Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



HAYRICK, n. A rick of hay; usually a long pile for preservation in the open air.

HAYSTACK, n. A stack or large conical pile of hay in the open air, laid up for preservation.

HAYWARD, n. [hay and ward, hedgeward.] A person who keeps the common herd or cattle of a town, and guards hedges or fences. In New England, the hayward is a town officer whose duty it to impound cattle, and particularly swine which are found running at large in the highways, contrary to law.

HAYDENITE, n. A mineral discovered by Dr. Hayden, near Baltimore. It occurs in garnet colored crystals.

HAZARD, n. [L. casus, a fall, and ard, the common termination.]

1. Chance; accident; casualty; a fortuitous event; that which falls or comes suddenly or unexpectedly, the cause of which is unknown, or whose operation is unforeseen or unexpected.

I will stand the hazard of the die.

2. Danger; peril; risk. He encountered the enemy at the hazard of his reputation and life.

Men are led on from one stage of life to another, in a condition of the utmost hazard.

3. A game at dice.

To run the hazard, to risk; to take the chance; to do or neglect to do something, when the consequences are not foreseen, and not within the powers of calculation.

HAZARD, v.t. To expose to chance; to put in danger of loss or injury; to venture; to risk; as, to hazard life to save a friend; to hazard an estate on the throw of a dice; to hazard salvation for temporal pleasure.

Men hazard nothing by a course of evangelical obedience.

1. To venture to incur, or bring on; as, to hazard the loss or reputation.

HAZARD, v.i. To try the chance; to adventure; to run the risk or danger.

Pause a day or two, before you hazard--

HAZARDABLE, a. That is liable to hazard or chance.

HAZARDED, pp. Put at risk or in danger; ventured.

HAZARDER, n. One who ventures or puts at stake.

HAZARDING, ppr. Exposing to danger or peril; venturing to bring on.

HAZARDOUS, a. Dangerous; that exposes to peril or danger of loss or evil; as a hazardous attempt or experiment.

HAZARDOUSLY, adv. With danger of loss or evil; with peril.

HAZARDRY, n. Rashness; temerity.

1. Gaming in general.

HAZE, n. [The primary sense of this word is probably to mix, or to turn, stir and make thick.]

Fog; a watery vapor in the air, or a dry vapor like smoke, which renders the air thick.

HAZE, v.i. To be foggy. [A local word.]
HAZE, v.t. To frighten. [Not used.]

HAZEL, n. ha’zl. A shrub of the genus Corylus, bearing a nut containing a kernel of a mild farinaceous taste.

HAZEL, a. ha’zl. Pertaining to the hazel or like it; of a light brown color, like the hazel-nut.

HAZEL-EARTH, n. A kind of red loam.

HAZEL-NUT, n. The nut or fruit of the hazel.

HAZELLY, a. Of the color of the hazelnut; of a light brown.

HAZY, a. [See Haze.] Foggy; misty; thick with vapor; as hazy weather; the hazy north.

HE, pronoun of the third person; nom. he; poss. his; obj. him. [L. id, for hid; hic.]

1. A pronoun, a substitute for the third person, masculine gender, representing the man or male person named before.

Thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee. Genesis 3:16.

Thou shalt fear Jehovah thy God; him shalt thou serve. Deuteronomy 10:20.

2. It often has reference to a person that is named in the subsequent part of the sentence. He is the man.

3. He is often used without reference to any particular person, and may be referred to any person indefinitely that answers the description. It is then synonymous with any man.

He that walketh with wise men, shall be wise. Proverbs 13:20.

4. He, when a substitute for man in its general sense, expressing mankind, is of common gender, representing, like its antecedent, the whole human race.

My Spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh. Genesis 6:3.

5. Man; a male.

I stand to answer thee, or any he the proudest of thy sort.

In this use of he, in the ludicrous style, the word has no variation of case. In the foregoing sentence, he is in the objective case, or position, and the word is to be considered as a noun.

6. He is sometimes prefixed to the names of animals to designate the male kind, as a he-goat, a he-bear. In such cases, he is to be considered as an adjective, or the two words as forming a compound.

HEAD, n. hed.

