Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



HARVEST-FLY, n. A large four-winged insect of the cicada kind, common in Italy.

HARVEST-HOME, n. The time of harvest.

1. The song sung by reapers at the feast made at the gathering of corn, or the feast itself.

2. The opportunity of gathering treasure.

HARVESTING, ppr. Reaping and collecting, as ripe corn and other fruits.

HARVEST-LORD, n. The head-reaper at the harvest.

HARVEST-MAN, n. A laborer in harvest.

HARVEST-QUEEN, n. An image representing Ceres, formerly carried about on the last day of harvest.

HASH, v.t. [Eng. to hack. See Hack.] To chop into small pieces; to mince and mix; as, to hash meat.

HASH, n. Minced meat, or a dish of meat and vegetables chopped into small pieces and mixed.

HASK, n. A case made of rushes or flags. [Not used.]

HASLET, n. [See Harslet.]

HASP, n.

1. A clasp that passes over a staple to be fastened by a padlock.

2. A spindle to wind thread or silk on.

H`ASP, v.t. To shut or fasten with a hasp.

HASSOC, n. A thick mat or bass on which persons kneel in church.

And knees and hassocs are well nigh divorc’d.

HAST, the second person singular of have, I have, thou hast, contracted from havest. It is used only in the solemn style.

HASTATE, HASTATED, a. [L. hastatus, from hasta, a spear.] In botany, spear-shaped; resembling the head of a halberd; triangular, hollowed at the base and on the sides, with the angles spreading; as a hastate leaf.


1. Celerity of motion; speed; swiftness; dispatch; expedition; applied only to voluntary beings, as men and other animals; never to other bodies. We never say, a ball flies with haste.

The king’s business required haste. 1 Samuel 21:8.

2. Sudden excitement of passion; quickness; precipitance; vehemence.

I said in my haste, all men are liars. Psalm 116:11.

3. The state of being urged or pressed by business; as, I am in great haste.

HASTE, HASTEN, v.t. To press; to drive or urge forward; to push on; to precipitate; to accelerate movement.

I would hasten my escape from the windy storm. Psalm 55:8.

HASTE, HASTEN, v.i. To move with celerity; to be rapid in motion; to be speedy or quick.

They were troubled and hasted away. Psalm 48:5.

HASTED, HASTENED, pp. Moved rapidly; accelerated; urged with speed.

HASTENER, n. One that hastens or urges forward.

HASTING, HASTENING, ppr. Urging forward; pushing on; proceeding rapidly.

That state is hastening to ruin, in which no difference is made between good and bad men.

HASTILY, adv. [See Hasty.] In haste; with speed or quickness; speedily; nimbly.

Half clothed, half naked, hastily retire.

1. Rashly; precipitately; without due reflection.

We hastily engaged in the war.

2. Passionately; under sudden excitement of passion.

HASTINESS, n. Haste; speed; quickness or celerity in motion or action, as of animals.

1. Rashness; heedless eagerness; precipitation. Our hastiness to engage in the war caused deep regret.

2. Irritability; susceptibility of anger, warmth or temper.

HASTING-PEAR, n. An early pear, called also green chissel.

HASTINGS, n. [from hasty.] Peas that come early.

HASTIVE, a. Forward; early; as fruit. [Not much used.]

HASTY, a. Quick; speedy; opposed to slow.

Be not hasty to go out of his sight. Ecclesiastes 8:3.

1. Eager precipitate; rash; opposed to deliberate.

Seest thou a man that is hasty in his words?

There is more hope of a fool than of him. Proverbs 29:20.

2. Irritable; easily excited to wrath; passionate.

He that is hasty of spirit exalteth folly. Proverbs 14:29.

3. Early ripe; forward; as hasty fruit. Isaiah 28:4.

HASTYPUDDING, n. A pudding made of the meal of maiz moistened with water and boiled, or of milk and flour boiled.

HAT, n.

1. A covering for the head; a garment made of different materials, and worn by men or women for defending the head from rain or heat, or for ornament. Hats for men are usually made of fur or wool, and formed with a crown and brim. Hats for females are made of straw or grass braid, and various other materials. Of these the ever varying forms admit of no description that can long be correct.

