Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



GOUTINESS, n. The state of being subject to the gout; gouty affections.

GOUTSWELLED, a. Swelled with the gout.

GOUTWORT, n. A plant, the Aegopodium.

GOUTY, a. Diseased with the gout, or subject to the gout; as a gouty person; a gouty joint; a gouty constitution.

1. Pertaining to the gout; as gouty matter.

2. Swelled; boggy; as gouty land. [Not in use.]

GOVERN, v.t. [L. guberno. The L. guberno seems to be a compound.]

1. To direct and control, as the actions or conduct of men, either by established laws or by arbitrary will; to regulate by authority; to keep within the limits prescribed by law or sovereign will. Thus in free states, men are governed by the constitution and laws; in despotic states, men are governed by the edicts or commands of a monarch. Every man should govern well his own family.

2. To regulate; to influence; to direct. This is the chief point by which he is to govern all his counsels and actions.

3. To control; to restrain; to keep in due subjection; as, to govern the passions or temper.

4. To direct; to steer; to regulate the course or motion of a ship. The helm or the helmsman governs the ship.

5. In grammar, to require to be in a particular case; as, a verb transitive governs a word in the accusative case; or to require a particular case; as, a verb governs the accusative case.

GOVERN, v.i. To exercise authority; to administer the laws. The chief magistrate should govern with impartiality.

1. To maintain the superiority; to have the control.

GOVERNABLE, a. That may be governerned, or subjected to authority; controllable; manageable; obedient; submissive to law or rule.

GOVERNANCE, n. Government; exercise of authority; direction; control; management, either of a public officer, or of a private guardian or tutor.

GOVERNANT, n. A lady who has the care and management of young females; a governess. [The latter is more generally used.]

GOVERNED, pp. Directed; regulated by authority; controlled; managed; influenced; restrained.

GOVERNESS, n. A female invested with authority to control and direct; a tutoress; an instructress; a woman who has the care of instructing and directing young ladies.

GOVERNING, pr. Directing; controlling; regulating by laws or edicts; managing; influencing; restraining.

1. Holding the superiority; prevalent; as a governing wind; a governing party n a state.

2. Directing; controlling; as a governing motive.

GOVERNMENT, n. Direction; regulation. These precepts will serve for the government of our conduct.

1. Control; restraint. Men are apt to neglect the government of their temper and passions.

2. The exercise of authority; direction and restraint exercised over the actions of men in communities, societies or states; the administration of public affairs, according to established constitution, laws and usages, or by arbitrary edicts. Prussia rose to importance under the government of Frederick II.

3. The exercise of authority by a parent or householder. Children are often ruined by a neglect of government in parents.

Let family government be like that of our heavenly Father, mild, gentle and affectionate.

4. The system of polity in a state; that form of fundamental rules and principles by which a nation or state is governed, or by which individual members of a body politic are to regulate their social actions; a constitution, either written or unwritten, by which the rights and duties of citizens and public officers are prescribed and defined; as a monarchial government, or a republican government.

Thirteen governments thus founded on the natural authority of the people alone, without the pretence of miracle or mystery, are a great point gained in favor of the rights of mankind.

5. An empire, kingdom or state; any territory over which the right of sovereignty is extended.

6. The right of governing or administering the laws. The king of England vested the government of Ireland in the lord lieutenant.

7. The persons or council which administer the laws of a kingdom or state; executive power.

8. Manageableness; compliance; obsequiousness.

9. Regularity of behavior. [Not in use.]

10. Management of the limbs or body. [Not in use.]

11. In grammar, the influence of a word in regard to construction, as when established usage required that one word should cause another to be in a particular case or mode.

GOVERNMENTAL, a. Pertaining to government; made by government.

GOVERNOR, n. He that governs, rules or directs; one invested with supreme authority. The Creator is the rightful governor of all his creatures.

1. One who is invested with supreme authority to administer or enforce the laws; the supreme executive magistrate of a state, commmunity, corporation or post. Thus, in America, each state has its governor; Canada has its governor.