1. The uppermost part of the human body, or the foremost part of the body of prone and creeping animals. This part of the human body contains the organs of hearing, seeing, tasting and smelling; it contains also the brain, which is supposed to be the seat of the intellectual powers, and of sensation. Hence the head is the chief or more important part, and is used for the whole person, in the phrase, let the evil fall on my head.

2. An animal; an individual; as, the tax was raised by a certain rate per head. And we use the singular number to express many. The herd contains twenty head of oxen.

Thirty thousand head of swine.

3. A chief; a principal person; a leader; a commander; one who has the first rank or place, and to whom others are subordinate; as the head of an army; the head of a sect or party. Ephesians 5:23.

4. The first place; the place of honor, or of command. The lord mayor sat at the head of the table. The general marched at the head of his troops.

5. Countenance; presence; in the phrases, to hide the head, to show the head.

6. Understanding; faculties of the mind; sometimes in a ludicrous sense; as, a man has a good head, or a strong head. These men laid their heads together to form the scheme. Never trouble your head about this affair. So we say, to beat the head; to break the head; that is, to study hard, to exercise the understanding or mental faculties.

7. Face; front; forepart.

The ravishers turn head, the fight renews. [Unusual.]

8. Resistance; successful opposition; in the phrase, to make head against, that is, to advance, or resist with success.

9. Spontaneous will or resolution; in the phrases, of his own head, on their own head. But of is more usual than on.

10. State of a deer’s horns by which his age is known. The buck is called, the fifth year, a buck of the first head.

11. The top of a thing, especially when larger than the rest of the thing; as the head of a spear; the head of a cabbage; the head of a nail; the head of a mast.

12. The forepart of a thing, as the head of a ship, which includes the bows on both sides; also, the ornamental figure or image erected on or before the stem of a ship.

13. The blade or cutting part of an ax, distinct from the helve.

14. That which rises on the top; as the head or yeast of beer.

15. The upper part of a bed, or bed-stead.

16. The brain.

They turn their heads to imitate the sun.

17. The dress of the head; as a laced head. [Unusual.]

18. The principal source of a stream; as the head of the Nile.

19. Altitude of water in ponds, as applicable to the driving of mill-wheels. The mill has a good head of water.

20. Topic of discourse; chief point or subject; a summary; as the heads of a discourse or treatise.

21. Crisis; pitch; highth. The disease has grown to such a head as to threaten life.

22. Influence; force; strength; pitch. The sedition got to such a head as not to be easily quelled.

23. Body; conflux.

24. Power; armed force.

My lord, my lord, the French have gathered head.

25. Liberty; freedom from restrain; as, to give a horse the head. Hence,

26. License; freedom from check, control or restraint. Children should not have their heads.

He has too long given his unruly passions the head.

27. The hair of the head; as a head of hair.

28. The top of corn or other plant; the part on which the seed grows.

29. The end, or the boards that form the end; as the head of a cask.

30. The part most remote from the mouth or opening into the sea; as the head of a bay, gulf or creek.

31. The maturated part of an ulcer or boil; hence, to come to a head, is to suppurate.

Head and ears, a phrase denoting the whole person, especially when referring to immersion. He plunged head and ears into the water. He was head and ears in debt, that is, completely overwhelmed.

Head and shoulders, by force; violently; as, to drag one head and shoulders.

They bring in every figure of speech, head and shoulders.

Head or tail, or head nor tail, uncertain; not reducible to certainty.

Head, as an adj. or in composition, chief; principal; as a head workman.

By the head, in seamen’s language, denotes the state of a ship laden too deeply at the fore-end.

HEAD, v.t. hed. To lead; to direct; to act as leader to; as, to head an army; to head an expedition; to head a riot.

1. To behead; to decapitate. [Unusual.]

2. To form a head to; to fit or furnish with a head; as, to head a nail.

3. To lop; as, to head trees.

4. To go in front of; to get into the front; as, to head a drove of cattle.

5. To set on the head; as, to head a cask.

6. To oppose; to veer round and blow in opposition to the course of a ship; as, the wind heads us.

HEAD, v.i. hed. To originate; to spring; to have its source, as a river.

A broad river that heads in the great Blue Ridge of mountains.

HEADACH, n. hed’ake. Pain in the head.

HEADBAND, n. hed’band. A fillet; a band for the head; also, the band at each end of a book. Isaiah 3:20.