2. The dignity of a cardinal.

HAT-BAND, n. A band round the crown of a hat.

HAT-BOX, HAT-CASE, n. A box for a hat. But a case for a lady’s hat is called a band-box.

HATABLE, a. [from hate.] That may be hated; odious.

HATCH, v.t.

1. To produce young from eggs by incubation, or by artificial heat. In Egypt, chickens are hatched by artificial heat.

The partridge sitteth on eggs and hatcheth them not. Jeremiah 17:11.

2. To contrive or plot; to form by meditation, and bring into being; to originate and produce in silence; as, to hatch mischief; to hatch heresy.

HATCH, v.t. To shade by lines in drawing and engraving.

Those hatching strokes of the pencil.

1. To steep.

HATCH, v.i. To produce young; to bring the young to maturity. Eggs will not hatch without a due degree and continuance of heat.
HATCH, n. A brood; as many chickens as are produced at once, or by one incubation.

1. The act of exclusion from the egg.

2. Disclosure; discovery.


1. Properly, the grate or frame of cross-bars laid over the opening in a ship’s deck, now called hatch-bars. The lid or cover of a hatchway is also called hatches.

2. The opening in a ship’s deck, or the passage from one deck to another, the name of the grate itself being used for the opening; but this is more properly called the hatchway.

3. A half-door, or door with an opening over it.

4. Floodgates.

5. In Cornwall, Eng. openings into mines, or in search of them.

6. To be under the hatches, to be confined, or to be in distress, depression or slavery.

HATCHEL, n. An instrument formed with long iron teeth set in a board, for cleaning flax or hemp from the tow, hards or coarse part. The hatchel is a large species of comb.

HATCHEL, v.t. To draw flax or hemp through the teeth of a hatchel, for separating the coarse part and broken pieces of the stalk from the fine fibrous parts.

1. To tease or vex, by sarcasms or reproaches; a vulgar use of the word.

HATCHELED, pp. Cleansed by a hatchel; combed.

HATCHELER, n. One who uses a hatchel.

HATCHELING, ppr. Drawing through the teeth of a hatchel.

HATCHET, n. A small ax with a short handle, to be used with one hand.

To take up the hatchet, a phrase borrowed from the natives of America, is to make war.

To bury the hatchet, is to make peace.

HATCHET-FACE, n. A prominent face, like the edge of a hatchet.

HATCHETINE, n. A substance of the hardness of soft tallow, of a yellowish white or greenish yellow color, found in South Wales.

HATCHMENT, n. [corrupted from achievement.] An armorial escutcheon on a herse at funerals, or in a church.

HATCHWAY, n. In ships, a square or oblong opening in the deck, affording a passage from one deck, affording a passage from one deck to another, or into the hold or lower apartments.

HATE, v.t. [L. odi, for hodi.]

1. To dislike greatly; to have a great aversion to. It expresses less than abhor, detest, and abominate, unless pronounced with a peculiar emphasis.

How long will fools hate knowledge? Proverbs 1:22.

Blessed are ye when men shall hate you. Luke 6:22.

The Roman tyrant was contented to be hated, if he was but feared.

2. In Scripture, it signifies to love less.

If any man come to me, and hate not father and mother, etc. Luke 14:26.

He that spareth the rod, hateth his son. Proverbs 13:24.

HATE, n. Great dislike or aversion; hatred.

HATED, pp. Greatly disliked.

HATEFUL, a. Odious; exciting great dislike, aversion or disgust. All sin is hateful in the sight of God and of good men.

1. That feels hatred; malignant; malevolent.

And, worse than death, to view with hateful eyes

His rival’s conquest.

HATEFULLY, adv. Odiously; with great dislike.

1. Malignantly; maliciously. Ezekiel 23:29.

HATEFULNESS, n. Odiousness; the quality of being hateful, or of exciting aversion or disgust.

HATER, n. One that hates.

An enemy to God, and hater of all good.

HATING, ppr. Disliking extremely; entertaining a great aversion for.

