Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



INDISPUTABLE, a. Not to be disputed; incontrovertible; incontestable; too evident to admit of dispute.

INDISPUTABLENESS, n. The state or quality of being indisputable, or too clear to admit of controversy.

INDISPUTABLY, adv. Without dispute; in a manner or degree not admitting of controversy; unquestionably; without opposition.

INDISPUTED, a. Not disputed or controverted; undisputed.


1. The quality of being indissoluble, or not capable of being dissolved, melted or liquefied.

2. The quality of being incapable of a breach; perpetuity of union, obligation or binding force.

INDISSOLUBLE, a. [L. indissolubilis; in and dissolubilis, from dissolvo; dis and solvo, to loosen.]

1. Not capable of being dissolved, melted or liquefied, as by heat or water. Few substances are absolutely indissoluble by heat; many are indissoluble in water.

2. That cannot be broken or rightfully violated; perpetually binding or obligatory; as an indissoluble league or covenant. The marriage covenant is indissoluble, except in certain specified cases.

3. Not to be broken; firm; stable; as indissoluble friendship; indissoluble bands of love.

INDISSOLUBLENESS, The quality of being incapable of dissolution, separation or breach; indissolubility.

INDISSOLUBLY, adv. In a manner resisting separation; firmly united beyond the power of separation; in a manner not to be dissolved or broken.

On they move

Indissolubly firm.

INDISSOLVABLE, a. [in and dissolvable.]

1. That cannot be dissolved; not capable of being melted or liquefied.

2. Indissoluble; that cannot be broken; perpetually firm and binding; as an indissolvable bond of union.

3. Not capable of separation into parts by natural process.

INDISTANCY, n. Want of distance or separation. [A bad word and not used.]

INDISTINCT, a. [L. indistinctus; in and distinctus. See Distinct.]

1. Not distinct or distinguishable; not separate in such a manner as to be perceptible by itself. The parts of a substance are indistinct, when they are so blended that the eye cannot separate them, or perceive them as separate. Sounds are indistinct, when the ear cannot separate them. Hence,

2. Obscure; not clear; confused; as indistinct ideas or notions.

3. Imperfect; faint; not presenting clear and well defined images; as indistinct vision; an indistinct view.

4. Not exactly discerning. [Unusual.]

INDISTINCTIBLE, a. Undistinguishable. [Little used.]

INDISTINCTION, n. Want of distinction; confusion; uncertainty.

The indistinction of many of the same name - hath made some doubt.

1. Indiscrimination; want of distinction.

2. Equality of condition or rank.

INDISTINCTLY, adv. Without distinction or separation; as when parts of a thing are indistinctly seen.

1. Confusedly; not clearly; obscurely; as when ideas are indistinctly comprehended.

2. Not definitely; not with precise limits; as when the border of a thing is indistinctly marked.

INDISTINCTNESS, n. Want of distinction or discrimination; confusion; uncertainty.

1. Obscurity; faintness; as the indistinctness of vision.

INDISTINGUISHABLE, a. [in and distinguishable.]

That cannot be distinguished or separated; undistinguishable.

INDISTINGUISHING, a. Making no difference; as indistinguishing liberalities.

INDISTURBANCE, n. [in and disturbance.]

Freedom from disturbance; calmness; repose; tranquillity.

INDITCH, v.t. To bury in a ditch. [Little used.]

INDITE, v.t. [L. indico, indictum; in and dico, to speak.]

1. To compose; to write; to commit to words in writing.

Hear how learn’d Greece her useful rules indites.

2. To direct or dictate what is to be uttered or written. The late President Dwight indited his sermons.

My heart is inditing a good matter. Psalm 45:1.

INDITE, v.i. To compose an account of.

[This is from the same original as indict. The different applications of the word have induced authors to express each in a different orthography, but without good reason.]

INDITED, pp. Composed; written; dictated.

INDITEMENT, n. The act of inditing.

INDITING, ppr. Committing to words in writing; dictating what shall be written.

INDIVIDABLE, a. Not capable of division.

INDIVIDED, a. Undivided.

INDIVIDUAL, [L. individuus; in and dividuus, from divido, to divide.]

1. Not divided, or not to be divided; single; one; as an individual man or city.

--Under his great vicegerent reign abide

United, as one individual soul.

2. Pertaining to one only; as individual labor or exertions.

INDIVIDUAL, n. A single person or human being. This is the common application of the word; as, there was not an individual present.

1. A single animal or thing of any kind. But this word, as a noun, is rarely applied except to human beings.

INDIVIDUALITY, n. Separate or distinct existence; a state of oneness.

INDIVIDUALIZE, v.t. To distinguish; to select or mark as an individual, or to distinguish the peculiar properties of a person from others.