HEADBOROUGH, n. hed’burro. In England, formerly, the chief of a frank-pledge, tithing or decennary, consisting of ten families; called in some counties, borsholder, that is, borough’s elder, and sometimes tithing man.

HEADDRESS, n. hed’dress. The dress of the head; the covering or ornaments of a woman’s head.

1. The crest, or tuft of feathers on a fowl’s head.

HEADED, pp. hed’ed. Led; directed; furnished with a head; having a top. This is used in composition, as clear-headed, long-headed, thick-headed, etc.

HEADER, n. hed’er. One who heads nails or pins.

1. One who leads a mob or party.

2. The first brick in the angle of a wall.

HEADFAST, n. hed’fast. A rope at the head of a ship to fasten it to a wharf or other object.

HEADFIRST, adv. hedfurst. With the head foremost.

HEADGARGLE, n. hed’gargle. A disease of cattle.

HEADGEAR, n. hed’gear. The dress of a woman’s head.

HEADINESS, n. hed’iness. [See Heady.] Rashness; precipitation; a disposition to rush forward without due deliberation or prudence.

1. Stubbornness; obstinacy.

HEADING, n. hed’ing. Timber for the heads of casks.

HEADLAND, n. hed’land. A cape; a promontory; a point of land projecting from the shore into the sea, or other expanse of water.

1. A ridge or strip of unplowed land at the ends of furrows, or near a fence.

HEADLESS, a. hed’less. Having no head; beheaded; as a headless body, neck or carcass.

1. Destitute of a chief or leader.

2. Destitute of understanding or prudence; rash; obstinate.

HEADLONG, adv. hed’long. With the head foremost; as, to fall headlong.

1. Rashly; precipitately; without deliberation.

--He hurries headlong to his fate.

2. Hastily; without delay or respite.

HEADLONG, a. hed’long. Steep; precipitous.

1. Rash; precipitate; as headlong folly.

HEADMAN, n. hed’man. A chief; a leader.

HEADMOLD-SHOT, n. A disease in children, in which the sutures of the skull, usually the coronal, ride, that is, when their edges shoot over one another, and are so close-locked as to compress the brain; often occasioning convulsions and death.

HEADMONEY, n. hed’munny. A capitation-tax.

HEADMOST, a. hed’most. Most advanced; most forward; first in a line or order of progression; as the headmost ship in a fleet.

HEAD-PAN, n. hed’-pan. The brain-pan. [Not in use.]

HEAD-PIECE, n. hed’-pece. Armor for the head; a helmet; a morion.

1. Understanding; force of mind. [Not common.]

HEADQUARTERS, n. plu. The quarters or place of residence of the commander-in-chief of an army.

1. The residence of any chief, or place from which orders are issued.

HEAD-ROPE, n. hed’-rope. That part of a bolt-rope which terminates any sail on the upper edge, and to which it is sewed.

HEAD-SAIL, n. hed’-sail. The head-sails of a ship are the sails which are extended on the fore-mast and bowsprit, as the foresail, foretop-sail, jib, etc.

HEAD-SEA, n. hed’-sea. Waves that meet the head of a ship or roll against her course.

HEADSHAKE, n. hed’shake. A significant shake of the head.

HEADSHIP, n. hed’ship. Authority; chief place.

HEADSMAN, n. hed’sman. One that cuts off heads; an executioner. [Unusual.]

HEADSPRING, n. hed’spring. Fountain; source; origin.

HEADSTALL, n. hed’stall. That part of a bridle which encompasses the head.

HEADSTONE, n. hed’stone. The principal stone in a foundation; the chief or corner stone.

1. The stone at the head of a grave.

HEADSTRONG, a. hed’strong. Violent; obstinate; ungovernable; resolute to run his own way; bent on pursuing his own will; not easily restrained.

Now let the headstrong boy my will control.

1. Directed by ungovernable will or proceeding from obstinacy; as a headstrong course.

HEADSTRONGNESS, n. Obstinacy. [Not in use.]

HEADTIRE, n. hed’tire. Dress or attire for the head. 1 Esdras 3:6.

HEADWAY, n. hed’way. The motion of an advancing ship. A ship makes headway, when she advances, as from a state of rest.

HEAD-WIND, n. hed’-wind. A wind that blows in a direction opposite to the ship’s course.

HEAD-WORKMAN, n. The chief workman of a party; a foreman in a manufactory.

