Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



GRAND JURY, n. [grand and jury.] A jury whose duty is to examine into the grounds of accusation against offenders, and if they see just cause, then to find bills of indictment against them to be presented to the court.

GRANDLY, adv. In a lofty manner; splendidly; sublimely.

GRANDMOTHER, n. The mother of one’s father or mother.

GRANDNESS, n. Grandeur; greatness with beauty; magnificence.

GRANDSIRE, n. A grandfather.

1. In poetry and rhetoric, any ancestor.

GRANDSON, n. The son of a son or daughter.

GRANGE, n. granj. A farm, with the buildings, stables, etc.

GRANILITE, n. [See Granit.] Indeterminate granit; granit that contains more than three constituent parts.

GRANIT, GRANITE, n. In mineralogy, an aggregate stone or rock, composed of crystalline grains of quartz, feldspar and mica, or at least of two of these minerals, united without a cement, or confusedly crystallized. The grains very in size from that of a pin’s head, to a mass of two or three feet; but usually the largest size is that of a nut. The color of granit is greatly diversified by the different colors and proportions of the component parts, and in general these stones are very hard.

GRANITEL, n. [dim. of granit.] A binary aggregate of minerals; a granitic compound containing two constituent parts, as quartz and feldspar, or quartz and shorl or hornblend.

Italian workmen give this name to a variety of gray granit consisting of small grains.

GRANITIC, a. Pertaining to granit; like granit; having the nature of granitic; as granitic texture.

1. Consisting of granit; as granitic mountains.

Granitic aggregates, in mineralogy, granular compounds of two or more simple minerals, in which only one of the essential ingredients of granit is present; as quartz and hornblend, feldspar and shorl, etc. Similar compounds occur, in which none of the ingredients of granit are present.

GRANITIN, n. A granitic aggregate of three species of minerals, some of which differ from the species which compose granit; as quartz, feldspar, and jade or shorl.

GRANIVOROUS, a. [L. granum, grain, and voro, to eat.]

Eating grain; feeding or subsisting on seeds; as granivorous birds.

Grannam, for grandam, a grandmother. [Vulgar.]

GRANT, v.t.

1. To admit as true what is not proved; to allow; to yield; to concede. We take that for granted which is supposed to be true.

Grant that the fates have firmed, by their decree--

2. To give; to bestow or confer on without compensation, particularly in answer to prayer or request.

Thou hast granted me life and favor. Job 10:12.

God granted him that which he requested. 1 Chronicles 4:10.

3. To transfer the title of a thing to another, for a good or valuable consideration; to convey by deed or writing. The legislature have granted all the new land.

Grant me the place of this threshing floor. 1 Chronicles 21:22.

GR`ANT, n. The act of granting; a bestowing or conferring.

1. The thing granted or bestowed; a gift; a boon.

2. In law, a conveyance in writing, of such things as cannot pass or be transferred by word only, as land, rents, reversions, tithes, etc.

A grant is an executed contract.

3. Concession; admission of something as true.

4. The thing conveyed by deed or patent.

GRANTABLE, a. That may be granted or conveyed.

GRANTED, pp. Admitted as true; conceded; yielded; bestowed; conveyed.

GRANTEE, n. The person to whom a conveyance is made.

GRANTING, ppr. Admitting; conceding; bestowing; conveying.

GRANTOR, n. The person who grants; one who conveys lands, rents, etc.

GRANULAR, a. [from L. granum, grain.]

1. Consisting of grains; as a granular substance.

2. Resembling grains; as a stone of granular appearance.

GRANULATE, v.t. [L. granum.]

1. To form into grains or small masses; as, to granulate powder or sugar.

2. To raise into small asperities; to make rough on the surface.

GRANULATE, v.i. To collect or be formed into grains; as cane-juice granulates into sugar; melted metals granulate when poured into water.

GRANULATED, pp. Formed into grains.

1. Consisting of grains; resembling grains.

GRANULATING, ppr. Forming into grains.

GRANULATION, n. The act of forming into grains; as the granulation of powder and sugar. In chimistry, the granulation of metallic substances is performed by pouring the melted substances slowly into water, which is, at the same time, agitated with a broom.

GRANULE, n. [L. granum.] A little grain; a small particle.

GRANULOUS, a. Full of grains; abounding with granular substances.

GRAPE, n. [This word is from the root of grab, gripe, and signifies primarily a cluster or bunch.]

1. Properly, a cluster of the fruit of the vine; but with us, a single berry of the vine; the fruit from which wine is made by expression and fermentation.

2. In the manege, grapes signifies mangy tumors on the legs of a horse.

GRAPE-HYACINTH, n. A plant or flower, a species of Hyacinthus.

