Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



INDETERMINABLE, a. [in and determinable.]

1. That cannot be determined ascertained or fixed.

2. Not to be determined or ended.

INDETERMINATE, a. [in and determinate.]

1. Not determinate; not settled or fixed; not definite; uncertain; as an indeterminate number of years.

2. Not certain; not precise.

INDETERMINATELY, adv. Not in any settled manner; indefinitely; not with precise limits; as a space indeterminately large.

1. Not with certainty or precision of signification; as an idea indeterminately expressed.

INDETERMINATENESS, n. Indefiniteness; want of certain limits; want of precision.

INDETERMINATION, n. [in and determination.]

1. Want of determination; an unsettled or wavering state, as of the mind.

2. Want of fixed or stated direction.

INDETERMINED, a. [in and determined.]

Undetermined; unsettled; unfixed.

INDEVOTE, a. Not devoted.

INDEVOTED, a. Not devoted.

INDEVOTION, n. Want of devotion; absence of devout affections.

INDEVOUT, a. Not devout; not having devout affections.

INDEVOUTLY, adv. Without devotion.

INDEX, n. plu. indexes, sometimes indices. [L. connected with idico, to show; in and dico.]

1. That which points out; that which shows or manifests.

Tastes are the indexes of the different qualities of plants.

2. The hand that points to any thing, as the hour of the day, the road to a place.

3. A table of the contents of a book.

A table of references in an alphabetical order.

4. In anatomy, the fore finger, or pointing finger.

5. In arithmetic and algebra, that which shows to what power any quantity is involved; the exponent.

6. The index of a globe, or the gnomon, is a little style fitted on the north pole, which by turning with the globe, serves to point to certain divisions of the hour circle.

7. In music, a direct, which see.

Index expurgatory, in catholic countries, a catalogue of prohibited books.

INDEXICAL, a. Having the form of an index; pertaining to an index.

INDEXICALLY, adv. In the manner of an index.

INDEXTERITY, n. [in and dexterity.]

1. Want of dexterity or readiness in the use of the hands; clumsiness; awkwardness.

2. Want of skill or readiness in any art or occupation.

INDIA, n. A country in Asia, so named from the river Indus.

INDIAN, a. [from India, and this from Indus, the name of a river in Asia.] Pertaining to either of the Indies, East or West.

INDIAN, n. A general name of any native of the Indies; as an East Indian, or West Indian. it is particularly applied to any native of the American continent.

Indian Arrow Root, A plant of the genus Maranta.

Indian Berry, A plant of the genus Menispermum.

Indian Bread, A plant of the genus Jatropha.

Indian Corn, A plant, the maiz, of the genus Zea; a native of American.

Indian Cress, A plant of the genus Tropaeolum.

Indian Fig, A plant of the genus Cactus.

Indian Ink, A substance brought from China, used for water colors. It is in rolls or in square cakes, and is said to consist of lampblack and animal glue.

INDIANITE, n. [from India.] A mineral occurring in masses having a foliated structure and shining luster. Its color is white or gray.

INDIAN REED, n. A plant of the genus Canna.

INDIAN RED, n. A species of ocher, a very fine purple earth, of a firm, compact texture and great weight.

INDIA RUBBER, n. The caoutchouc, a substance of extraordinary elasticity, called also elastic gum or resin. It is produced by incision from the syringe tree of Cayenne.

INDICANT, n. [L. indicans; in and dico, to show.]

Showing; pointing out what is to be done for the cure of disease.

INDICATE, v.t. [L. indico; in and dico, to show.]

1. To show; to point out; to discover; to direct the mind to a knowledge of something not seen, or something that will probably occur in future. Thus, fermentation indicates a certain degree of heat in a liquor. A heavy swell of the sea in calm weather often indicates a storm at a distance. A particular kind of cloud in the west at evening, indicates the approach of rain.

2. To tell; to disclose.

3. In medicine, to show or manifest by symptoms; to point to as the proper remedies; as, great prostration of strength indicates the use of stimulants.

INDICATED, pp. Shown; pointed out; directed.

INDICATING, ppr. Showing; pointing out; directing.

INDICATION, n. The act of pointing out.

1. Mark; token; sign; symptom; whatever serves to discover what is not before known, or otherwise obvious.

The frequent stops they make in the most convenient places, are plain indications of their weariness.

2. In medicine, any symptom or occurrence in a disease, which serves to direct to suitable remedies.

3. Discovery made; intelligence given.

4. Explanation; display. [Little used.]

INDICATIVE, a. [L. indicativus.] Showing; giving intimation or knowledge of something not visible or obvious. Reserve is not always indicative of modesty; it may be indicative of prudence.