HEADY, a. hed’y. [See Head.] Rash; hasty; precipitate; violent; disposed to rush forward in an enterprise without thought or deliberation; hurried on by will or passion; ungovernable.

All the talent required, is to be heady, to be violent on one side or the other.

1. Apt to affect the head; inflaming; intoxicating; strong; as spirituous liquors.

Champagne is a heady wine.

2. Violent; ;impetuous; as a heady current. [Not usual.]

HEAL, v.t. [L. celo; Heb. to be whole or entire, all.]

1. To cure of a disease or wound and restore to soundness, or to that state of body in which the natural functions are regularly performed; as, to heal the sick.

Speak, and my servant shall be healed. Matthew 8:8.

2. To cure; to remove or subdue; as, to heal a disease.

3. To cause to cicatrize; as, to heal a sore or wound.

4. To restore to soundness; as, to heal a wounded limb.

5. To restore purity to; to remove feculence or foreign matter.

Thus saith the Lord, I have healed these waters. 2 Kings 2:21.

6. To remove, as differences or dissension; to reconcile, as parties at variance; as, to heal a breach or difference.

7. In Scripture, to forgive; to cure moral disease and restore soundness.

I will heal their backsliding. Hosea 14:4.

8. To purify from corruptions, redress grievances and restore to prosperity. Jeremiah 14:19.

9. To cover, as a roof with tiles, slate, lead, etc.

HEAL, v.i. To grow sound; to return to a sound state; as, the limb heals, or the wound heals; sometimes with up or over; it will heal up or over.

HEALABLE, a. That may be healed.

HEALED, pp. Restored to a sound state.

HEALER, n. He or that which cures, or restores to soundness.

HEALING, ppr. Curing; restoring to a sound state.

1. Tending to cure; mild; mollifying.

HEALING, n. The act of curing.

1. The act of covering.

HEALTH, n. helth. [from heal.] That state of an animal or living body, in which the parts are sound, well organized and disposed, and in which they all perform freely their natural functions. In this state the animal feels no pain. This word is applied also to plants.

1. Sound state of the mind; natural vigor of faculties.

2. Sound state of the mind, in a moral sense; purity; goodness.

There is no health in us.

3. Salvation or divine favor, or grace which cheers God’s people. Psalm 43:5.

4. Wish of health and happiness; used in drinking. Come, love and health to all; an elliptical phrase, for, I wish health to you.

HEATHFUL, a. helth’ful. Being in a sound state, as a living or organized being; having the parts or organs entire, and their functions in a free, active and undisturbed operation; free from disease. We speak of a healthful body, a healthful person, a healthful plant.

1. Serving to promote health; wholesome; salubrious; as a healthful air or climate; a healthful diet.

2. Indicating health or soundness; as a healthful condition.

3. Salutary; promoting spiritual health.

4. Well disposed; favorable.

A healthful ear to hear. [Unusual.]

HEALTHFULLY, adv. In health; wholesomely.

HEALTHFULNESS, n. A state of being well; a state in which the parts of a living body are sound, and regularly perform their functions.

1. Wholesomeness; salubrity; state or qualities that promote health; as the healthfulness of the air, or of climate, or of diet, or of exercises.

HEALTHILY, a. [See Health.] Without disease.

HEALTHINESS, n. The state of health; soundness; freedom from disease; as the healthiness of an animal or plant.

HEALTHLESS, a. Infirm; sickly.

1. Not conducive to health. [Little used.]

HEALTHSOME, a. Wholesome. [Not used.]

HEALTHY, a. Being in a sound state; enjoying health; hale; sound; as a healthy body or constitution.

1. Conducive to health; wholesome; salubrious; as a healthy exercise; a healthy climate; healthy recreations.

HEAM, n. In beasts, the same as afterbirth in women.

HEAP, n.

1. A pile or mass; a collection of things laid in a body so as to form an elevation; as a heap of earth or stones.

Huge heaps of slain around the body rise.

2. A crowd; a throng; a cluster; applied to living persons. [Inelegant and not in use.]

3. A mass of ruins.

Thou hast made of a city a heap. Isaiah 25:2.

HEAP, v.t.

1. To throw or lay in a heap; to pile; as, to heap stones; often with up; as, to heap up earth; or with on; as, to heap on wood or coal.

