to enter a place where one is not desired; to thrust one’s self in uninvited, or against the will of the company.


1. To enter when not invited.

2. To thrust or be thrust upon.

OBTRUDED, pp. Thrust in by force or unsolicited.

OBTRUDER, n. One who obtrudes.

OBTRUDING, ppr. Thrusting in or on; entering uninvited.

OBTRUNCATE, v.t. [L. obtrunco; ob and trunco, to cut off.]

To deprive of a limb; to lop. [Little used.]

OBTRUNCATION, n. The act of lopping or cutting off. [Little used.]

OBTRUSION, n. s as z. [L. obtrudo, obtrusus.]

The act of obtruding; a thrusting upon others by force or unsolicited; as the obtrusion of crude opinions on the world.

OBTRUSIVE, a. Disposed to obtrude any thing upon others; inclined to intrude or thrust one’s self among others, or to enter uninvited.

Not obvious, not obtrusive, but retired, the more desirable.

OBTRUSIVELY, adv. By way of obtrusion or thrusting upon others, or entering unsolicited.

OBTUND, v.t. [L. obtundo; ob and tundo, to beat.]

To dull; to blunt; to quell; to deaden; to reduce the edge, pungency or violent action of any thing; as, to obtund the acrimony of the gall.

OBTURATION, n. [L. obturatus, from obturo, to stop up.]

The act of stopping by spreading over or covering.

OBTURATOR, n. In anatomy, the obturators are muscles which rise from the outer and inner side of the pelvis around foramen thyroideum, and are rotators of the thigh.

OBTUSANGULAR, a. [obtuse and angular.]

Having angles that are obtuse, or larger than right angles.

OBTUSE, a. [L. obtusus, from obtundo, to beat against.]

1. Blunt; not pointed or acute. Applied to angles, it denotes one that is larger than a right angle, or more than ninety degrees.

2. Dull; not having acute sensibility; as obtuse senses.

3. Not sharp or shrill; dull; obscure; as obtuse sound.


1. Without a sharp point.

2. Dully; stupidly.


1. Bluntness; as the obtuseness of an edge or a point.

2. Dullness; want of quick sensibility; as the obtuseness of the senses.

3. Dullness of sound.

OBTUSION, n. s as z.

1. The act of making blunt.

2. The state of being dulled or blunted; as the obtusion of the senses.

OBUMBRATE, v.t. [L. obumbro; ob and umbra, a shade.]

To shade; to darken; to cloud. [Little used.]

OBUMBRATION, n. The act of darkening or obscuring.

OBVENTION, n. [L. obvenio, ob and venio, to come.]

Something occasional; that which happens not regularly, but incidentally. [Not used.]

OBVERSANT, a. [L. obversans, obversor; ob and versor, to turn.]

Conversant; familiar. [Not used.]

OBVERSE, a. obvers’. In botany, having the base narrower than the top; as a leaf.

OBVERSE, n. The face of a coin; opposed to reverse.

OBVERT, v.t. [L. obverto; ob and verto, to turn.] To turn towards.

OBVERTED, pp. Turned towards.

OBVERTING, ppr. Turning towards.

OBVIATE, v.t. [L. obvius; ob and via, way.]

Properly, to meet in the way; to oppose; hence, to prevent by interception, or to remove at the beginning or in the outset; hence in present usage, to remove in general, as difficulties or objections; to clear the way of obstacles in reasoning, deliberating or planning.

To lay down every thing in its full light, so as to obviate all exceptions.

OBVIATED, pp. Removed, as objections or difficulties.

OBVIATING, ppr. Removing, as objections in reasoning or planning.

OBVIOUS, a. [L. obvus. See the Verb.]

1. Meeting; opposed in front.

I to the evil turn my obvious breast. [Not now used.]

2. Open; exposed. [Little used.]

3. Plain; evident; easily discovered, seen or understood; readily perceived by the eye or the intellect. We say, a phenomenon obvious to the sight, or a truth obvious to the mind.


1. Evidently; plainly; apparently; manifestly. Men do not always pursue what is obviously their interest.

2. Naturally.

3. Easily to be found.

OBVIOUSNESS, n. State of being plain or evident to the eye or the mind.