GRAPELESS, a. Wanting the strength and flavor of the grape.

GRAPESHOT, n. A cluster of small shot, confined in a canvas bag, forming a kind of cylinder, whose diameter is equal to that of the ball adapted to the cannon.

GRAPESTONE, n. The stone or seed of the grape.

GRAPHIC, GRAPHICAL, a. [L. graphicus; Gr. to write.]

1. Pertaining to the art of writing or delineating.

2. Well delineated.

3. Describing with accuracy.

GRAPHICALLY, adv. With good delineation; in a picturesque manner.

GRAPHITE, n. [Gr. to write.] Carburet of iron, a substance used for pencils, and very improperly called black-lead.

GRAPHOLITE, n. [supra.] A species of slate proper for writing on.

GRAPHOMETER, n. [Gr. to describe, measure.] A mathematical instrument, called also a semicircle, whose use is to observe any angle whose vertex is at the center of the instrument in any plane, and to find how many degrees it contains.

GRAPHOMETRICAL, a. Pertaining to or ascertained by a graphometer.


1. A small anchor fitted with four or five flukes or claws, used to hold boats or small vessels.

2. A grappling iron, used to seize and hold one ship to another in engagements. This is called a fire grapling.


1. To seize; to lay fast hold on, either with the hands or with hooks. We say, a man grapples his antagonist, or a ship grapples another ship.

2. To fasten; to fix, as the mind or heart. [Not in use.]

GRAPPLE, v.i. To seize; to contend in close fight, as wrestlers.

To grapple with, to contend with, to struggle with successfully.

GRAPPLE, n. A seizing; close hug in contest; the wrestler’s hold.

1. Close fight.

2. A hook or iron instrument by which one ship fastens on another.

GRAPPLEMENT, n. A grappling; close fight or embrace.

GRAPY, a. Like grapes; full of clusters of grapes.

1. Made of grapes.

GRASP, v.t. To seize and hold by clasping or embracing with the fingers or arms. We say, to grasp with the hand, or with the arms.

1. To catch; to seize; to lay hold of; to take possession of. Kings often grasp more than they can hold.

GR`ASP, v.i. To catch or seize; to gripe.

1. To struggle; to strive. [Not in use.]

2. To encroach.

To grasp at, to catch at; to try to seize.

Alexander grasped at universal empire.

GR`ASP, n. The gripe or seizure of the hand. This seems to be its proper sense; but it denotes also a seizure by embrace, or infolding in the arms.

1. Possession; hold.

2. Reach of the arms; and figuratively, the power of seizing. Bonaparte seemed to think he had the Russian empire within his grasp.

GRASPED, pp. Seized with the hands or arms, embraced; held; possessed.

GRASPER, n. One who grasps or seizes; one who catches at; one who holds.

GRASPING, ppr. Seizing; embracing; catching; holding.


1. In common usage, herbage; the plants which constitute the food of cattle and other beasts.

2. In botany, a plant having simple leaves, a stem generally jointed and tubular, a husky calyx, called glume, and the seed single. This definition includes wheat, rye, oats, barley, etc., and excludes clover and some other plants which are commonly called by the name of grass. The grasses form a numerous family of plants.

Grass of Parnassus, a plant, the Parnassia.

GR`ASS, v.t. To cover with grass or with turf.
GR`ASS, v.i. To breed grass; to be covered with grass.

GRASSATION, n. [L. grassatio.] A wandering about. [Little used.]

GRASS-GREEN, a. Green with grass.

1. Dark green, like the color of grass.

GRASS-GROWN, a. Overgrown with grass.

GRASSHOPPER, n. [grass and hop.] An animal that lives among grass, a species of Gryllus.

GRASSINESS, n. [from grassy.] The state of abounding with grass; a grassy state.

GRASSLESS, a. Destitute of grass.

GRASSPLOT, n. A plat or level spot covered with grass.

GRASSPOLY, n. A plant, a species of Lythrum or willow-wort.

GRASSVETCH, n. A plant of the genus Lathyrus.

GRASSWRACK, n. A plant, the Zostera.

GRASSY, a. Covered with grass; abounding with grass.

1. Resembling grass; green.

GRATE, n. [L. crates, a grate, a hurdle.]

1. A work or frame, composed of parallel or cross bars, with interstices; a kind of lattice-work, such as is used in the windows of prisons and cloisters.

2. An instrument or frame of iron bars for holding coals, used as fuel, in houses, stores, shops, etc.

GRATE, v.t. To furnish with grates; to make fast with cross bars.
GRATE, v.t. [L. rado.]

1. To rub, as a body with a rough surface against another body; to rub one thing against another, so as to produce a harsh sound; as, to grate the teeth.