HATRED, n. Great dislike or aversion; hate; enmity. Hatred is an aversion to evil, and may spring from utter disapprobation, as the hatred of vice or meanness; or it may spring from offenses or injuries done by fellow men, or from envy or jealousy, in which case it is usually accompanied with malevolence or malignity. Extreme hatred is abhorrence or detestation.

HATTED, a. [from hat.] Covered with a hat; wearing a hat.

HATTER, v.t. To harass. [Not in use.]

HATTOCK, n. [Erse, attock.] A shock of corn. [Not in use.]

HAUBERK, n. A coat of mail without sleeves.

HAUGHT, a. haut. [L. altus, that is, haltus, changed to haut.]

High; elevated; hence, proud; insolent.

HAUGHTILY, adv. hau’tily. [See Haught and Haughty.]

Proudly; arrogantly; with contempt or disdain; as, to speak or behave haughtily.

Her heavenly form too haughtily she prized.

HAUGHTINESS, n. hau’tiness. The quality of being haughty; pride mingled with some degree of contempt for others; arrogance.

I will lay low the haughtiness of the terrible. Isaiah 13:11.

HAUGHTY, a. hau’ty. [from haught.]

1. Proud and disdainful; having a high opinion of one’s self, with some contempt for others; lofty and arrogant; supercilious.

His wife was a woman of a haughty and imperious nature.

A haughty spirit goeth before a fall. Proverbs 16:18.

2. Proceeding from excessive pride, or pride mingled with contempt; manifesting pride and disdain; as a haughty air or walk.

3. Proud and imperious; as a haughty nation.

4. Lofty; bold; of high hazard; as a haughty enterprise.

HAUL, v.t.

1. To pull or draw with force; to drag; as, to haul a heavy body along on the ground; to haul a boat on shore. Haul is equivalent to drag, and differs sometimes from pull and draw, in expressing more force and labor. It is much used by seamen; as, to haul down the sails; haul in the boom; haul aft, etc.

2. To drag; to compel to go.

Lest he haul thee to the judge. Luke 12:58.

When applied to persons, haul implies compulsion or rudeness, or both.

To haul the wind, in seamanship, is to turn the head of the ship nearer to the point from which the wind blows, by arranging the sails more obliquely, bracing the yards more forward, hauling the sheets more aft, etc.

HAUL, n. A pulling with force; a violent pull.

1. A draft of a net; as, to catch a hundred fish at a haul.

HAULED, pp. Pulled with force; dragged; compelled to move.

HAULING, ppr. Drawing by force or violence; dragging.

HAULM, HAUM, n. [L. culmus, the stalk of corn.]

1. The stem or stalk of grain, of all kinds, or of peas, beans, hops, etc.

2. Straw; the dry stalks of corn, etc. in general.


1. The hip; that part of the body of man and of quadrupeds, which lies between the last ribs and the thigh.

2. The rear; the hind part. [Not used.]

HAUNT, v.t.

1. To frequent; to resort to much or often, or to be much about; to visit customarily.

Celestial Venus haunts Idalia’s groves.

2. To come to frequently; to intrude on; to trouble with frequent visits; to follow importunately.

You wrong me, Sir, thus still to haunt my house.

Those cares that haunt the court and town.

3. It is particularly applied to specters or apparitions, which are represented by fear and credulity as frequenting or inhabiting old, decayed and deserted houses.

Foul spirits haunt my resting place.

H`AUNT, v.i. To be much about; to visit or be present often.

I’ve charged thee not to haunt about my door.

H`AUNT, n. A place to which one frequently resorts. Taverns are often the haunts of tipplers. A den is the haunt of wild beasts.

1. The habit or custom of resorting to a place. [Not used.]

2. Custom; practice.

HAUNTED, pp. Frequently visited or resorted to, especially by apparitions.

1. Troubled by frequent visits.

HAUNTER, n. One who frequents a particular place, or is often about it.

HAUNTING, ppr. Frequenting; visiting often; troubling with frequent visits.

HAUST, n. A dry cough.

HAUTBOY, n. ho’boy. A wind instrument, somewhat resembling a flute, but widening towards the bottom, and sounded through a reed. The treble is two feet long. The tenor goes a fifth lower, when blown open. It has only eight holes; but the base, which is five feet long, has eleven.