OBVOLUTE, OBVOLUTED, a. [L. obvolutus, obvolvo; ob and volvo, to roll.] In botany, obvolute foliation is when the margins of the leaves alternately embrace the straight margin of the opposite leaf.

OCCASION, n. s as z. [L. occasio, from oceido, to fall; ob and cado.]

1. Properly, a falling, happening or coming to; an occurrence, casualty, incident; something distinct from the ordinary course or regular orders of things.

2. Opportunity; convenience; favorable time, season or circumstances.

I’ll take th’ occasion which he give to bring him to his death.

Use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh. Galatians 5:13.

Sin taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me. Romans 7:11.

3. Accidental cause; incident, event or fact giving rise to something else. What was the occasion of this custom?

Her beauty was the occasion of the war.

4. Incidental need; casual exigency; opportunity accompanied with need or demand. So we say, we have occasion for all our resources. We have frequent occasions for assisting each other.

The ancient canons were well fitted for the occasion of the church in its purer ages.

My occasions have found time to use them toward a supply of money.


1. To cause incidentally; to cause; to produce. The expectation of war occasions a depression in the price of stocks. Consumptions are often occasioned by colds. Indigestion occasions pain in the head. Heat occasions lassitude.

2. To influence; to cause.

If we inquire what it is that occasions men to make several combinations of simple ideas into distinct modes -

OCCASIONABLE, a. s as z. That may be caused or occasioned. [Little used.]

OCCASIONAL, a. s as z.

1. Incidental; casual; occurring at times, but not regular or systematic; made or happening as opportunity requires or admits. We make occasional remarks on the events of the age.

2. Produced by accident; as the occasional origin of a thing.

3. Produced or made on some special event; as an occasional discourse.

OCCASIONALLY, adv. s as z. According to incidental exigence; at times, as convenience requires or opportunity offers; not regularly. He was occasionally present at our meetings. We have occasionally lent our aid.

OCCASIONED, pp. s as z. Caused incidentally; caused; produced.

OCCASIONER, n. s as z. One that causes or produces, either incidentally or otherwise.

He was the occasioner of loss to his neighbor.

OCCASIONING, ppr. s as z. Causing incidentally or otherwise.

OCCASIVE, a. Falling; descending; western; pertaining to the setting sun.

Amplitude is ortive or occasive.

OCCECATION, n. [L. occaecatio; ob and caeco, to blind.]

The act of making blind. [Little used.]

OCCIDENT, n. [L. occidens, occido, to fall; ob and cade.]

The west; the western quarter of the hemisphere; so called from the decline or fall of the sun.

OCCIDENTAL, a. [L. occidentalis.] Western; opposed to oriental; pertaining to the western quarter of the hemisphere, or to some part of the earth westward of the speaker or spectator; as occidental climates; occidental pearl; occidental gold.

OCCIDUOUS, a. [L. occido, occiduus.] Western. [Little used.]

OCCIPITAL, a. [from L. occiput, the back part of the heat; ob and caput.]

Pertaining to the back part of the head, or to the occiput.

OCCIPUT, n. [L. ob and caput, head.] The hinder part of the head, or that part of the skull which forms the hind part of the head.

OCCISION, n. s as z. [L. occisio, from occido, to kill; ob and caedo.]

A killing; the act of killing. [Not used.]

OCCLUDE, v.t. [L. occludo; ob and cludo, claudo, to shut.]

To shut up; to close. [Little used.]

OCCLUSE, a. [L. occlusus.] Shut; closed. [Little used.]

OCCLUSION, n. s as z. [L. occlusio.] a shutting up; a closing.

[This is an elegant word, though little used.]

OCCULT, a. [L. occultus, occulo; ob and celo, to conceal.]

Hidden from the eye or understanding; invisible; secret; unknown; undiscovered; undetected; as the occult qualities of matter.

The occult sciences are magic, necromancy, etc.

Occult lines, in geometry, are such as are drawn with the compasses or a pencil, and are scarcely visible.

OCCULTATION, n. [L. occultatio.]