1. In grammar, the indicative mode is the form of the verb that indicates, that is, which affirms or denies; as, he writes, he is writing; they run; we misimprove advantages. It also asks questions; as, has the mail arrived?

INDICATIVELY, adv. In a manner to show or signify.

INDICATOR, n. He or that which shows or points out.

INDICATORY, a. Showing; serving to show or make known.

INDICE. [See Index.]

INDICOLITE, n. [indigo, or indico, and a stone.]

In mineralogy, a variety of shorl or tourmalin, of an indigo blue color, sometimes with a tinge of azure or green.

INDICT, v.t. indi’te. [L. indictus, from indico; in and dico, to speak.] In law, to accuse or charge with a crime or misdemeanor, in writing, by a grand jury under oath. It is the peculiar province of a grand jury to indict, as it is of a house of representatives to impeach. It is followed by of; as indicted of treason or arson.

INDICTABLE, a. indi’table. That may be indicted; as an indictable offender.

1. Subject to be presented by a grand jury; subject to indictment; as an indictable offense.

INDICTED, pp. indi’ted. Accused by a grand jury.

INDICTER, n. indi’ter. One who indicts.

INDICTING, ppr. indi’ting. Accusing, or making a formal or written charge of a crime by a grand jury.

INDICTION, n. [Low L. indictio, indico.]

1. Declaration; proclamation.

2. In chronology, a cycle of fifteen years, instituted by Constantine the Great; originally, a period of taxation. Constantine having reduced the time which the Romans were obliged to serve in the army to fifteen years, imposed a tax or tribute at the end of that term, to pay the troops discharged. This practice introduced the keeping of accounts by this period. But, as it is said, in honor of the great victory of Constantine over Mezentius, Sep. 24, A.D. 312, by which christianity was more effectually established, the council of Nice ordained that accounts of years should no longer be kept by Olympiads, but that the indiction should be used as the point from which to reckon and date years. This was begun Jan. 1, A.D. 313.

INDICTIVE, a. Proclaimed; declared.

INDICTMENT, n. indi’tement. A written accusation or formal charge of a crime or misdemeanor, preferred by a grand jury under oath to a court.

1. The paper or parchment containing the accusation of a grand jury.

INDIES, n. plu. of India.

INDIFFERENCE, n. [L. indifferentia; in and differo, to differ. Indifferency is little used.]

1. Equipoise or neutrality of mind between different persons or things; a state in which the mind is not inclined to one side more than the other; as when we see a contest of parties with indifference.

2. Impartiality; freedom from prejudice, prepossession or bias; as when we read a book on controverted points with indifference. [This is a different application of the first definition.]

3. Unconcernedness; a state of the mind when it feels no anxiety or interest in what is presented to it. No person of humanity can behold the wretchedness of the poor with indifference.

4. State in which there is no difference, or in which no moral or physical reason preponderates; as when we speak of the indifference of things in themselves.

INDIFFERENT, a. [L. indifferens.]

1. Neutral; not inclined to one side, party or thing more than to another.

Cato knows neither of them,

Indifferent in his choice to sleep or die.

2. Unconcerned; feeling no interest, anxiety or care respecting any thing. It seems to be impossible that a rational being should be indifferent to the means of obtaining endless happiness.

It was a remarkable law of Solon, that any person who, in the commotions of the republic, remained neuter, or an indifferent spectator of the contending parties, should be condemned to perpetual banishment.

3. Having no influence or preponderating weight; having no difference that gives a preference. It is indifferent which road we take.

4. Neutral, as to good or evil. Things in themselves indifferent, may be rendered evil by the prohibition of law.

5. Impartial; disinterested; as an indifferent judge, juror or arbitrator.

6. Passable; of a middling state or quality; neither good, nor the worst; as indifferent writing or paper.

Indifferent, used adverbially, as indifferent honest, is ungrammatical and vulgar.

INDIFFERENTLY, adv. Without distinction or preference; as, to offer pardon indifferently to all.

1. Equally; impartially; without favor, prejudice or bias.

--They may truly and indifferently minister justice.

2. In a neutral state; without concern; without wish or aversion.

Set honor in one eye and death i’th’ other,

And I will look on death indifferently.

3. Not well; tolerably; passably; as indifferently well; to be indifferently entertained.

INDIGENCE, INDIGENCY, n. [L. indigentia, from indigeo; in or ind, and egeo, to want, to lack.] Want of estate, or means of comfortable subsistence; penury; poverty. A large portion of the human race live in indigence, while others possess more than they can enjoy.