INDIVIDUALIZED, pp. Distinguished as a particular person or thing.

INDIVIDUALIZING, ppr. Distinguishing as an individual.

INDIVIDUALLY, adv. Separately; by itself; to the exclusion of others. Thirty men will unitedly accomplish what each of them individually cannot perform.

1. With separate or distinct existence.

How should that subsist solitarily by itself, which hath no substance, but individually the very same whereby others subsist with it?

2. Inseparably; incommunicably.

Omniscience--an attribute individually proper to the Godhead.

INDIVIDUATE, a. Undivided.

INDIVIDUATE, v.t. To make single to distinguish from others of the species.

Life is individuated into infinite numbers, that have their distinct sense and pleasure.

INDIVIDUATION, a. The act of making single or the same, to the exclusion of others.

1. The act of separating into individuals by analysis.

INDIVIDUITY, n. Separate existence. [Not used.]

INDIVINITY, n. Want of divine power.

INDIVISIBILITY, n. [See Indivisible.]

The state or property of being indivisible.

INDIVISIBLE, a. s as z. [in and divisible. See Divide.]

That cannot be divided, separated or broken; not separable into parts. Perhaps the particles of matter, however small, cannot be considered as indivisible. The mind or soul must be indivisible. A mathematical point is indivisible.

INDIVISIBLE, n. In geometry, indivisibles are the elements or principles into which a body or figure may be resolved; elements infinitely small.

INDIVISIBLENESS, n. Indivisibility, which see.

INDIVISIBLY, adv. So as not to be capable of division.

INDOCIBLE, a. [in and docible; L. doceo, to teach.]

1. Unteachable; not capable of being taught, or not easily instructed; dull in intellect.

2. Intractable, as a beast.

INDOCILITY, n. Unteachableness; dullness of intellect.

1. Intractableness, as of a beast.

INDOCTRINATE, v.t. [L. in and doctrina, learning.]

To teach; to instruct in rudiments or principles.

He took much delight in indoctrinating his young unexperienced favorite.

INDOCTRINATED, pp. Taught; instructed in the principles of any science.

INDOCTRINATING, ppr. Teaching; instructing in principles or rudiments.

INDOCTRINATION, n. Instruction in the rudiments and principles of any science; information.

INDOLENCE, n. [L. indolentia; in and doleo, to be pained.]

1. Literally, freedom from pain.

2. Habitual idleness; indisposition to labor; laziness; inaction or want of exertion of body or mind, proceeding from love of ease or aversion to toil. Indolence, like laziness, implies a constitutional or habitual love of ease; idleness does not.

INDOLENT, a. Habitually idle or indisposed to labor; lazy; listless; sluggish; indulging in ease; applied to persons.

1. Inactive; idle; as an indolent life.

2. Free from pain; as an indolent tumor.

INDOLENTLY, adv. In habitual idleness and ease; without action, activity or exertion; lazily.

Calm and serene you indolently sit.

INDOMITABLE, a. Untamable. [Not used.]

INDOMPTABLE, a. [L. domo, to tame.] Not to be subdued. [Unusual.]

INDORSABLE, a. That may be indorsed, assigned and made payable to order.

INDORSE, v.t. indors’. [L. in and dorsum, the back.]

1. To write on the back of a paper or written instrument; as, to indorse a note or bill of exchange; to indorse a receipt or assignment on a bill or note. Hence,

2. To assign by writing an order on the back of a note or bill; to assign or transfer by indorsement. The bill was indorsed to the bank.

To indorse in blank, to write a name only on a note or bill, leaving a blank to be filled by the indorsee.

INDORSEE, n. The person to whom a note or bill is indorsed, or assigned by indorsement.

INDORSEMENT, n. indors’ment. The act of writing on the back of a note, bill, or other written instrument.

1. That which is written on the back of a note, bill, or other paper, as a name, an order for payment, the return of an officer, or the verdict of a grand jury.

INDORSER, n. The person who indorses, or writes his name on the back of a note or bill of exchange, and who, by this act, as the case may be, makes himself liable to pay the note or bill.

INDRAUGHT, n. in’draft. [in and draught.]

An opening from the sea into the land; an inlet.

INDRENCH, v.t. [in and drench.]

To overwhelm with water; to drown; to drench.

INDUBIOUS, a. [L. indubius; in and dubius, doubtful.]

1. Not dubious or doubtful; certain.

2. Not doubting; unsuspecting; as indubious confidence.

INDUBITABLE, a. [L. indubitabilis; in and dubitabilis, from dubito, to doubt.] Not to be doubted; unquestionable; evident; apparently certain; too plain to admit of doubt.

INDUBITABLENESS, n. State of being indubitable.