2. A tutor; one who has the care of a young man; one who instructs him and forms his manners.

3. A pilot; one who steers a ship. James 3:4.

4. One possessing delegated authority. Joseph was governor over the land of Egypt. Obadiah was governor over Ahab’s house. Damascus had a governor under Aretas the king.

GOVERNORSHIP, n. The office of a governor.

GOWAN, n. A plant, a species of Bellis or daisy.

GOWK, n. [See Gawk.]

GOWN, n.

1. A woman’s upper garment.

2. A long loose upper garment or robe, worn by professional men, as divines, lawyers, students, etc., who are called men of the gown or gownmen. It is made of any kind of cloth worn over ordinary clothes, and hangs down to the ankles or nearly so.

4. The dress of peace, or the civil magistracy; cedant arma togoe.

He Mars deposed, and arms to gowns made yield.

GOWNED, a. Dressed in a gown.

GOWNMAN, n. One whose professional habit is a gown.

The gownman learn’ed.

1. One devoted to the arts of peace.

GRAB, n. A vessel used on the Malabar coast, having two or three masts.

GRAB, v.t. To seize; to gripe suddenly. [Vulgar.]

GRABBLE, v.i. [Eng. scrabble; allied to rub, or L. rapio, or to both.]

1. To grope; to feel with the hands.

2. To lie prostrate on the belly; to sprawl.

GRABBLING, ppr. Groping; feeling along; sprawling.

GRACE, n. [L. gratia, which is formed on the Celtic; Eng. agree, congruous, and ready. The primary sense of gratus, is free, ready, quick, willing, prompt, from advancing.]

1. Favor; good will; kindness; disposition to oblige another; as a grant made as an act of grace.

Or each, or all, may win a lady’s grace.

2. Appropriately, the free unmerited love and favor of God, the spring and source of all the benefits men receive from him.

And if by grace, then it is no more of works. Romans 11:6.

3. Favorable influence of God; divine influence or the influence of the spirit, in renewing the heart and restraining from sin.

My grace is sufficient for thee. 2 Corinthians 12:9.

4. The application of Christ’s righteousness to the sinner.

Where sin abounded, grace did much more abound. Romans 5:20.

5. A state of reconciliation to God. Romans 5:2.

6. Virtuous or religious affection or disposition, as a liberal disposition, faith, meekness, humility, patience, etc. proceeding from divine influence.

7. Spiritual instruction, improvement and edification. Ephesians 4:29.

8. Apostleship, or the qualifications of an apostle. Ephesians 3:8.

9. Eternal life; final salvation. 1 Peter 1:13.

10. Favor; mercy; pardon.

Bow and sue for grace

With suppliant knee.

11. Favor conferred.

I should therefore esteem it a great favor and grace.

12. Privilege.

To few great Jupiter imparts this grace.

13. That in manner, deportment or language which renders it appropriate and agreeable; suitableness; elegance with appropriate dignity. We say, a speaker delivers his address with grace; a man performs his part with grace.

Grace was in all her steps.

Her purple habit sits with such a grace

On her smooth shoulders.

14. Natural or acquired excellence; any endowment that recommends the possessor to others; as the graces of wit and learning.

15. Beauty; embellishment; in general, whatever adorns and recommends to favor; sometimes, a single beauty.

I pass their form and every charming grace.

16. Beauty deified; among pagans, a goddess. The graces were three in number, Aglaia, Thalia, and Euphrosyne, the constant attendants of Venus.

The loves delighted, and the graces played.

17. Virtue physical; as the grace of plants. [Not used.]

18. The title of a duke or an archbishop, and formerly of the king of England, meaning your goodness or clemency. His Grace the Duke of York. Your Grace will please to accept my thanks.

19. A short prayer before or after meat; a blessing asked, or thanks rendered.

20. In music, graces signifies turns, trills and shakes introduced for embellishment.

Day in grace, in theology, time of probation, when an offer is made to sinners.