INDIGENE, n. [L. indigena; in or ind, and geno, gigno, to beget, or to be born.] One born in a country; a native animal or plant.

INDIGENOUS, a. [L. indigena, supra.]

1. Native; born in a country; applied to persons.

2. Native; produced naturally in a country or climate; not exotic; applied to vegetables.

INDIGENT, a. [L. indigens.] Destitute of property or means of comfortable subsistence; needy; poor.

Charity consists in relieving the indigent.

INDIGEST, n. A crude mass. [Not used.]

INDIGESTED, a. [in and digested; L. indigestus.]

1. Not digested; not concocted in the stomach; not changed or prepared for nourishing the body; indigested; crude.

2. Not separated into distinct classes or orders, or into proper from; not regularly disposed and arranged. Chaos is represented as a rude or indigested mass.

3. Not methodized; not reduced to due form; crude; as an indigested scheme.

4. Not prepared by heat.

5. Not brought to suppuration, as the contents of an abscess or boil; as an indigested wound.

INDIGESTIBLE, a. [in and digestible.]

1. Not digestible; not easily converted into chyme, or prepared in the stomach for nourishing the body.

2. Not to be received or patiently endured.

INDIGESTION, n. [in and digestion.] Want of due coction in the stomach; a failure of that change in food which prepares it for nutriment; crudity.

As a disease, dyspepsy; that state of the stomach, in which it is incapable of performing its natural healthy functions.

INDIGITATE, v.t. To point out with the finger.

INDIGITATION, n. The act of pointing out with the finger.

INDIGN, a. indi’ne. [L. indignus.] Unworthy; disgraceful.

INDIGNANCE, n. Indignation. [Not in use.]

INDIGNANT, a. [L. indignans, from indignor, to disdain; in and dignor, dignus.] Affected at once with anger and disdain; feeling the mingled emotions of wrath and scorn or contempt, as when a person is exasperated at one despised, or by a mean action, or by the charge of a dishonorable act. Goliath was indignant at the challenge of David.

He strides indignant, and with haughty cries

To single fight the fairy prince defies.

INDIGNATION, n. [L. indignatio.]

1. Anger or extreme anger, mingled with contempt, disgust or abhorrence.

When Haman saw Mordecai in the king’s gate, that he stood not up, nor moved for him, he was full of indignation against Mordecai. Esther 5:9.

2. The anger of a superior; extreme anger; particularly, the wrath of God against sinful men for their ingratitude and rebellion. 2 Kings 3:27.

3. The effects of anger; the dreadful effects of God’s wrath; terrible judgments. Isaiah 26:20.

4. Holy displeasure at one’s self for sin. 2 Corinthians 7:11.

INDIGNIFY, v.t. To treat disdainfully. [Not used.]

INDIGNITY, n. [L. indignitas.] Unmerited, contemptuous conduct towards another; any action towards another which manifests contempt for him; contumely; incivility or injury, accompanied with insult. Contemptuous words respecting one, or foul language in the presence of persons of character and delicacy, and indecent behavior, are indignities. Christ on the cross was treated with the foulest indignity.

INDIGNLY, adv. indi’nely. Unworthily.

INDIGO, n. [L. indicum, from India.] A substance or dye, prepared from the leaves and stalks of the indigo-plant, which are steeped in water till the pulp is extracted, when the tincture is drawn off and churned or agitated, till the dye begins to granulate. The flakes are then left to settle; the liquor is drawn off, and the indigo is drained in bags and dried in boxes. It is used for dyeing blue.

INDIGOMETER, n. An instrument for ascertaining the strength of indigo.

INDIGO-PLANT, n. A plant of the genus Indigofera, from which is prepared indigo. It is a native of Asia, Africa and America, and called by the native Americans, anil. The calyx is patent; the carina of the corol is furnished with a subulate, patulous spur on each side; the legume or pod is linear. Several species are cultivated for making indigo, of which the most important are the tinctoria, or common indigoplant, the anil, a larger species, and the disperma, which furnishes the Guatimala indigo.

INDILATORY, n. [in and dilatory. Not dilatory or slow.]

INDILIGENCE, n. [in and diligence.]

Want of diligence; slothfulness.

INDILIGENT, a. Not diligent; idle; slothful.

INDILIGENTLY, adv. Without diligence.

INDIMINISHABLE, a. That cannot be diminished.

INDIRECT, a. [L. indirectus; in and directus, from dirigo.]

1. Not straight or rectilinear; deviating from a direct line or course; circuitous. From New York to England by Bordeaux, is an indirect course.

