Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary




A plant of the genus Medicago, cultivated for fodder.

LUCID, a. [L. lucidus, from luceo, to shine. See Light.]

1. Shining; bright; resplendent; as the lucid orbs of heaven.

2. Clear; transparent; pellucid; as a lucid stream.

3. Bright with the radiance of intellect; not darkened or confused by delirium or madness; marked by the regular operations of reason; as the lucid intervals of a deranged man.

4. Clear; distinct; presenting a clear view; easily understood; as a lucid order or arrangement.

LUCIDITY, n. Brightness. [Not used.]

LUCIDNESS, n. Brightness; clearness.

LUCIFER, n. [L. lux, lucis, light, and fero, to bring.]

1. The planet Venus, so called from its brightness.

2. Satan.

And when he falls, he falls like Lucifer, never to hope again.

LUCIFERIAN, a. Pertaining to Lucifer, or to the Luciferians.

LUCIFERIANS, n. A sect that followed Lucifer, bishop of Cagliari, in the fourth century. They held to the carnal nature of the soul, and that there is no place for repentance for such as fall.

LUCIFEROUS, a. [L. lucifer, supra.] Giving light; affording light or means of discovery.

LUCIFIC, a. [L. lux, light, and facio, to make.]

Producing light.

LUCIFORM, a. [L. lux, light, and forma, form.]

Having the form of light; resembling light.

The water prepares us, and purifies our luciform spirit to receive the divinity.

LUCK, n.

That which happens to a person; an event, good or ill, affecting a man’s interest or happiness, and which is deemed casual; fortune. Luck respects persons and their proceedings. We never say, in a literal sense, that a plant has the luck to grow in a particular place; or a fossil has the luck to be of a particular form. We say, a person has the good luck to escape from danger; or the ill luck to be ensnared or to suffer loss. He has had good luck, or bad luck in gaming, fishing or hunting. Luck, or what we call chance, accident, fortune, is an event which takes place without being intended or foreseen, or from some cause not under human control; that which cannot be previously known or determined with certainty by human skill or power.

Consider the gift of luck as below the care of a wise man.

LUCKILY, adv. [from lucky.] Fortunately; by good fortune; with a favorable issue; in a good sense. Luckily, we escaped injury.


1. The state of being fortunate; as the luckiness of a man or of an event.

2. Good fortune; a favorable issue or event. [In this sense, luck is generally used.]


1. Unfortunate; meeting with ill success; as a luckless gamester; a luckless maid.

2. Unfortunate; producing ill or no good.

Prayers made and granted in a luckless hour.


1. Fortunate; meeting with good success; as a lucky adventurer.

2. Fortunate; producing good by chance; favorable; as a lucky adventure; a lucky time; a lucky cast.

LUCRATIVE, a. [L. lucrativus, from lucror, to gain profit.]

Gainful; profitable; making increase of money or goods; as a lucrative trade; lucrative business or office.

LUCRE, n. lu’ker. [L. lucrum.] Gain in money or goods; profit; usually in an ill sense, or with the sense of something base or unworthy.

The lust of lucre, and the dread of death.

A bishop must be blameless - not given to filthy lucre. Titus 1:7.

LUCRIFEROUS, a. [L. lucrum, gain, and fero, to produce.] Gainful; profitable. [Little used.]

LUCRIFIC, a. [L. lucrum, gain, and facio to make.] Producing profit; gainful. [Not used.]

LUCTATION, n. [L. luctatio, from luctor, to wrestle or strive.]

Struggle; contest; effort to overcome in contest. [Little used.]

LUCTUAL, a. [L. luctus, grief.] Producing grief. [Not used.]

LUCUBRATE, v.i. [L. lucubro, to study by candle-light, from lucubrum, from lux, light.]

To study by candle-light or a lamp; to study by night.


1. Study by a lamp or by candle-light; nocturnal study.

2. That which is composed by night; that which is produced by meditation in retirement.

LUCUBRATORY, a. Composed by candle-light or by night.

LUCULENT, a. [L. luculentus, from luceo, to shine.]

1. Lucid; clear; transparent; as luculent rivers.

2. Clear; evident; luminous.

The most luculent testimonies that the christian religion hath.

LUCULLITE, n. A subspecies of carbonate of lime, of three kinds.

