Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



FULMINATORY, a. Thundering; striking terror.

FULMINE, v.t. To thunder. [Not in use.]

FULMINIC, a. Fulminic acid, in chimistry, is a peculiar acid contained in fulminating silver.


1. Nauseous; offensive.

He that brings fulsome objects to my view, with nauseous images my fancy fills.

2. Rank; offensive to the smell; as a rank and fulsome smell.

3. Lustful; as fulsome ewes.

4. Tending to obscenity; as a fulsome epigram.

These are the English definitions of fulsome, but I have never witnessed such applications of the word in the United States. It seems then that full and foul are radically the same word, the primary sense of which is stuffed, crowded, from the sense of putting on or in. In the United States, the compound fullsome takes its signification from full, in the sense of cloying or satiating, and in England, fulsome takes its predominant sense from foulness.

FULSOMELY, adv. Rankly; nauseously; obscenely.

FULSOMENESS, n. Nauseousness; rank smell; obscenity.

FULVID, a. [See Fulvous, which is generally used.]

FULVOUS, a. [L. fulvus.] Yellow; tawny; saffron-colored.

FUMADO, n. [L. fumus, smoke.] A smoked fish.

FUMATORY, n. [L. fumaria herba.]

A plant or genus of plants, called Fumaria, of several species.

FUMBLE, v.i.

1. To feel or grope about; to attempt awkwardly.

2. To grope about in perplexity; to seek awkwardly; as, to fumble for an excuse.

3. To handle much; to play childishly; to turn over and over.

I saw him fumble with the sheets, and play with flowers.

FUMBLE, v.t. To manage awkwardly; to crowd or tumble together.

FUMBLER, n. One who gropes or manages awkwardly.

FUMBLING, ppr. Groping; managing awkwardly.

FUMBLINGLY, adv. In an awkward manner.

FUME, n. [L. fumus.]

1. Smoke; vapor from combustion, as from burning wood or tobacco.

2. Vapor; volatile matter ascending in a dense body.

3. Exhalation from the stomach; as the fumes of wine.

4. Rage; heat; as the fumes of passion.

5. Any thing unsubstantial or fleeting.

6. Idle conceit; vain imagination.

FUME, v.i. [L. fumo.]

1. To smoke; to throw off vapor, as in combustion.

Where the golden altar fumed.

2. To yield vapor or visible exhalations.

Silenus lay, whose constant cups lay fuming to his brain.

3. To pass off in vapors.

Their parts are kept from fuming away by their fixity.

4. To be in a rage; to be hot with anger.

He fret, he fumes, he stares, he stamps the ground.

FUME, v.t.

1. To smoke; to dry in smoke.

2. To perfume,

She fumed the temples with an od’rous flame.

3. To disperse or drive away in vapors.

The heat will fume away most of the scent.

FUMET, n. The dung of deer.

FUMID, a. [L. fumidus.] Smoky; vaporous.

FUMIGATE, v.t. [L. fumigo.]

1. To smoke; to perfume.

2. To apply smoke to; to expose to smoke; as in chimistry, or in medicine by inhaling it, or in cleansing infected apartments.

FUMIGATED, pp. Smoked; exposed to smoke.

FUMIGATING, ppr. Smoking; applying smoke to.

FUMIGATION, n. [L. fumigatio.]

1. The act of smoking or applying smoke, as in chimistry for softening a metal, or in the healing art by inhaling the smoke of certain substances. Expectoration is often assisted and sometimes ulcers of the lungs healed by fumigation. Fumigation is also used in cleansing infected rooms.

2. Vapors; scent raised by fire.

FUMING, ppr. Smoking; emitting vapors; raging; fretting.

FUMINGLY, adv. Angrily; in a rage.

FUMISH, a. Smoky; hot; choleric. [Little used.]

FUMITER, n. A plant.

FUMOUS, FUMY, a. Producing fume; full of vapor.

From dice and wine the youth retir’d to rest, and puffed the funny god from out his breast.

FUN, n. Sport; vulgar merriment. A low word.

FUNAMBULATORY, a. Performing like a rope dancer; narrow like the walk of a rope dancer.

FUNAMBULIST, n. [L. funis, rope, and ambulo, to walk.] A rope walker or dancer.

FUNCTION, n. [L. functio, from fungor, to perform.]

