Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary
INCUMBROUS — INDESTRUCTIBLE
INCUMBROUS, a. Cumbersome; troublesome.
INCUR, v.t. [L. incurro, to run against; in and curro, to run.]
1. Literally, to run against; hence, to become liable to; to become subject to. Thus, a thief incurs the punishment of the law by the act of stealing, before he is convicted, and we have all incurred the penalties of God’s law.
2. To bring on; as, to incur a debt; to incur guilt; to incur the displeasure of God; to incur blame or censure.
3. To occur; to meet; to press on.
INCURABILITY, n. The state of being incurable; impossibility of cure; insusceptibility of cure or remedy.
1. That cannot be cured; not admitting of cure; beyond the power of skill or medicine; as an incurable disease.
2. Not admitting remedy or correction; irremediable; remediless; as incurable evils.
INCURABLE, n. A person diseased beyond the reach of cure.
INCURABLENESS, n. The state of not admitting cure or remedy.
INCURABLY, adv. In a manner or degree that renders cure impracticable.
INCURIOSITY, n. Want of curiosity; inattentiveness; indifference.
INCURIOUS, a. [in and curious.] Destitute of curiosity; not curious or inquisitive; inattentive.
INCURIOUSNESS, n. Want of curiosity or inquisitiveness.
INCURRED, pp. Brought on.
INCURRING, ppr. Becoming subject or liable to; bringing on.
1. Literally, a running into; hence, an entering into a territory with hostile intention; an inroad; applied to the expeditions of small parties or detachments of an enemy’s army, entering a territory for attack, plunder or destruction of a post or magazine. Hence it differs from invasion, which is the hostile entrance of any army for conquest. During the revolution, the British troops made an incursion to Danbury, and destroyed the magazines. In opposing this incursion, Gen. Wooster was killed.
2. Attack; occurrence; as sins of daily incursion. [Unusual.]
INCURVATE, v.t. [L. incurvo; in and curvus, bent.]
To bend; to crook; to turn from a right line or straight course.
INCURVATE, a. Curved inwards or upwards.
INCURVATED, pp. Bent; turned from a rectilinear direction.
INCURVATING, ppr. Bending; turning from a right line.
INCURVATION, n. The act of bending.
1. The state of being bent, or turned from a rectilinear course; curvity; crookedness.
2. The act of bowing, or bending the body in respect or reverence.
INCURVE, v.t. incurv’. To bend; to make crooked.
INCURVITY, n. [L. incurvus.] A state of being bent or crooked; crookedness; a bending inward.
INDAGATE, v.t. [L. indago.] To seek or search out. [Not used.]
INDAGATION, n. The act of searching; search; inquiry; examination. [Little used.]
INDAGATOR, n. A searcher; one who seeks or inquires with diligence. [Little used.]
INDART, v.t. [in and dart.] To dart in; to thrust or strike in.
Indebitatus assumpsit. [See Assumpsit.]
INDEBT, a verb, is never used.
INDEBTED, a. indet’ted.
1. Being in debt; having incurred a debt; held or obliged to pay. A is indebted to B; he is indebted in a large sum, or to a large amount.
2. Obliged by something received, for which restitution or gratitude is due. We are indebted in our parents for their care of us in infancy and youth. We are indebted to God for life. We are indebted to the christian religion for many of the advantages, and much of the refinement of modern times.
INDEBTEDNESS, n. indet’tedness. The state of being indebted.
INDEBTMENT, n. indet’ment. The state of being indebted. [Little used.]
INDECENCY, n. [L. indecens, indeceo; in and deceo, to become.]
That which is unbecoming in language or manners; any action or behavior which is deemed a violation of modesty, or an offense to delicacy, as rude or wanton actions, obscene language, and whatever tends to excite a blush in a spectator. Extreme assurance or impudence may also be deemed indecency of behavior towards superiors. [See Indecorum.]