LUDIBRIOUS, a. [L. ludibriosus, from ludo, to sport.] Sportive; wanton.

LUDICROUS, a. [L. ludicer, from ludo, to sport.]

Sportive; burlesque; adapted to raise laughter, without scorn or contempt. Ludicrous differs from ridiculous; the latter implying contempt or derision.

Plutarch quotes this instance of Homer’s judgment, in closing a ludicrous scene with decency and instruction.

LUDICROUSLY, adv. Sportively; in burlesque; in a manner to raise laughter without contempt.

LUDICROUSNESS, n. Sportiveness; the quality of exciting laughter without contempt; merry cast.

LUDIFICATION, n. [L. ludificor.] The act of deriding.

LUDIFICATORY, a. Making sport; tending to excite derision.

LUFF, n. The palm of the hand.

LUFF, n.

Weather-gage, or part towards the wind; or the sailing of a ship close to the wind.

LUFF, v.i. To turn the head of a ship towards the wind; to sail nearer the wind. Hence, in the imperative, luff, is an order to put the tiller on the lee-side, in order to make the ship sail nearer the wind. Luff round, or luff a-lee, is the extreme of this movement, intended to throw the ship’s head into the wind. A ship is said to spring her luff, when she yields to the helm by sailing nearer the wind.

LUFF-TACKLE, n. A large tackle not destined for any particular place in the ship, but movable at pleasure.

LUG, v.t. [See Pluck.]

1. To haul; to drag; to pull with force, as something heavy and moved with difficulty.

Howler lugs him still through hedges.

2. To carry or convey with labor.

They must divide the image among them, and so lug off every one his share.

To lug out, to draw a sword, in burlesque.

LUG, v.i. To drag; to move heavily.
LUG, n.

1. A small fish.

2. In Scotland, an ear. Obs.

3. A pole or perch, a land-measure. Obs.

4. Something heavy to be drawn or carried. [Vulgar.]

LUGGAGE, n. [from lug.]

1. Any thing cumbersome and heavy to be carried; traveling baggage.

I am gathering up my luggage and preparing for my journey.

2. Something of more weight than value.

What do you mean to dote on such luggage?

LUGGER, n. A vessel carrying three masts with a running bowsprit and lug-sails.

LUGGS, n. An insect like an earth-worm, but having legs.

LUG-SAIL, n. A square sail bent upon a yard that hands obliquely to the mast at one third of its length.

LUGUBRIOUS, a. [L. lugubris, from lugeo, to weep.]

Mournful; indicating sorrow; as a lugubrious look.


1. Moderately warm; tepid; as lukewarm water; lukewarm heat.

2. Not ardent; not zealous; cool; indifferent; as lukewarm obedience; lukewarm patriots. Revelation 3:16.


1. With moderate warmth.

2. With indifference; coolly.


1. A mild or moderate heat.

2. Indifference; want of zeal or ardor; coldness.

The defect of zeal is lukewarmness, or coldness in religion.

LULL, v.t. [L. lallo. The sense is to throw down, to still, to appease. Seamen say, the wind lulls, when it subsides.]

To quiet; to compose; to cause to rest. The nation may be lulled into security.

- To lull him soft asleep.

Such sweet compulsion doth in music lie, to lull the daughters of necessity.

LULL, v.i. To subside; to cease; to become calm; as, the wind lulls.
LULL, n. Power or quality of soothing.

LULLABY, n. [lull and by. See By.]

A song to quiet babes; that which quiets.

LULLED, pp. Quieted; appeased; composed to rest.

LULLER, n. One that lulls; one that fondles.

LULLING, ppr. Stilling; composing to rest.

LUM, n. The chimney of a cottage.

LUMACHEL, LUMACHELLA, n. A calcarious stone composed of shells and coral conglutinated, but so far retaining their organization as to exhibit different colors, and so hard as to admit of polish.

LUMBAGINOUS, a. Pertaining to lumbago.

LUMBAGO, n. [L. lumbus, loins.] A pain in the loins and small of the back, such as precedes certain fevers.

A rheumatic affection of the muscles about the loins.

LUMBAR, a. [L. lumbus, loins.] Pertaining to the loins. The lumbar region is the posterior portion of the body between the false ribs and the upper edge of the haunch bone.