Days in grace, in commerce, the days immediately following the day when a bill or note becomes due, which days are allowed to the debtor or payor to make payment in. In Great Britain and the United States the days of grace are three, but in other countries more; the usages of merchants being different.

GRACE, v.t. To adorn; to decorate; to embellish and dignify.

Great Jove and Phoebus graced his noble line.

And hail, ye fair, of every charm possess’d,

Who grace this rising empire of the west.

1. To dignify or raise by act of favor; to honor.

He might at his pleasure grace or disgrace whom he would in court.

2. To favor; to honor.

3. To supply with heavenly grace.

GRACE-CUP, n. The cup or health drank after grace.

GRACED, pp. Adorned; embellished; exalted; dignifies; honored.

1. Beautiful; graceful. [Not in use.]

2. Virtuous; regular; chaste. [Not in use.]

GRACEFUL, a. Beautiful with dignity; elegant; agreeable in appearance, with an expression of dignity or elevation of mind or manner; used particularly of motion, looks and speech; as a graceful walk; a graceful deportment; a graceful speaker; a graceful air.

High o’er the rest in arms the graceful Turnus rode.

GRACEFULLY, adv. With a pleasing dignity; elegantly; with a natural ease and propriety; as, to walk or speak gracefully.

GRACEFULNESS, n. Elegance of manner or deportment; beauty with dignity in manner, motion or countenance. Gracefulness consists in the natural ease and propriety of an action, accompanied with a countenance expressive of dignity or elevation of mind. Happy is the man who can add the gracefulness of ease to the dignity of merit.

GRACELESS, a. Void of grace; corrupt; depraved; unregenerate; unsanctified.

GRACELESSLY, adv. Without grace.

GRACES, n. Good graces, favor; friendship.

GRACILE, a. [L. gracilis.] Slender. [Not in use.]

GRACILITY, n. Slenderness. [Not in use.]

GRACIOUS, a. [L. gratiosus.]

1. Favorable; kind; friendly; as, the envoy met with a gracious reception.

2. Favorable; kind; benevolent; merciful; disposed to forgive offenses and impart unmerited blessings.

Thou are a God ready to pardon, gracious and merciful. Nehemiah 9:17.

3. Favorable; expressing kindness and favor.

All bore him witness, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded from his mouth. Luke 4:22.

4. Proceeding from divine grace; as a person in a gracious state.

5. Acceptable; favored.

He made us gracious before the kings of Persia. [Little used.] 1 Esdras 8:80.

6. Renewed or implanted by grace; as gracious affections.

7. Virtuous; good.

8. Excellent; graceful; becoming.

GRACIOUSLY, adv. Kindly; favorably; in a friendly manner; with kind condescension.

His testimony he graciously confirmed.

1. In a pleasing manner.

GRACIOUSNESS, n. Kind condescension.

1. Possession of graces or good qualities.

2. Pleasing manner.

3. Mercifulness.

GRACKLE, n. [L. graculus.]

A genus of birds, the Gracula, of which the crow-blackbird is a species.

GRADATION, n. [L. gradatio.]

1. A series of ascending steps or degrees, or a proceeding step by step; hence, progress from one degree or state to another; a regular advance from step to step. We observe a gradation in the progress of society from a rude to civilized life. Men may arrive by several gradations to the most horrid impiety.

2. A degree in any order or series; we observe a gradation in the scale of being, from brute to mane, from man to angels.

3. Order; series; regular process by degrees or steps; as a gradation in argument or description.

GRADATORY, a. Proceeding step by step.

GRADATORY, n. Steps from the cloisters into the church.

GRADE, n. [L. gradus, a step. gradior, to step to go, rota. We observe further that the Latin gradior forms gressus, by a common change of d to s; Heb. to descend.]

1. A degree or rank in order or dignity, civil, military or ecclesiastical.

While questions, periods, and grades and privileges are never once formally discussed.