HAUTEUR, n. Pride, haughtiness; insolent manner or spirit.

HAUYNE, n. A mineral, called by Hauy latialite, occurring in grains or small masses, and also in groups of minute, shining crystals. Its color is blue, of various shades. It is found imbedded in volcanic rocks, basalt, clinkstone, etc.

HAVE, v.t. hav. pret. and pp. had. Present, I have, thou hast, he has; we, ye, they, have. [L. habeo.]

1. To possess; to hold in possession or power.

How many loaves have ye? Matthew 15:34.

He that gathered much had nothing over. Exodus 16:18.

I have a Levite to my priest. Judges 17:13.

To have and to hold, terms in a deed of conveyance.

2. To possess, as something that is connected with, or belongs to one.

Have ye a father? Have ye another brother? Genesis 43:7, and Genesis 44:19.

--Sheep that have no shepherd. 1 Kings 22:17.

3. To marry; to take for a wife or husband.

In the resurrection, whose wife shall she be of the seven? for they all had her. Matthew 22:28.

4. To hold; to regard. Thus, to have in honor, is to hold in esteem; to esteem; to honor.

To have in derision or contempt, to hold in derision or contempt; to deride; to despise.

5. To maintain; to hold in opinion.

Sometimes they will have them to be the natural heat; sometimes they will have them to be the qualities of the tangible parts.

6. To be urged by necessity or obligation; to be under necessity, or impelled by duty.

I have to visit twenty patients every day.

We have to strive against temptations.

We have to encounter strong prejudices.

The nation has to pay the interest of an immense debt.

7. To seize and hold; to catch. The hound has him. [The original, but now a vulgar use of the word.]

8. To contain. The work has many beauties and many faults.

9. To gain; to procure; to receive; to obtain; to purchase. I had this cloth very cheap.

He has a guinea a month.

He has high wages for his services.

Had rather, denotes wish or preference.

I had rather be a door-keeper in the house of my God, than dwell in the tents of wickedness. Psalm 84:10.

Is not this phrase a corruption of would rather?

To have after, to pursue. [Not much used, nor elegant.]

To have away, to remove; to take away.

To have at, to encounter; to assail; as, to have at him; to have at you. [Legitimate, but vulgar.]

To enter into competition with; to make trial with.

Dryden uses in a like sense, have with you; but these uses are inelegant.

To have in, to contain.

To have on, to wear; to carry; as raiment or weapons.

He saw a man who had not on a wedding garment. Matthew 22:11.

To have out, to cause to depart. 2 Samuel 13:9.

To have a care, to take care; to be on the guard, or to guard.

To have pleasure, to enjoy.

To have pain, to suffer.

To have sorrow, to be grieved or afflicted.

With would and should.

He would have, he desires to have, or he requires.

He should have, he ought to have.

But the various uses of have in such phrases, and its uses as an auxiliary verb, are fully explained in grammars. As an auxiliary, it assists in forming the perfect tense, as I have formed, thou hast formed, he hath or has formed, we have formed, and the prior-past tense, as I had seen, thou hadst seen, he had seen.

HAVELESS, a. hav’les. Having little or nothing. [Not in use.]

HAVEN, n. ha’vn.

1. A harbor; a port; a bay, recess or inlet of the sea, or the mouth of a river which affords good anchorage and a safe station for ships; any place in which ships can be sheltered by the land from the force of tempests and a violent sea.

2. A shelter; an asylum; a place of safety.

HAVENER, n. The overseer of a port; a harbor-master. [Not used.]

HAVER, n. One who has or possesses; a possessor; a holder. [Little used.]

HAVER, n. [L. avena.] Oats; a word of local use in the north of England; as haverbread, oaten bread.

HAVERSACK, n. A soldier’s knapsack.

HAVING, ppr. [from have.] Possessing; holding in power or possession; containing; gaining; receiving; taking.

HAVING, n. Possession; goods; estate. [Not in use.]

1. The act or state of possessing.

HAVOCK, n. Waste; devastation; wide and general destruction.

Ye gods! what havock does ambition make

Among your works.

As for Saul, he made havock of the church. Acts 8:3.

HAVOCK, v.t. To waste; to destroy; to lay waste.