1. Any thing useless and cumbersome, or things bulky and thrown aside as of no use.

The very bed was violated - and thrown among the common lumber.

2. In America, timber sawed or split for use; as beams, joists, boards, planks, staves, hoops and the like.

3. Harm; mischief. [Local.]

LUMBER, v.t.

1. To heap together in disorder.

2. To fill with lumber; as, to lumber a room.

LUMBER-ROOM, n. A place for the reception of lumber or useless things.

LUMBRIC, n. [L. lumbricus, a worm.] A worm.

LUMBRICAL, a. [L. lumbricus, a worm.] Resembling a worm; as the lumbrical muscles.

LUMBRICAL, a. Pertaining to the loins.
LUMBRICAL, n. A muscle of the fingers and toes, so named from its resembling a worm. Of these muscles, there are four of the fingers and as many of the toes.

LUMBRICIFORM, n. [L. lumbricus, a worm, and form.] Resembling a worm in shape.

LUMINARY, n. [L. luminare, from lumen, light.]

1. Any body that gives light, but chiefly one of the celestial orbs. The sun is the principal luminary in our system. the stars are inferior luminaries.

2. One that illustrates any subject, or enlightens mankind; as, Bacon and Newton were distinguished luminaries.

LUMINATION. [See Illumination.]

LUMINE, v.t. To enlighten. [Not used. See Illumine.]

LUMINIFEROUS, a. [L. lumen, light, and fero, to produce.]

Producing light.

LUMINOUS, a. [L. luminosus.]

1. Shining; emitting light. The sun is a most luminous body.

2. Light; illuminated. The moon is rendered luminous by the rays of the sun.

3. Bright; shining; as a luminous color.

4. Clear; as a luminous essay or argument.

LUMINOUSLY, adv. With brightness or clearness.


1. The quality of being bright or shining; brightness; as the luminousness of the sea.

2. Clearness; perspicuity; as the luminousness of ideas, arguments or method.

LUMP, n.

1. A small mass of matter of no definite shape; as a lump of earth; a lump of butter; a lump of sugar.

2. A mass of things blended or thrown together without order or distinction; as copper, iron, gold, silver, lead, tin, promiscuously in one lump.

3. A cluster; as a lump of figs. 2 Kings 20:7.

In the lump, the whole together; in gross.

They may buy my papers in the lump.

LUMP, v.t.

1. To throw into a mass; to unite in a body or sum without distinction of particulars.

The expenses ought to be lumped.

2. To take in the gross.

LUMPEN, n. A long fish of a greenish color, and marked with lines.

LUMPFISH, n. A thick fish of the genus Cyclopterus. The back is sharp and elevated; the belly flat, and of a crimson color. along the body run five rows of sharp bony tubercles. It swims edgewise; called also a sea-owl.


1. Throwing into a mass or sum.

2. a. Bulky; heavy. [A low word.]


1. Like a lump; heavy; gross; bulky.

2. Dull; inactive.

LUMPISHLY, adv. Heavily; with dullness or stupidity.

LUMPISHNESS, n. Heaviness; dullness; stupidity.

LUMPY, a. Full of lumps or small compact masses.

Luna cornea, muriate of silver.

LUNACY, n. [from L. luna, the moon.]

1. A species of insanity of madness, supposed to be influenced by the moon, or periodical in the month.

2. Madness in general.

LUNAR, LUNARY, a. [L. lunaris.]

1. Pertaining to the moon; as lunar observations.

2. Measured by the revolutions of the moon; as lunar days or years.

3. Resembling the moon; orbed.

4. Under the influence of the moon. Obs.

Lunar caustic, nitrate of silver, fused in a low heat.

LUNARIAN, n. An inhabitant of the moon.

LUNARY, n. Moonwort, a plant of the genus Lunaria.

LUNATED, a. Formed like a half-moon.

LUNATIC, a. Affected by a species of madness, supposed to be influenced by the moon.

LUNATIC, n. A person affected by insanity, supposed to be influenced or produced by the moon, or by its position in its orbit; a madman.

LUNATION, n. [L. lunatio.] A revolution of the moon.