INDECENT, a. [L. indecens.] Unbecoming; unfit to be seen or heard; offensive to modesty and delicacy; as indecent language; indecent manners; an indecent posture or gesture.
INDECENTLY, adv. In a manner to offend modesty or delicacy.
INDECIDUOUS, a. [in and deciduous.]
Not falling, as the leaves of trees in autumn; lasting; evergreen.
INDECIMABLE, a. Not liable to the payment of tithes.
INDECISION, n. s as z. [in and decision.] Want of decision; want of settled purpose or of firmness in the determinations of the will; a wavering of mind; irresolution.
INDECISIVE, a. [in and decisive.] Not decisive; not bringing to a final close or ultimate issue; as an indecisive battle or engagement; an argument indecisive of the question.
1. Unsettled; wavering; vacillating; hesitating; as an indecisive state of mind; an indecisive character.
INDECISIVELY, adv. Without decision.
INDECISIVENESS, n. The state of being undecided; unsettled state; state of not being brought to a final issue.
INDECLINABLE, a. [L. indeclinabilis; in and declino.]
Not declinable; not varied by terminations; as, pondo, in Latin, is an indeclinable noun.
INDECLINABLY, adv. Without variation.
INDECOMPOSABLE, a. s as z. [in and decomposable, decompose.]
Not capable of decomposition, or of being resolved into the primary constituent elements.
INDECOMPOSABLENESS, n. Incapableness of decomposition.
INDECOROUS, a. [L. indecorus; in and decor, decus, deceo, to become.] Unbecoming; violating good manners; contrary to the established rules of good breeding, or to the forms of respect which age and station require. It is indecorous in a young person to take the highest place in company, when his superiors are present. Indecorous is sometimes equivalent to indecent; but it is less frequently applied to actions which offend modesty and chastity.
INDECOROUSLY, adv. In an unbecoming manner.
INDECOROUSNESS, n. Violation of good manners in words or behavior.
INDECORUM, n. [L. in and decorum.] Impropriety of behavior; that in behavior or manners which violates the established rules of civility, or the duties of respect which age or station requires; an unbecoming action. It is sometimes synonymous with indecency; but indecency, more frequently than indecorum, is applied to words or actions which refer to what nature and propriety require to be concealed or suppressed.
INDEED, adv. [in and deed.] In reality; in truth; in fact.
The carnal mind is enmity against God; for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be. Romans 8:7.
Indeed is usually emphatical, but in some cases more so than in others; as, this is true; it is indeed.
I were a beast indeed to do you wrong.
Some sons indeed; some very few we see,
Who keep themselves from this infection free.
There is indeed no greater pleasure in visiting these magazines of war--
It is used to note concession or admission; as, ships not so large indeed, but better manned.
Indeed is used as an expression of surprise, or for the purpose of obtaining confirmation of a fact stated. Indeed! is it possible? is it so in fact?
INDEFATIGABLE, a. [L. indefatigabilis; in and defatigo, fatigo, to fatigue.] Unwearied; not tired; not exhausted by labor; not yielding to fatigue; as indefatigable exertions; indefatigable attendance or perseverance.
Upborne with indefatigable wings.
INDEFATIGABLENESS, n. Unweariedness; persistency.
INDEFATIGABLY, adv. Without weariness; without yielding to fatigue.
INDEFATIGATION, n. Unweariedness. [Not used.]
INDEFEASIBILITY, n. [from indefeasible.] The quality or state of being not subject to be made void; as the indefeasibility of a title.
INDEFEASIBLE, a. s as z. [in and defeasible; facio.]
Not to be defeated; that cannot be made void; as an indefeasible estate or title.
INDEFEASIBLY, adv. In a manner not to be defeated or made void.
INDEFECTIBILITY, n. [from indefectible.]
The quality of being subject to no defect or decay.
INDEFECTIBLE, a. [in and defect.] Unfailing; not liable to defect, failure or decay.
INDEFECTIVE, a. Not defective; perfect; complete.