2. To wear away in small particles, by rubbing with any thing rough or indented; as, to grate a nutmeg.

3. To offend; to fret; to vex; to irritate; to mortify; as, harsh words grate the heart; they are grating to the feeling; harsh sounds grate the ear.

4. To make a harsh sound, by rubbing or the friction of rough bodies.

GRATE, v.i. To rub hard, so as to offend; to offend by oppression or importunity.

This grated harder upon the hearts of men.

1. To make a harsh sound by the friction of rough bodies.

GRATE, a. [L. gratus.] Agreeable. [Not in use.]

GRATED, pp. Rubbed harshly; worn off by rubbing.

1. Furnished with a grate; as grated windows.

GRATEFUL, a. [from L. gratus. See Grace.]

1. Having a due sense of benefits; kindly disposed towards one from whom a favor has been received; willing to acknowledge and repay benefits; as a grateful heart.

2. Agreeable; pleasing; acceptable; gratifying; as a grateful present; a grateful offering.

3. Pleasing to the taste; delicious; affording pleasure; as food or drink grateful offering.

Now golden fruits on loaded branches shine,

And grateful clusters swell with floods of wine.

GRATEFULLY, adv. With a due sense of benefits or favors; in a manner that disposes to kindness, in return for favors. The gift was gratefully received.

1. In a pleasing manner. Study continually furnishes something new, which may strike the imagination gratefully.

GRATEFULNESS, n. The quality of being grateful; gratitude.

1. The quality of being agreeable or pleasant to the mind or to the taste.

GRATER, n. [See Grate.] An instrument or utensil with a rough indented surface, for rubbing off small particles of a body; as a grater for nutmegs.

GRATIFICATION, n. [L. gratificatio, from gratificor; gratus and facio, to make.]

1. The act of pleasing, either the mind, the taste or the appetite. We speak of the gratification of the taste or the palate, of the appetites, of the senses, of the desires, of the mind, soul or heart.

2. That which affords pleasure; satisfaction; delight. It is not easy to renounce gratifications to which we are accustomed.

3. Reward; recompense.

GRATIFIED, pp. Pleased; indulged according to desire.

GRATIFIER, n. One who gratifies or pleases.

GRATIFY, v.t. [L. gratificor; gratus, agreeable, and facio, to make.]

1. To please; to give pleasure to; to indulge; as, to gratify the taste, the appetite, the senses, the desires, the mind, etc.

2. To delight; to please; to humor; to soothe; to satisfy; to indulge to satisfaction.

For who would die to gratify a foe?

3. To requite; to recompense.

GRATIFYING, ppr. Pleasing; indulging to satisfaction.

1. Giving pleasure; affording satisfaction.

GRATING, ppr. [See Grate.] Rubbing; wearing off in particles.

1. Fretting; irritating; harsh; as grating sounds, or a grating reflection.

GRATING, GRATINGS, n. [See Grate.] A partition of bars; an open cover for the hatches of a ship, resembling lattice-work.

GRATINGLY, adv. Harshly; offensively; in a manner to irritate.

GRATIS, adv. [L.] For nothing; freely; without recompense; as, to give a thing gratis; to perform service gratis.

GRATITUDE, n. [L. gratitudo, from gratus, pleasing. See Grace.]

An emotion of the heart, excited by a favor or benefit received; a sentiment of kindness or good will towards a benefactor; thankfulness. Gratitude is an agreeable emotion, consisting in or accompanied with good will to a benefactor, and a disposition to make a suitable return of benefits or services, or when no return can be made, with a desire to see the benefactor prosperous and happy. Gratitude is a virtue of the highest excellence, as it implies a feeling and generous heart, and a proper sense of duty.

The love of God is the sublimest gratitude.

GRATUITOUS, a. [L. gratuitus, from gratus.]

1. Free; voluntary; not required by justice; granted without claim or merit.

We mistake the gratuitous blessings of heaven for the fruits of our own industry.

2. Asserted or taken without proof; as a gratuitous argument or affirmation.

GRATUITOUSLY, adv. Freely; voluntarily; without claim or merit; without an equivalent or compensation; as labor or services gratuitously bestowed.

1. Without proof; as a principle gratuitously assumed.


1. A free gift; a present; a donation; that which is given without a compensation or equivalent.

2. Something given in return for a favor; an acknowledgment.

GRATULATE, v.t. [L. gratulor, from gratus, pleasing, grateful.]

1. To express joy or pleasure to a person, on account of his success, or the reception of some good; to salute with declarations of joy; to congratulate. [The latter word is more generally used.]

To gratulate the gentle princes there.

2. To wish or express joy to.

3. To declare joy for; to mention with joy.

GRATULATED, pp. Addressed with expressions of joy.