INDUBITABLY, adv. Undoubtedly; unquestionably; in a manner to remove all doubt.

INDUBITATE, a. [L. indubitatus.]

Not questioned; evident; certain. [Not used.]

INDUCE, v.t. [L. induco; in and duco, to lead.]

1. To lead, as by persuasion or argument; to prevail on; to incite; to influence by motives. The emperor could not be induced to take part in the contest.

2. To produce by influence.

As this belief is absolutely necessary for all mankind, the evidence for inducing it must be of that nature as to accommodate itself to all species of men.

3. To produce; to bring on; to cause; as a fever induced by extreme fatigue. The revolution in France has induced a change of opinions and of property.

4. To introduce; to bring into view.

The poet may be seen inducing his personages in the first Iliad.

5. To offer by way of induction or inference. [Not used.]

INDUCED, pp. Persuaded by motives; influenced; produced; caused.

INDUCEMENT, n. Motive; any thing that leads the mind to will or to act; any argument, reason or fact that tends to persuade or influence the mind. The love of ease is an inducement to idleness. The love of money is an inducement to industry in good men, and to the perpetration of crimes in the bad.

INDUCER, n. He or that which induces persuades or influences.

INDUCIBLE, a. That may be induced; that may be offered by induction.

1. That may be caused.

INDUCING, ppr. Leading or moving by reason or arguments; persuading; producing; causing.

INDUCT, v.t. [L. inductus, from induco; in and duco, to lead.]

Literally, to being in or introduce. Hence, appropriately,

1. To introduce, as to a benefice or office; to put in actual possession of an ecclesiastical living or of any other office, with the customary forms and ceremonies. Clerks or parsons are inducted by a mandate from the bishop to the archdeacon, who usually issued a precept to other clergymen to perform the duty. In the United States, certain civil officers and presidents of colleges, are inducted into office with appropriate ceremonies.

INDUCTED, pp. Introduced into office with the usual formalities.

INDUCTILE, a. [in and ductile.] Not capable of being drawn into threads, as a metal. [See Ductile.]

INDUCTILITY, n. The quality of being inductile.

INDUCTING, ppr. Introducing into office with the usual formalities.

INDUCTION, n. [L. inductio. See Induct.]

1. Literally, a bringing in; introduction; entrance. Hence,

2. In logic and rhetoric, the act of drawing a consequence from two or more propositions, which are called premises.

3. The method of reasoning from particulars to generals, or the inferring of one general proposition from several particular ones.

4. The conclusion or inference drawn from premises or from propositions which are admitted to be true, either in fact, or for the sake of argument.

5. The introduction of a clergyman into a benefice, or giving possession of an ecclesiastical living; or the introduction of a person into an office by the usual forms and ceremonies. Induction is applied to the introduction of officers, only when certain oaths are to be administered or other formalities are to be observed, which are intended to confer authority or give dignity to the transaction. In Great Britain, induction is used for giving possession of ecclesiastical offices. In the United States, it is applied to the formal introduction of civil officers, and the higher officers of colleges.

INDUCTIVE, a. Leading or drawing; with to.

A brutish vice,

Inductive mainly to the sin of Eve.

1. Tending to induce or cause.

They may be inductive of credibility. [Unusual.]

2. Leading to inferences; proceeding by induction; employed in drawing conclusions from promises; as inductive reasoning.

INDUCTIVELY, adv. By induction or inference.

INDUCTOR, n. The person who inducts another into an office or benefice.

INDUE, v.t. indu’. [L. induo. This word coincides nearly in signification with endow, that is, to put on, to furnish. Dueo is evidently a contracted word.]

1. To put on something; to invest; to clothe; as, to indue matter with forms, or man with intelligence.

2. To furnish; to supply with; to endow.

INDUED, pp. Clothed; invested.

INDUEMENT, n. indu’ment. A putting on; endowment.

INDUING, ppr. Investing; putting on.

INDULGE, v.t. indulj’. [L. indulgeo; tolero.]

1. To permit to be or to continue; to suffer; not to restrain or oppose; as, to indulge sloth; to indulge the passions; to indulge pride, selfishness or inclinations.

2. To gratify, negatively; not to check or restrain the will, appetite or desire; as, to indulge children in amusements.

3. To gratify, positively; to grant something not of right, but as a favor; to grant in compliance with wishes or desire.

Yet, yet a moment, one dim ray of light

Indulge, dread Chaos and eternal Night!

4. In general, to gratify; to favor; to humor; to yield to the wishes of; to withhold restraint from.

It is remarked by Johnson, that if the matter of indulgence is a single thing, it has with before it; if it is a habit, it has in. He indulged himself with a glass of wine; he indulges himself in sloth or intemperance.