2. A step or degree in any ascending series; as crimes of every grade.

When we come to examine the intermediate grades.

GRADIENT, a. [L. gradiens, gradior.] Moving by steps; walking; as gradient automata.

GRADUAL, a. Proceeding by steps or degrees; advancing step by step; passing from one step to another; regular and slow; as a gradual increase of knowledge; a gradual increase of light in the morning is favorable to the eyes.

1. Proceeding by degrees in a descending line or progress; as a gradual decline.

GRADAUL, n. An order of steps.

1. A grail; an ancient book of hymns and prayers.

GRADUALLY, adv. By degrees; step by step; regularly; slowly. At evening the light vanishes gradually.

1. In degree. [Not used.]

Human reason doth not only gradually, but specifically differ from the fantastic reason of brutes.

GRADUATE, v.t. [L. gradus, a degree.]

1. To honor with a degree or diploma, in a college or university; to confer a degree on; as, to graduate a master of arts.

2. To mark with degrees, regular intervals, or division; as, to graduate a thermometer.

3. To form shades or nice differences.

4. To raise to a higher place in the scale of metals.

5. To advance by degrees; to improve.

Dyers advance and graduate their colors with salts.

6. To temper; to prepare.

Diseases originating in the atmosphere act exclusively on bodies graduated to receive their impressions.

7. To mark degrees or differences of any kind; as, to graduate punishment.

8. In chimistry, to bring fluids to a certain degree of consistency.

GRADUATE, v.i. To receive a degree from a college or university.

1. To pass by degrees; to change gradually. Sandstone which graduates into gneiss, Carnelian sometimes graduates into quartz.

GRADUATE, n. One who has received a degree in a college or university, or from some professional incorporated society.

GRADUATED, pp. Honored with a degree or diploma from some learned society or college.

1. Marked with degrees or regular intervals; tempered.

GRADUATESHIP, n. The state of a graduate.

GRADUATING, ppr. Honoring with a degree; marking with degrees.

GRADUATION, n. Regular progression by succession of degrees.

1. Improvement; exaltation of qualities.

2. The act of conferring or receiving academical degrees.

3. The act of marking with degrees.

4. The process of bringing a liquid to a certain consistence by evaporation.

GRADUATOR, n. An instrument for dividing any line, right or curve, into equal parts.

GRAFF, n. [See Grave.] A ditch or moat.

GRAFF, for graft.

GRAFT, n. [L. scribo, the sense of which is to scrape or to dig.]

A small shoot or cion of a tree, inserted in another tree as the stock which is to support and nourish it. These unite and become one tree, but the graft determines the kind of fruit.

GR`AFT, v.t. To insert a cion or shoot, or a small cutting of it, into another tree.

1. To propagate by insertion or inoculation.

2. To insert in a body to which it did not originally belong. Romans 11:17.

3. To impregnate with a foreign branch.

4. To join one thing to another so as to receive support from it.

And graft my love immortal on thy fame.

GR`AFT, v.i. To practice the insertion of foreign cions on a stock.

GRAFTED, pp. Inserted on a foreign stock.

GRAFTER, n. One who inserts cions on foreign stocks, or propagates fruit by ingrafting.

GRAFTING, ppr. Inserting cions on different stocks.

Note. The true original orthography of this word is graff; but graft has superseded the original word, as it has in the compound ingraft.

GRAIL, n. [L. graduale.] A book of offices in the Romish church.

GRAIL, n. Small particles of any kind.

GRAIN, n. [L. granum.]

1. Any small hard mass; as a grain of sand or gravel. Hence,

2. A single seed or hard seed of a plant, particularly of those kinds whose seeds are used for food of man or beast. This is usually inclosed in a proper shell or covered with a husk, and contains the embryo of a new plant. Hence,

3. Grain, without a definitive, signifies corn in general, or the fruit of certain plants which constitutes the chief food of man and beast, as wheat, rye, barley, oats and maiz.