2. To amass; to accumulate; to lay up; to collect in great quantity; with up; as, to heap up treasures.

Though the wicked heap up silver as the dust-- Job 27:16.

3. To add something else, in large quantities.

4. To pile; to add till the mass takes a roundish form, or till it rises above the measure; as, to heap any thing in measuring.

HEAPED, pp. Piled; amassed; accumulated.

HEAPER, n. One who heaps, piles or amasses.

HEAPING, ppr. Piling; collecting into a mass.

HEAPY, a. Lying in heaps; as heapy rubbish.

HEAR, v.t. pret. and pp. heard, but more correctly heared.

[L. audio; auris.]

1. To perceive by the ear; to feel an impression of sound by the proper organs; as, to hear sound; to hear a voice; to hear words.

2. To give audience or allowance to speak.

He sent for Paul, and heard him concerning the faith in Christ. Acts 24:24.

3. To attend; to listen; to obey.

Today, if ye will hear his voice, harden not your heart. Psalm 95:7-8.

4. To attend favorably; to regard.

They think they shall be heard for their much speaking. Matthew 6:7.

5. To grant an answer to prayer.

I love the Lord, because he hath heard my voice. Psalm 116:1.

6. To attend to the facts, evidence, and arguments in a cause between parties; to try in a court of law or equity. The cause was heard and determined at the last term; or, it was heard at the last term, and will be determined at the next. So 2 Samuel 15:3.

7. To acknowledge a title; a Latin phrase.

Hear’st thou submissive, but a lowly birth.

8. To be a hearer of; to sit under the preaching of; as, what minister do you hear? [A colloquial use of the word.]

9. To learn.

I speak to the world those things which I have heard of him. John 8:26.

10. To approve and embrace.

They speak of the world, and the world heareth them. 1 John 4:5.

To hear a bird sing, to receive private communication.

HEAR, v.i. To enjoy the sense or faculty of perceiving sound. He is deaf, he cannot hear.

1. To listen; to hearken; to attend.

He hears with solicitude.

2. To be told; to receive by report.

I hear there are divisions among you, and I partly believe it. 1 Corinthians 11:18.

HEARD, HEARED, pp. Perceived by the ear. [In pronunciation, this word should not be confounded with herd.]

HEARER, n. One who hears; one who attends to what is orally delivered by another; an auditor; one of an audience.

HEARING, ppr. Perceiving by the ear, as sound.

1. Listening to; attending to; obeying; observing what is commanded.

2. Attending to witnesses or advocates in a judicial trial; trying.

HEARING, n. The faculty or sense by which sound is perceived.

1. Audience; attention to what is delivered; opportunity to be heard. I waited on the minister, but could not obtain a hearing.

2. Judicial trial; attention to the facts, testimony and arguments in a cause between parties, with a view to a just decision.

3. The act of perceiving sounds; sensation or perception of sound.

I have heard of thee by the hearing of the ear. Job 42:5.

And to the others he said in my hearing. Ezekiel 9:5.

4. Reach of the ear; extent within which sound may be heard. He was not within hearing.

HEARKEN, v.i. h`arken.

1. To listen; to lend the ear; to attend to what is uttered, with eagerness or curiosity.

The furies hearken, and their snakes uncurl.

2. To attend; to regard; to give heed to what is uttered; to observe or obey.

Hearken, O Israel, to the statutes and the judgments which I teach you. Deuteronomy 4:1.

3. To listen;; to attend; to grant or comply with.

Hearken thou to the supplication of thy servant. 1 Kings 8:30.

HE`ARKEN, v.t. h`arken. To hear by listening. [Little used.]

HEARKENER, n. h`arkener. A listener; one who hearkens.

HEARKENING, ppr. h`arkening. Listening; attending; observing.

HEARSAL, for Rehearsal. [Not in use.]

HEARSAY, n. [hear and say.] Report; rumor; fame; common talk. He affirms without any authority except hearsay. The account we have depends on hearsay. It is sometimes used as an adjective; as hearsay evidence.

HEARSE, n. hers. [See Herse.] A temporary monument set over a grave.

1. The case or place in which a corpse is deposited.

2. A carriage for conveying the dead to the grave. [See Herse.]

3. A hind in the second year of her age.

HEARSE, v.t. hers. To inclose in a hearse.