1. a hiding; also, the time a star or planet is hid from our sight, when eclipsed by the interposition of the body of a planet.

2. In astronomy, the hiding of a star or planet from our sight, by passing behind some other of the heavenly bodies.

OCCULTED, a. Hid; secret. [Not used.]

OCCULTNESS, n. the state of being concealed from view; secretness.

OCCUPANCY, n. [L. occupo, to take or seize; ob and capio, to seize.]

1. The act of taking possession.

2. In law, the taking possession of a thing not belonging to any person. the person who first takes possession of land is said to have or hold it by right of occupancy.

Occupancy gave the original right to the property in the substance of the earth itself.


1. He that occupies or takes possession; he that has possession.

2. In law, one that first takes possession of that which has no legal owner. The right of property, either in wild beasts and fowls, or in land belonging to no person, vests in the first occupant. The property in these cases follows the possession.

OCCUPATE, v.t. [L. occupo.] To hold; to possess; to take up. [Not used.]

OCCUPATION, n. [L. occupatio.]

1. The act of taking possession.

2. Possession; a holding or keeping; tenure; use; as lands in the occupation of AB.

3. That which engages the time and attention; employment; business. He devotes to study all the time that his other occupations will permit.

4. The principal business of one’s life; vocation; calling; trade; the business which a man follows to procure a living or obtain wealth. Agriculture, manufactures and commerce furnish the most general occupations of life. Painting, statuary, music, are agreeable occupations. Men not engaged in some useful occupation commonly fall into vicious courses.


1. One that occupies or takes possession.

2. One who holds possession.

3. One who follows an employment. Ezekiel 27:27.

OCCUPY, v.t. [L. occupo; ob and capio, to seize or take.]

1. To take possession. The person who first occupies land which has no owner, has the right of property.

2. To keep in possession; to possess; to hold or keep for use. The tenant occupies a farm under a lease of twenty one years. A lodger occupies an apartment; a man occupies the chair in which he sits.

3. To take up; to possess; to cover or fill. The camp occupies five acres of ground. Air may be so rarefied as to occupy a vast space. The writing occupies a sheet of paper, or it occupies five lines only.

4. To employ; to use.

The archbishop may have occasion to occupy more chaplains than six.

5. To employ; to busy one’s self. Every man should be occupied, or should occupy himself, in some useful labor.

6. To follow, as business.

All the ships of the sea with their mariners were in thee to occupy thy merchandise. Ezekiel 27:9.

7. To use; to expend.

All the gold that was occupied for the work - Exodus 38:24. [Not now in use.]

OCCUPY, v.i. To follow business; to negotiate.

Occupy till I come. Luke 19:13.

OCCUPYING, ppr. Taking or keeping possession; employing.

OCCUR, v.i. [L. occurro; ob and curro, to run.]

1. Primarily, to meet; to strike against; to clash; and so used by Bentley, but this application is obsolete.

2. To meet or come to the mind; to be presented to the mind, imagination or memory. We say, no better plan occurs to me or to my mind; it does not occur to my recollection; the thought did not occur to me.

There doth not occur to me any use of this experiment for profit.

3. To appear; to meet the eye; to be found here and there. This word occurs in twenty places in the Scriptures; the other word does not occur in a single place; it does not occur in the sense suggested.

4. To oppose; to obviate. [Not used.]


1. Literally, a coming or happening; hence, any incident or accidental event; that which happens without being designed or expected; any single event. We speak of an unusual occurrence, or of the ordinary occurrences of life.

2. Occasional presentation.

Voyages detain the mind by the perpetual occurrence and expectation of something new.

OCCURRENT, n. Incident; any thing that happens. Obs.

OCCURSION, n. [L. occursio, from occurro, to meet.] A meeting of bodies; a clash.

OCEAN, n. o’shun. [L. oceanus; Gr.; Heb. to encompass, whence a circle. This is probably an error. The word seems to have for its origin greatness or extent.]

1. The vast body of water which covers more than three fifths of the surface of the globe, called also the sea, or great sea. It is customary to speak of the ocean as if divided into three parts, the Atlantic ocean, the Pacific ocean, and the Indian ocean; but the ocean is one mass or body, partially separated by the continents of Europe, Asia and Africa on one side, and by America on the other.