4. A minute particle.

5. A small weight, or the smallest weight ordinarily used, being the twentieth part of the scruple in apothecaries’ weight, and the twenty fourth of a pennyweight troy.

6. A component part of stones and metals.

7. The veins or fibers of wood or other fibrous substance; whence, cross-grained, and against the grain.

8. The body or substance of wood as modified by the fibers.

Hard box, and linden of a softer grain.

9. The body or substance of a thing considered with respect to the size, form or direction of the constituent particles; as stones of a fine grain.

The tooth of a sea-horse, contains a curdled grain.

10. Any thing proverbially small; a very small particle or portion; as a grain of wit or of common sense.

Neglect not to make use of any grain of grace.

11. Dyed or stained substance.

All in a robe of darkest grain.

12. The direction of the fibers of wood or other fibrous substance; hence the phrase, against the grain, applied to animals, that is, against their natural tempers.

13. The heart or temper; as brothers not united in grain.

14. The form of the surface of any thing with respect to smoothness or roughness; state of the grit of any body composed of grains; as sandstone of a fine grain.

15. A tine, prong or spike.

A grain of allowance, a small allowance or indulgence; a small portion to be remitted; something above or below just weight.

To dye in grain, is to dye in the raw material, as wool or silk before it is manufactured.

GRAIN, v.i. To yield fruit.
GRAIN, GRANE, for groan. [Not in use.]

GRAINED, a. Rough; made less smooth.

1. Dyed in grain; ingrained.

GRAINER, n. A lixivium obtained by infusing pigeon’s dung in water; used by tanners to give flexibility to skins.

GRAINING, n. Indentation.

1. A fish of the dace kind.

GRAINS, n. [in the plural.] The husks or remains of malt after brewing, or of any grain after distillation.

Grains of paradise, an Indian spice, the seeds of a species of Amomum.

GRAINSTAFF, n. A quarter-staff.

GRAINY, a. Full of grains or corn; full of kernels.

GRAITH, v.t. To prepare. [See Greith and Ready.]

GRALLIC, a. [L. gralloe, stilts, crutches.] Stilted; an epithet given to an order of fowls having long legs, naked above the knees, which fit them for wading in water.

GRAM, a. Angry.

GRAM, n. [Gr. the twenty fourth part of an ounce.]

In the new system of French weights, the unity of weights. It is the weight of a quantity of distilled water equal to a cubic centimeter, or 18 grains French, or du poids de marc, equal to 15.444 grains troy.

GRAMERCY, for Fr. grand-merci, is not in use. It formerly was used to express obligation.

GRAMINEAL, GRAMINEOUS, a. [L. gramineus, from gramen, grass.]

Grassy; like or pertaining to grass. Gramineous plants are those which have simple leaves, a jointed stem, a husky calyx, termed glume, and a single seed. This description however includes several sorts of corn, as well as grass.

GRAMINIVOROUS, a. [L. gramen, grass, and voro, to eat.]

Feeding or subsisting on grass. The ox and all the bovine genus of quadrupeds are graminivorous animals; so also the horse or equine genus.

GRAMMAR, n. [L. grammatica; Gr. a letter, to write.]

1. In practice, the art of speaking or writing a language with propriety or correctness, according to established usage.

As a science, grammar treats of the natural connection between ideas and words, and develops the principles which are common to all languages.

2. A system of general principles and of particular rules for speaking or writing a language; or digested compilation of customary forms of speech in a nation; also, a book containing such principles and rules.

3. Propriety of speech. To write grammar, we must write according to the practice of good writers and speakers.

GRAMMAR, v.i. To discourse according to the rules of grammar.
GRAMMAR, a. Belonging to or contained in grammar; as a grammar rule.

GRAMMAR-SCHOOL, n. A school in which the learned languages are taught. By learned languages, we usually mean the Latin and Greek; but others may be included.

GRAMMARIAN, n. One versed in grammar, or the construction of languages; a philologist.