HEARSECLOTH, n. hers’cloth. A pall; a cloth to cover a hearse.

HEARSELIKE, a. hers’like. Suitable to a funeral.

HEART, n. [L. cor, cordis, and allied to Eng. core, or named from motion, pulsation.]

1. A muscular viscus, which is the primary organ of the blood’s motion in an animal body, situated in the thorax. From this organ all the arteries arise, and in it all the veins terminate. By its alternate dilatation and contraction, the blood is received from the veins, and returned through the arteries, by which means the circulation is carried on and life preserved.

2. The inner part of any thing; the middle part or interior; as the heart of a country, kingdom or empire; the heart of a town; the heart of a tree.

3. The chief part; the vital part; the vigorous or efficacious part.

4. The seat of the affections and passions, as of love, joy, grief, enmity, courage, pleasure etc.

The heart is deceitful above all things. Every imagination of the thoughts of the heart is evil continually. We read of an honest and good heart, and an evil heart of unbelief, a willing heart, a heavy heart, sorrow of heart, a hard heart, a proud heart, a pure heart. The heart faints in adversity, or under discouragement, that is, courage fails; the heart is deceived, enlarged, reproved, lifted up, fixed, established, moved, etc.

5. By a metonymy, heart is used for an affection or passion, and particularly for love.

The king’s heart was towards Absalom. 2 Samuel 14:1.

6. The seat of the understanding; as an understanding heart. We read of men wise in heart, and slow of heart.

7. The seat of the will; hence, secret purposes, intentions or designs. There are many devices in a man’s heart. The heart of kings is unsearchable. The Lord tries and searches the heart. David had it in his heart to build a house of rest for the ark.

Sometimes heart is used for the will, or determined purpose.

The heart of the sons of men is fully set in them to do evil. Ecclesiastes 8:11.

8. Person; character; used with respect to courage or kindess.

Cheerly, my hearts.

9. Courage; spirit; as, to take heart; to give heart; to recover heart.

10. Secret thoughts; recesses of the mind.

Michal saw king David leaping and dancing before the Lord, and she despised him in her heart. 2 Samuel 6:16.

11. Disposition of mind.

He had a heart to do well.

12. Secret meaning; real intention.

And then show you the heart of my message.

13. Conscience, or sense of good or ill.

Every man’s heart and conscience--doth either like or disallow it.

14. Strength; power of producing; vigor; fertility. Keep the land in heart.

That the spent earth may gather heart again.

15. The utmost degree.

This gay charm--hath beguiled me

To the very heart of loss.

To get or learn by heart, to commit to memory; to learn so perfectly as to be able to repeat without a copy.

To take to heart, to be much affected; also, to be zealous, ardent or solicitous about a thing; to have concern.

To lay to heart, is used nearly in the sense of the foregoing.

To set the heart on, to fix the desires on; to be very desirous of obtaining or keeping; to be very fond of.

To set the heart at rest, to make one’s self quiet; to be tranquil or easy in mind.

To find in the heart, to be willing or disposed.

I find it in my heart to ask your pardon.

For my heart, for tenderness or affection.

I could not for my heart refuse his request.

Or, this phrase may signify, for my life; if my life was at stake.

I could not get him for my heart to do it.

To speak to one’s heart, in Scripture, to speak kindly to; to comfort; to encourage.

To have in the heart, to purpose; to have design or intention.

A hard heart, cruelty; want of sensibility.

HEART, v.i. To encourage. [Not much used.]

HEART-ACH, n. Sorrow; anguish of mind.

HEART-ALLURING, a. Suited to allure the affections.

HEART-APPALLING, a. Dismaying the heart.

HEART-BREAK, n. Overwhelming sorrow or grief.

HEART-BREAKER, a. A lady’s curl; a love-lock.

HEART-BREAKING, a. Breaking the heart; overpowering with grief or sorrow.

HEART-BREAKING, n. Overpowering grief; deep affliction.

HEART-BRED, a. Bred in the heart.

HEART-BROKEN, a. Deeply afflicted or grieved.

HEART-BURIED, a. Deeply immersed.

HEART-BURN, n. Cardialgy; a disease or affection of the stomach, attended with a sensation of heat and uneasiness, and occasioned by indigestion, surfeit or acidity.