2. An immense expanse; as the boundless ocean of eternity; oceans of duration and space.

OCEAN, a. o’shun. Pertaining to the main or great sea; as the ocean wave; ocean stream.

OCEANIC, a. oshean’ic. Pertaining to the ocean.

OCELLATED, a. [L. ocellatus, from ocellus, a little eye.]

1. Resembling an eye.

2. Formed with the figues of little eyes.

OCELOT, n. the Mexican panther.

OCHER, n. [L. ochra; Gr. from pale.]

A variety of clay deeply colored by the oxyd of iron. Its most common colors are red, yellow and brown. It is used as a pigment.


1. Consisting of ocher; as ocherous matter.

2. Resembling ocher; as an ocherous color.

OCHIMY, n. [corrupted from alchimy.] A mixed base metal.

OCHLOCRACY, n. [Gr. the people or a multitude, and to govern.]

A form of government in which the multitude or common people rule.

OCHREY, a. Partaking of ocher. [Not used.]

OCHROITS, n. Cerite.

OCRA, n. A viscous vegetable substance in the West Indies, used in soups, etc.

It is obtained by boiling the green pods of the Hibiscus esculentus. also, the name of the plant itself.

OCTACHORD, n. an instrument or system of eight sounds.

OCTAGON, n. [Gr. eight and angle.]

1. In geometry, a figure of eight sides and eight angles. When the sides and angles are equal, it is a regular octagon which may be inscribed in a circle.

2. In fortification, a place with eight bastions.

OCTAGONAL, a. Having eight sides and eight angles.

OCTAHEDRAL, a. [See Octahedron.] Having eight equal sides.

OCTAHEDRITE, n. Pyramidical ore of titanium.

OCTAHEDRON, n. [Gr. eight and a base.]

In geometry, a solid contained by eight equal and equilateral triangles. it is one of the five regular bodies.

OCTANDER, n. [Gr. eight, and a male.] In botany, a plant having eight stamens.

OCTANDRIAN, n. Having eight stamens.

OCTANGULAR, a. [L. octo, eight, and angular.] Having eight angles.

OCTANT, n. [L. octans, an eighth part, from octo, eight.]

In astronomy, that aspect of two planets in which they are distant from each other the eighth part of a circle or 45 degrees.

OCTAVE, a. [infra.] Denoting eight.

OCTAVE, n. [L. octavus, eighth.]

1. The eighth day after a festival.

2. Eight days together after a festival.

3. In music, an eighth, or an interval of seven degrees or twelve semitones. The octave is the most perfect of the chords, consisting of six full tones and two semitones major. It contains the whole diatonic scale.

OCTAVO, n. [L. octavus, eighth.] A book in which a sheet is folded into eight leaves. The word is used as a noun or an adjective. We say, an octavo, or an octavo volume. The true phrase is, a book in octavo.

OCTENNIAL, a. [L. octo, eight, and annus, year.]

1. Happening every eighth year.

2. Lasting eight years.

OCTILE, n. The same as octant, supra.

OCTOBER, n. [L. from octo, eighth; the eighth month of the primitive Roman year which began in march.]

The tenth month of the year in our calendar, which follows that of Numa and Julius Caesar.

OCTODECIMAL, a. [L. octo, eight, and decem, ten.]

In crystallography, designating a crystal whose prisms, or the middle part, has eight faces, and the two summits together ten faces.

OCTODENTATE, a. [L. octo, eight, and dentatus, toothed.] Having eight teeth.

OCTOFID, a. [L. octo, eight, and findo, to cleave.]

In botany, cleft or separated into eight segments; as a calyx.

OCTOGENARY, a. [L. octogenarius, from octogeni, eighty.] Of eighty years of age.

OCTOGENARY, n. A person eighty years of age.

OCTOLOCULAR, a. [L. octo, eight, and locus, place.] In botany, having eight cells for seeds.

OCTONARY, a. [L. octonarius.] Belonging to the number eight.

OCTONOCULAR, a. [L. octo, eight, and oculus, eye.] Having eight eyes.