2. Not direct; in a moral sense; not tending to a purpose by the shortest or plainest course, or by the obvious, ordinary means, but obliquely or consequentially; by remote means; as an indirect accusation; an indirect attack on reputation; an indirect answer or proposal. Hence,

3. Wrong; improper.

4. Not fair; not honest; tending to mislead or deceive.

Indirect dealing will be discovered one time or other.

5. Indirect tax, is a tax or duty on articles of consumption, as an excise, customs, etc.

INDIRECTION, n. [in and direction.] Oblique course or means.

1. Dishonest practice.

INDIRECTLY, adv. Not in a straight line or course; obliquely.

1. Not by direct means.

2. Not in express terms. He indirectly mentioned the subject.

3. Unfairly.

Your crown and kingdom indirectly held.

INDIRECTNESS, n. Obliquity; devious course.

1. Unfairness; dishonesty.

INDISCERNIBLE, a. [in and discernible.] That cannot be discerned; not visible or perceptible; not discoverable.

INDISCERNIBLENESS, n. Incapability of being discerned.

INDISCERNIBLY, adv. In a manner not to be seen or perceived.

INDISCERPIBLE, a. Indiscerptible.

INDISCERPTIBILITY, n. The quality of being incapable of dissolution, or separation of parts.

INDISCERPTIBLE, a. [in and discerptible.] Incapable of being destroyed by dissolution, or separation of parts.

INDISCIPLINABLE, a. [in and disciplinable.] That cannot be disciplined or subjected to discipline; not capable of being improved by discipline.

INDISCOVERABLE, a. [in and discoverable.]

That cannot be discovered; undiscoverable.

INDISCOVERY, n. [in and discovery.] Want of discover. [Unusual.]

INDISCREET, a. [in and discreet.] Not discreet; wanting in discretion; imprudent; inconsiderate; injudicious; as persons.

1. Not according to discretion or sound judgment; as indiscreet behavior.

INDISCREETLY, INDISCRETELY, adv. Not discreetly; without prudence; inconsiderately; without judgment.

INDISCRETE, a. Not discrete or separated.

INDISCRETION, n. [in and discretion.] Want of discretion; imprudence. The grossest vices pass under the fashionable name, indiscretions.

INDISCRIMINATE, a. [L. indiscriminatus. See Discriminate.]

1. Undistinguishing; not making any distinction; as the indiscriminate voraciousness of a glutton.

2. Not having discrimination; confused.

3. Undistinguished or undistinguishable.

INDISCRIMINATELY, adv. Without distinction; in confusion.

INDISCRIMINATING, ppr. or a. Not making any distinction; as the victims of an indiscriminating spirit of rapine.

INDISCRIMINATION, n. Want of discrimination or distinction.

INDISCUSSED, a. Not discussed.

INDISPENSABILITY, a. Indispensableness. [Little used.]

INDISPENSABLE, a. Not to be dispensed with; that cannot be omitted, remitted, or spared; absolutely necessary or requisite. Air and water are indispensable to the life of man. Our duties to God and to our fellow men are of indispensable obligation.

INDISPENSABLENESS, n. The state or quality of being absolutely necessary.

INDISPENSABLY, adv. Necessarily; in a manner or degree that forbids dispensation, omission or want.

INDISPERSED, a. Not dispersed.

INDISPOSE, v.t. s as z.

1. To disincline; to alienate the mind and render it averse or unfavorable to any thing. A love of pleasure indisposes the mind to severe study and steady attention to business. The pride and selfishness of men indispose them to religious duties.

2. To render unfit; to disqualify for its proper functions; to disorder; as the distemperature of indisposed organs.

3. To disorder slightly, as the healthy functions of the body.

It made him rather indisposed than sick.

4. To make unfavorable or disinclined; with towards.

The king was sufficiently indisposed towards the persons, or the principles of Calvin’s disciples.

INDISPOSED, pp. or a. Disinclined; averse; unwilling; unfavorable.

1. Disordered; disqualified for its functions; unfit.

2. Slightly disordered; not in perfect health.

INDISPOSEDNESS, n. Disinclination; slight aversion; unwillingness; unfavorableness.

1. Unfitness; disordered state.

INDISPOSING, ppr. Disinclining; rendering somewhat averse, unwilling or unfavorable.

1. Disordering; rendering unfit.


1. Disinclination; aversion; unwillingness; dislike; as the indisposition of men to submit to severe discipline; an indisposition to abandon vicious practices.

A general indisposition towards believing.

2. Slight disorder of the healthy functions of the body; tendency to disease. Indisposition is a slight defect of healthy action in bodily functions, rather than settled or marked disease.

3. Want of tendency or natural appetency or affinity; as the indisposition of two substances to combine.