GRATULATING, ppr. Addressing with expressions of joy, on account of some good received.

GRATULATION, n. [L. gratulatio.] An address or expression ofjoy to a person, on account of some good received by him; congratulation.

I shall turn my wishes into gratulations.

GRATULATORY, a. Expressing gratulation; congratulatory.

GRAVE, a final syllable, is a grove.

GRAVE, v.t. pret. graved; pp. graven or graved. [Gr. to write; originally all writing was graving; Eng. to scrape.]

1. To carve or cut letters or figures on stone or other hard substance, with a chisel or edged tool; to engrave. [The latter word is now more generally used.]

Thou shalt take two onyx-stones and grave on them the names of the children of Israel. Exodus 28:9.

2. To carve; to form or shape by cutting with a chisel; as, to grave an image.

Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image. Exodus 20:4.

3. To clean a ship’s bottom by burning off filth, grass or other foreign matter, and paying it over with pitch.

4. To entomb. [Unusual.]

GRAVE, v.i. To carve; to write or delineate on hard substances; to practice engraving.
GRAVE, n. [L. scrobs.]

1. The ditch, pit or excavated place in which a dead human body is deposited; a place for the corpse of a human being; a sepulcher.

2. A tomb.

3. Any place where the dead are reposited; a place of great slaughter or mortality. Flanders was formerly the grave of English armies. Russia proved to be the grave of the French army under Bonaparte. The tropical climates are the grave of American seamen and of British soldiers.

4. Graves, in the plural, sediment of tallow melted. [Not in use or local.]

GRAVE, a. [L. gravis, heavy, whence L. gravo, and aggravo, to aggravate.]

1. In music, low; depressed; solemn; opposed to sharp, acute, or high; as a grave tone or sound. Sometimes grave denotes slow.

2. Solemn; sober; serious; opposed to gay, light or jovial; as a man of a grave deportment; a grave character.

Youth on silent wings is flown;

Graver years come rolling on.

3. Plain; not gay; not showy or tawdry; as a grave suit of clothes.

4. Being of weight; of a serious character; as a grave writer.

5. Important; momentous; having a serious and interesting import.

GRAVE-CLOTHES, n. The clothes or dress in which the dead are interred.

GRAVE-DIGGER, n. One whose occupation is to dig graves.

GRAVE-MAKER, n. A grave-digger.

GRAVE-STONE, n. A stone laid over a grave, or erected near it, as a monument to preserve the memory of the dead.

GRAVED, pp. [See the Verb.] Carved; engraved; cleaned, as a ship.


1. Small stones or fragments of stone, or very small pebbles, larger than the particles of sand, but often intermixed with them.

2. In medicine, small calculous concretions in the kidneys and bladder.

GRAVEL, v.t. To cover with gravel; as, to gravel a walk.

1. To stick in the sand.

2. To puzzle; to stop; to embarrass.

3. To hurt the foot of a horse, by gravel lodged under the shoe.

GRAVELED, pp. Covered with gravel; stopped; embarrassed; injured by gravel.

GRAVELESS, a. [from grave.] Without a grave or tomb; unburied.

GRAVELLY, a. [from gravel.] Abounding with gravel; consisting of gravel; as a gravelly soil or land.

GRAVEL-WALK, n. A walk or alley covered with gravel, which makes a hard and dry bottom; used in gardens and malls.

GRAVELY, adv. [from grave.] In a grave, solemn manner; soberly; seriously.

The queen of learning gravely smiles.

1. Without gaudiness or show; as, to be dressed gravely.

GRAVENESS, n. Seriousness; solemnity; sobriety of behavior; gravity of manners or discourse.

GRAVER, n. [See Grave.] One who carves or engraves; one whose profession is to cut letters or figures in stone, etc.; a sculptor.

1. An engraving tool; an instrument for graving on hard substances.

GRAVID, a. [L. gravidus, from gravis, heavy.]

Pregnant; being with child.

GRAVIDATED, a. Made pregnant; big. [Not in use.]

GRAVIDATION, n. Pregnancy. [Not in use.]

GRAVIDITY, n. Pregnancy. [Not in use.]

GRAVING, ppr. Engraving; carving; cutting figures on stone, copper or other hard substance.

GRAVING, n. Carved work. 2 Chronicles 2:14.

1. Impression.

GRAVITATE, v.i. [L. gravitas, from gravis, heavy.]

To tend to the center of a body, or the central point of attraction. Thus a body elevated above the earth tends to fall, that is, it gravitates towards the center of the earth; and the planets are supposed to gravitate towards the sun, or center of the solar system.

GRAVITATING, ppr. Tending to the center of a body or system of bodies.