INDEFEISIBLE, a. Indefeasible. [Not used.]
INDEFENSIBILITY, n. [form indefensible.]
The quality or state of not being capable of defense or vindication.
INDEFENSIBLE, a. [in and defensible, from defend.]
1. That cannot be defended or maintained. A military post may be indefensible. A bad cause is indefensible.
2. Not to be vindicated or justified. An improper action or indecent expression is indefensible.
INDEFENSIVE, a. Having no defense.
INDEFICIENCY, n. The quality of not being deficient, or of suffering no delay.
INDEFICIENT, a. Not deficient; not failing; perfect.
INDEFINABLE, a. That cannot be defined.
INDEFINITE, a. [L. indefinitus; in and definitus, definio, to define; de and finio, to end, finis, end.]
1. Not limited or defined; not determinate; not precise or certain; as an indefinite time. An indefinite proposition, term or phrase, is one which has not a precise meaning or limited signification.
2. That has no certain limits, or to which the human mind can affix none, as indefinite space. A space may be indefinite, though not infinite.
INDEFINITELY, adv. Without any settled limitation; as space indefinitely extended.
1. Not precisely; not with certainty or precision; as, to use a word indefinitely.
INDEFINITENESS, n. The quality of being undefined, unlimited, or not precise and certain.
INDEFINITUDE, n. Quantity not limited by our understanding, though yet finite. [Not used.]
INDELIBERATE, a. [in and deliberate.] Done or performed without deliberation or consideration; sudden; unpremeditated; as the indeliberate commission of sin.
INDELIBERATELY, adv. Without deliberation or premeditation.
INDELIBILITY, n. The quality of being indelible.
INDELIBLE, a. [L. indelebilis; in and delebilis, from deleo, to blot out.]
1. Not to be blotted out; that cannot be effaced or canceled; as indelible letters or characters. Indelible ink is such as cannot be taken out of paper or cloth, or not by ordinary means.
2. Not to be annulled.
They are endued with indelible power from above, to feed and govern this household. [Unusual.]
3. That cannot be effaced or lost; as, impressions on the mind may be indelible; reproach or stain on reputation may be indelible.
INDELIBLY, adv. In a manner not to be blotted out or effaced; too deeply imprinted to be effaced, or to vanish.
INDELICACY, n. [in and delicacy.] Want of delicacy; want of decency in language or behavior, regarding what nature and manners require to be concealed.
1. Want of a nice sense of propriety, or nice regard to refinement in manners or in the treatment of others; rudeness; coarseness of manners or language; that which is offensive to refined taste or purity of mind.
INDELICATE, a. Wanting delicacy; indecent; but it expresses less than indecent; as an indelicate word or expression; indelicate behavior; indelicate customs.
1. Offensive to good manners, or to purity of mind.
INDELICATELY, adv. Indecently; in a manner to offend against good manners or purity of mind.
INDEMNIFICATION, n. [from indemnify.]
1. The act of indemnifying, saving harmless, or securing against loss, damage or penalty.
2. Security against loss.
3. Reimbursement of loss, damage or penalty.
INDEMNIFIED, pp. Saved harmless; secured against damage.
INDEMNIFY, v.t. [in and damnify; L. damnificus; damnum, loss.]
1. To save harmless; to secure against loss, damage or penalty.
2. To make good; to reimburse to one what he has lost. We indemnify a man, by giving sufficient security to make good a future loss, or by actual reimbursement of loss, after it has occurred.
INDEMNIFYING, ppr. Saving harmless; securing against loss; reimbursing loss.
INDEMNITY, n. [L. in and damnum, loss.]
1. Security given to save harmless; a writing or pledge by which a person is secured against future loss.
2. Security against punishment.
INDEMONSTRABLE, a. [in and demonstrable.]
That cannot be demonstrated.
INDENIZATION, n. The act of naturalizing, or the patent by which a person is made free.