Literally, a swallow; but in usage, a portion of food taken at any time, except at a regular meal. It is not unusual to take a luncheon before dinner. The passengers in the line-ships regularly have their lunch.

I sliced the luncheon from the barley loaf.

LUNE, n. [L. luna, the moon.]

1. Any thing in the shape of a half-moon. [Little used.]

2. A fit of lunacy or madness, or a freak. [Not used.]

3. A leash; as the lune of a hawk.


1. In fortification, an enveloped counterguard, or elevation of earth made beyond the second ditch, opposite to the places of arms; or a covered place before the courtine, consisting of two faces that form an angle inward. It is commonly raised in ditches full of water, to serve instead of fausse brays, to dispute the enemy’s passage of the ditch.

2. In the manege, a half horse-shoe, which wants the spunge, or that part of the branch which runs towards the quarters of the foot.

3. A piece of felt to cover the eye of a vicious horse.

LUNET, n. A little moon

LUNG, n.

1. The lungs are the organs of respiration in man and many other animals. There are two of these organs, each of which occupies its cavity in the thorax. They alternately inhale and expel the air, by means of which the necessary function of respiration is carried on.

Each lung fills completely the cavity in which it is placed.

2. Formerly, a person having a strong voice, and a sort of servant.

LUNGE, n. [See Allonge.] A sudden push or thrust.

LUNGED, a. Having lungs, or the nature or resemblance of lunged; drawing in and expelling air.

LUNG-GROWN, a. Having lungs that adhere to the pleura.

LUNGIS, n. A lingerer; a dull drowsy fellow.

LUNGWORT, n. A plant of the genus Pulmonaria.

LUNIFORM, a. [L. luna, the moon, and form.] Resembling the moon.

LUNISOLAR, a. [L. luna, moon, and solaris, sol, sun.]

Compounded of the revolutions of the sun and moon.

The lunisolar year consists of 532 common years; found by multiplying the cycle of the sun by that of the moon.

LUNISTICE, n. [L. luna, the moon, and sto, steti, or sisto, to stand.]

The farthest point of the moon’s northing and southing, in its monthly revolution.

LUNT, n. The match-cord used for firing cannon.

LUNULAR, a. [from L. luna, the moon.] In botany, like the new moon; shaped like a small crescent.

LUNULATE, a. [from L. luna, the moon.] In botany, resembling a small crescent.

LUPERCAL, a. Pertaining to the Lupercalia, or feasts of the Romans in honor of Pan; as a noun, the feast itself.

LUPINE, n. [L. lupinus.] A kind of pulse. The genus Lupinus contains several species, mostly annual plants, bearing digitate leaves, and papilionaceous flowers. The seeds of the white lupine have a leguminous taste, accompanied with a disagreeable bitterness, and are said to be anthelmintic.

LUPULIN, n. [L. lupulus, hops.] The fine yellow powder of hops.

LURCH, n. [This is the same word radically as lurk. The primary sense is to run, start, leap or frisk about, as a man or beast that flies from one tree or other object to another to conceal himself. Hence we see the peculiar applicability of this word in seamen’s language.]

In seamen’s language, a sudden roll of a ship. A lee-lurch is a sudden roll to the leeward, as when a heavy sea strikes the ship on the weather side.

To leave in the lurch, to leave in a difficult situation, or in embarrassment; to leave in a forlorn state or without help.

LURCH, v.i.

1. To roll or pass suddenly to one side, as a ship in a heavy sea.

2. To withdraw to one side, or to a private place; to lie in ambush or in secret; to lie close. [For this, lurk is now used.]

3. To shift; to play tricks.

I am fain to shuffle, to hedge and to lurch.

LURCH, v.t.

1. To defeat; to disappoint, that is, to evade; as, to lurch the expectation. [Little used.]

2. To steal; to filch; to pilfer. [Little used.]

LURCH, v.t. [L. lurco, a glutton.] To swallow or eat greedily; to devour. [Not used.]


1. One that lies in wait or lurks; one that watches to pilfer, or to betray or entrap; a poacher.

Swift from the play the scudding lurcher flies.

2. A dog that watches for his game.

3. [L. lurco, a glutton.] A glutton; a gormandizer.

LURDAN, a. Blockish. [Not used.]

LURDAN, n. A clown; a blockhead. [Not used.]