1. One who teaches grammar.

GRAMMATICAL, a. Belonging to grammar; as a grammatical rule.

1. According to the rules of grammar. We say, a sentence is not grammatical; the construction is not grammatical.

GRAMMATICALLY, adv. According to the principles and rules of grammar; as, to write or speak grammatically.

GRAMMATICASTER, n. [L.] A low grammarian; a pretender to a knowledge of grammar; a pedant.

GRAMMATICIZE, v.t. To render grammatical.

GRAMMATIST, n. A pretender to a knowledge of grammar.

GRAMMATITE, n. [See Tremolite.]

GRAMPLE, n. A crab-fish.

GRAMPUS, n. A fish of the cetaceous order, and genus Delphinus. This fish grows to the length of twenty five feet, and is remarkably thick in proportion to its length. The nose is flat and turns up at the end. It has 30 teeth in each jaw. The spout-hole is on the top of the neck. The color of the back is black; the belly is of a snowy whiteness; and on each shoulder is a large white spot. This fist is remarkably voracious.

GRANADILLA, n. A plant; the fruit of the Passiflora quadrangulata.

GRANADE, GRANADO. [See Grenade.]

GRANARY, n. [L. granarium, from granum, grain.]

A store house or repository of grain after it is thrashed; a corn-house.

GRANATE, n. Usually written garnet, which see.

GRANATITE, n. [See Grenatite.]

GRAND, a. [L. grandis.]

1. Great; but mostly in a figurative sense; illustrious; high in power or dignity; as a grand lord.

2. Great; splendid; magnificent; as a grand design; a grand parade; a grand view or prospect.

3. Great; principal; chief; as Satan our grand foe.

4. Noble; sublime; lofty; conceived or expressed with great dignity; as a grand conception.

In general, we apply the epithet grand to that which is great and elevated, or which elevates and expands our ideas. The ocean, the sky, a lofty tower are grand objects. But to constitute a thing grand, it seems necessary that it should be distinguished by some degree of beauty.

5. Old; more advanced; as in grandfather, grandmother, that is, old-father; and to correspond with this relation, we use grandson, granddaughter, grandchild.

GRANDAM, n. [grand and dame.] Grandmother.

1. An old woman.

GRANDCHILD, n. A son’s or daughter’s child; a child in the second degree of descent.

GRANDDAUGHTER, n. The daughter of a son or daughter.

GRANDEE, n. A nobleman; a man of elevated rank or station. In Spain, a nobleman of the first rank, who has the king’s leave to be covered in his presence.

GRANDEESHIP, n. The rank or estate of a grandee.

GRANDEUR, n. In a general sense, greatness; that quality or combination of qualities in an object, which elevates or expands the mind, and excites pleasurable emotions in him who views or contemplates it. Thus the extent and uniformity of surface in the ocean constitute grandeur; as do the extent, the elevation, and the concave appearance or vault of the sky. So we speak of the grandeur of a large and well proportioned edifice, of an extensive range of lofty mountains, of a large cataract, of a pyramid. etc.

1. Splendor of appearance; state; magnificence; as the grandeur of a court, of a procession. etc.

2. Elevation of thought, sentiment or expression. We speak of the grandeur of conceptions, and of style or diction.

3. Elevation of mien or air and deportment.

GRANDEVITY, n. Great age. [Not used.]

GRANDEVOUS, a. Of great age. [Not used.]

GRANDFATHER, n. A father’s or mother’s father; the next degree above the father or mother in lineal ascent.

GRANDILOQUENCE, n. Lofty speaking; lofty expressions.

GRANDILOQUOUS, a. [L. grandiloquus; grandis and loquor, to speak.] Speaking in a lofty style.

GRANDINOUS, a. [L. grando.] Consisting of hail.

GRANDITY, n. Greatness; magnificence. [Not used.]

GRANDJUROR, n. One of a grand jury. In Connecticut, a peace-officer.