To waste and havock yonder world.

HAW, n.

1. The berry and seed of the hawthorn, that is, hedge-thorn.

2. A small piece of ground adjoining a house; a small field; properly, an inclosed piece of land, from hedge, like garden, which also signifies an inclosure.

3. In farriery, an excrescence resembling a gristle, growing under the nether eyelid and eye of a horse.

4. A dale.

HAW, v.i. [corrupted from hawk, or hack.] To stop in speaking with a haw, or to speak with interruption and hesitation; as, to hem and haw.

HAWFINCH, n. A bird, a species of Loxia.

HAWHAW, n. [duplication of haw, a hedge.] A fence or bank that interrupts an alley or walk, sunk between slopes and not perceived till approached.

HAWING, ppr. Speaking with a haw, or with hesitation.

HAWK, n. A genus of fowls, the Falco, of many species, having a crooked beak, furnished with a cere at the base, a cloven tongue, and the head thick set with feathers. Most of the species are rapacious, feeding on birds or other small animals. Hawks were formerly trained for sport or catching small birds.

HAWK, v.i. To catch or attempt to catch birds by means of hawks trained for the purpose, and let loose on the prey; to practice falconry.

He that hawks at larks and sparrows.

A falc’ner Henry is, when Emma hawks.

1. To fly at; to attack on the wing; with at.

To hawk at flies.

HAWK, v.i. To make an effort to force up phlegm with noise; as, to hawk and spit.

To hawk up, transitively; as, to hawk up phlegm.

HAWK, n. An effort to force up phlegm from the throat, accompanied with noise.
HAWK, v.t. [L. auctio, auction, a sale by outcry.] To cry; to offer for sale by outcry in the street, or to sell by outcry; as, to hawk goods or pamphlets.

HAWKED, pp. Offered for sale by outcry in the street.

1. Crooked; curving like a hawk’s bill.

HAWKER, n. One who offers goods for sale by outcry in the street; a peddlar.

1. A falconer.

HAWKEYED, a. Having acute sight; discerning.

HAWKING, ppr. Catching wild birds by hawks.

1. Making an effort to discharge phlegm.

2. Offering for sale in the street by outcry.

HAWKING, n. The exercise of taking wild fowls by means of hawks.

HAWKNOSED, a. Having an aquiline nose.

HAWKWEED, n. The vulgar name of several species of plants, of the genera, Hieracium, Crepis, Hyoseris, and Andryala.

HAWSE, n. hawz. [See Halser.] The situation of a ship moored with two anchors from the bows, one on the starboard, the other on the larboard bow; as, the ship has a clear hawse, or a foul hawse. A foul hawse is when the cables cross each other or are twisted together.

HAWSE-HOLE, n. A cylindrical hole in the bow of a ship through which a cable passes.

HAWSE-PIECE, n. One of the foremost timbers of a ship.

HAWSER, n. [See Halser.] A small cable; or a large rope, in size between a cable and a tow-line.

HAWTHORN, n. A shrub or tree which bears the haw, of the genus Crataegus; the white-thorn. The hawthorn is much used for hedges, and for standards in gardens. It grows naturally in all parts of Europe.

HAWTHORN-FLY, n. An insect so called.

HAY, n. Grass cut and dried for fodder; grass prepared for preservation.

Make hay while the sun shines.

To dance the hay, to dance in a ring.

HAY, v.t. To dry or cure grass for preservation.
HAY, n. A hedge.

1. A net which incloses the haunt of an animal.

HAY, v.t. To lay snares for rabbits.

HAYBOTE, n. Hedge-bote. In English law, an allowance of wood to a tenant for repairing hedges or fences.

HAYCOCK, n. A conical pile or heap of hay, in the field.

HAYKNIFE, n. A sharp instrument used in cutting hay out of a stack or mow.

HAYLOFT, n. A loft or scaffold for hay, particularly in a barn.

HAYMAKER, n. One who cuts and dries grass for fodder.

HAYMAKING, n. The business of cutting grass and curing it for fodder.

HAYMARKET, n. A place for the sale of hay.

HAYMOW, n. A mow or mass of hay laid up in a barn for preservation.