INDULGE, v.t. indulj’. To permit to enjoy or practice; or to yield to the enjoyment or practice of, without restraint or control; as, to indulge in sin, or in sensual pleasure. This form of expression is elliptical, a pronoun being omitted; as, to indulge myself or himself.

Most men are more willing to indulge in easy vices, than to practice laborious virtues.

1. To yield; to comply; to be favorable. [Little used.]

INDULGED, pp. Permitted to be and to operate without check or control; as love of pleasure indulged to excess.

1. Gratified; yielded to; humored in wishes or desires; as a child indulged by his parents.

2. Granted.

INDULGENCE, INDULGENCY, n. Free permission to the appetites, humor, desires, passions or will to act or operate; forbearance of restraint or control. How many children are ruined by indulgence! Indulgence is not kindness or tenderness, but it may be the effect of one or the other, or of negligence.

1. Gratification; as the indulgence of lust or of appetite.

2. Favor granted; liberality; gratification.

If all these gracious indulgencies are without effect on us, we must perish in our folly.

3. In the Romish church, remission of the punishment due to sins, granted by the pope or church, and supposed to save the sinner from purgatory; absolution from the censures of the church and from all transgressions.

INDULGENT, a. Yielding to the wishes, desires, humor or appetites of those under one’s care; compliant; not opposing or restraining; as an indulgent parent.

1. Mild, favorable; not severe; as the indulgent censure of posterity.

2. Gratifying; favoring; with of.

The feeble old, indulgent of their ease.

INDULGENTIAL, a. Relating to the indulgencies of the Romish church. [Not well authorized.]

INDULGENTLY, adv. With unrestrained enjoyment.

1. Mildly; favorably; not severely.

INDULGER, n. One who indulges.

INDULGING, ppr. Permitting to enjoy or to practice; gratifying.

INDULT, INDULTO, n. [L. indultus, indulged.]

1. In the church of Rome, the power of presenting to benefices, granted to certain persons, as to kings and cardinals.

2. In Spain, a duty, tax or custom, paid to the king for all goods imported from the West Indies in the galleons.

INDURATE, v.i. [L. induro; in and duro, to harden.]

To grow hard; to harden or become hard. Clay indurates by drying, and by extreme heat.

INDURATE, v.t. To make hard. Extreme heat indurates clay. Some fossils are indurated by exposure to the air.

1. To make unfeeling; to deprive of sensibility; to render obdurate; as, to indurate the heart.

INDURATED, pp. Hardened; made obdurate.

INDURATING, ppr. Hardening; rendering insensible.

INDURATION, n. The act of hardening, or process of growing hard.

1. Hardness of heart; obduracy.

INDUSTRIOUS, a. [L. industrius, from industria.]

1. Diligent in business or study; constantly, regularly or habitually occupied in business; assiduous; opposed to slothful and idle.

Frugal and industrious men are commonly friendly to the established government.

2. Diligent in a particular pursuit, or to a particular end; opposed to remiss or slack; as industrious to accomplish a journey, or to reconcile contending parties.

3. Given to industry; characterized by diligence; as an industrious life.

4. Careful; assiduous; as the industrious application of knowing men.

INDUSTRIOUSLY, adv. With habitual diligence; with steady application of the powers of body or of mind.

1. Diligently; assiduously; with care; applied to a particular purpose. He attempted industriously to make peace. He industriously concealed his name.

INDUSTRY, n. [L. industria.] Habitual diligence in any employment, either bodily or mental; steady attention to business; assiduity; opposed to sloth and idleness. We are directed to take lessons of industry from the bee. Industry pays debts, while idleness or despair will increase them.

INDWELLER, n. An inhabitant.

INDWELLING, a. [in and dwelling.] Dwelling within; remaining in the heart, even after it is renewed; as indwelling sin.

INDWELLING, n. Residence within, or in the heart or soul.

INEBRIANT, a. [See Inebriate.] Intoxicating.

INEBRIANT, n. Any thing that intoxicates, as opium.

INEBRIATE, v.t. [L. inebrio, inebriatus; in and ebrio, to intoxicate; ebrius, soaked, drenched, drunken. The Latin ebrius is contracted from ebrigus or ebregus, as appears from the Spanish embriagar, to intoxicate, embriago, inebriated; Gr. to water or irrigate. See Rain.]

1. To make drunk; to intoxicate.

2. To disorder the senses; to stupefy, or to make furious or frantic; to produce effects like those of liquor, which are various in different constitutions.

INEBRIATE, v.i. To be or become intoxicated.
INEBRIATE, n. A habitual drunkard.

Some inebriates have their paroxysms of inebriety terminated by much pale urine, profuse sweats, etc.