INDENIZEN, v.t. To invest with the privileges of a free citizen.
INDENT, v.t. [L. dens, a tooth.]
1. To notch; to jag; to cut any margin into points or inequalities, like a row of teeth; as, to indent the edge of paper.
The margins--are indented.
2. To bind out by indentures or contract; as, to indent a young man to a shoemaker; to indent a servant.
INDENT, v.i. To contract; to bargain or covenant. [From the practice of using indented writings or counterparts.]
INDENT, n. Incisure; a cut or notch in the margin of any thing, or a recess like a notch.
1. A stamp.
INDENT, n. A certificate or indented certificate issued by the government of the United States at the close of the revolution, for the principal or interest of the public debt.
INDENTATION, INDENTMENT, n. A notch; a cut in the margin of paper or other things.
1. A recess or depression in any border.
INDENTED, pp. Cut in the edge into points, like teeth.
1. Bound out by indented writings; as an indented apprentice or servant.
2. Bound out by writings, or covenants in writing. [The practice of indenting writings is in some places discontinued, but the term remains in use.]
INDENTING, ppr. Cutting into notches.
1. Binding out by covenants in writing.
INDENTMENT, n. Indenture.
INDENTURE, n. A writing containing a contract. Indentures are generally duplicates, laid together and indented, so that the two papers or parchments correspond to each other. But indenting is often neglected, while the writings or counterparts retain the name of indentures.
INDENTURE, v.t. To indent; to bind by indentures; as, to indenture an apprentice.
INDEPENDENCE, n. [in and dependence.]
1. A state of being not dependent; complete exemption from control, or the power of others; as the independence of the Supreme Being.
2. A state in which a person does not rely on others for subsistence; ability to support one’s self.
3. A state of mind in which a person acts without bias or influence from others; exemption from undue influence; self-direction. Independence of mind is an important qualification in a judge.
Declaration of Independence, the solemn declaration of the Congress of the United States of America, on the 4th of July 1766, by which they formally renounced their subjection to the government of Great Britain.
INDEPENDENT, a. [in and dependent.]
1. Not dependent; not subject to the control of others; not subordinate. God is the only being who is perfectly independent.
2. Not holding or enjoying possessions at the will of another; not relying on others; not dependent. We all wish to be independent in property; yet few men are wholly independent, even in property, and none independent for the supply of their wants.
3. Affording the means of independence; as an independent estate.
4. Not subject to bias or influence; not obsequious; self-directing; as a man of an independent mind.
5. Not connected with. It is believed the soul may exist independent of matter.
6. Free; easy; self-commanding; bold; unconstrained; as an independent air or manner.
7. Separate from; exclusive.
I mean the account of that obligation in general, under which we conceive ourselves bound to obey a law, independent of those resources which the law provides for its own enforcement.
8. Pertaining to an independent or congregational church. It is followed by of or on, both of which are well authorized. On is most conformable to analogy, for it always follows depend, but of is most common.
INDEPENDENT, n. One who, in religious affairs, maintains that every congregation of christians is a complete church, subject to no superior authority, and competent to perform every act of government in ecclesiastical affairs.
INDEPENDENTLY, adv. Without depending or relying on others; without control.
1. Without undue bias or influence; not obsequiously.
2. Without connection with other things.
INDEPRECABLE, a. That cannot be deprecated.
INDEPREHENSIBLE, a. That cannot be found out.
INDEPRIVABLE, a. That cannot be deprived.
INDESCRIBABLE, a. That cannot be described.
INDESCRIPTIVE, a. Not descriptive or containing just description.
INDESERT, n. s as z. [in and desert.] Want of merit or worth.
INDESINENT, a. [L. in and desino, to cease; de and sino.]
Not ceasing; perpetual.
INDESINENTLY, adv. Without cessation.
INDESTRUCTIBILITY, n. [from indestructible.]
The quality of resisting decomposition, or of being incapable of destruction.