1. In a general sense, the doing, executing or performing of any thing; discharge; performance; as the function of a calling or office. More generally,

2. Office or employment, or any duty or business belonging to a particular station or character, or required of a person in the station or character. Thus we speak of the functions of a chancellor, judge or bishop; the functions of a parent or guardian.

3. Trade; occupation. [Less proper.]

4. The office of any particular part of animal bodies; the peculiar or appropriate action of a member or part of the body, by which the animal economy is carried on. Thus we speak of the functions of the brain and nerves, of the heart, of the liver, of the muscles, etc.

5. Power; faculty, animal or intellectual.

As the mind opens, and its functions spread.

6. In mathematics, the function of a variable quantity, is any algebraic expression into which that quantity enters, mixed with other quantities that have invariable values.

FUNCTIONALLY, adv. By means of the functions.

FUNCTIONARY, n. One who holds an office or trust; as a public functionary; secular functionaries.

FUND, n. [L. fundus, ground bottom, foundation; connected with L. fundo, to found, the sense of which is to throw down, to set, to lay. Heb. to build. L. funda, a sling, a casting net or purse.]

1. A stock or capital; a sum of money appropriated as the foundation of some commercial or other operation, undertaken with a view to profit, and by means of which expenses and credit are supported. Thus the capital stock of a banking institution is called its fund; the joint stock of a commercial or manufacturing house constitutes its fund or funds; and hence the word is applied to the money which an individual may possess, or the means he can employ for carrying on any enterprise or operation. No prudent man undertakes an expensive business without funds.

2. Money lent to government, constituting a national debt; or the stock of a national debt. Thus we say, a man is interested in the funds or public funds, when he owns the stock or the evidences of the public debt; and the funds are said to rise or fall, when a given amount of that debt sells for more or less in the market.

3. Money or income destined to the payment of the interest of a debt.

4. A sinking fund is a sum of money appropriated to the purchase of the public stocks or the payment of the public debt.

5. A stock or capital to afford supplies of any kind; as a fund of wisdom or good sense; a fund of wit. Hence.

6. Abundance; ample stock or store.

FUND, v.t.

1. To provide and appropriate a fund or permanent revenue for the payment of the interest of; to make permanent provision of resources for discharging the annual interest of; as, to fund exchequer bills or government notes; to fund a national debt.

2. To place money in a fund.

FUNDAMENT, n. [L. fundamentum, from fundo, to set.]

1. The seat; the lower part of the body or of the intestinum rectum.

2. Foundation. [Not in use.]

FUNDAMENTAL, a. Pertaining to the foundation or basis; serving for the foundation. Hence, essential; important; as a fundamental truth or principle; a fundamental law; a fundamental sound or chord in music.

FUNDAMENTAL, n. A leading or primary principle, rule, law or article, which serves as the ground work of a system; essential part; as the fundamentals of the christian faith.

FUNDAMENTALLY, n. Primarily; originally; essentially; at the foundation. All power is fundamentally in the citizens of a state.

FUNDED, pp. Furnished with funds for regular payment of the interest of.

FUNDING, ppr. Providing funds for the payment of the interest of.

FUNEBRIAL, a. [L. funebris.] Pertaining to funerals.

FUNERAL, n. [L. funus, from funale, a cord, a torch, from funis, a rope or cord, as torches were made of cords, and were used in burials among the Romans.]

1. Burial; the ceremony of buying a dead body; the solemnization of interment; obsequies.

2. The procession of persons attending the burial of the dead.

3. Burial; interment.

FUNERAL, a. Pertaining to burial; used at the interment of the dead; as funeral rites, honors or ceremonies; a funeral torch; funeral feast or games; funeral oration.

FUNERATION, n. Solemnization of a funeral. [Not used.]


1. Suiting a funeral; pertaining to burial.

2. Dark; dismal; mournful.

FUNGATE, n. [from fungus.] A compound of fungic acid and a base.

FUNGIC, a. Pertaining to or obtained from mushrooms; as fungic acid.

FUNGIFORM, a. [fungus and form.] In mineralogy, having a termination similar to the head of a fungus.

FUN-GIN, n. The fleshy part of mushrooms, now considered as a peculiar vegetable principle.

FUNGITE, n. [from fungus.] A kind of fossil coral.

FUNGOSITY, n. Soft excrescence.

FUNGOUS, a. [See Fungus.]

1. Like fungus or a mushroom; excrescent; spungy; soft.

2. Growing suddenly, but not substantial or durable.

FUNGUS, n. [L.]

1. A mushroom, vulgarly called a toadstool. The Fungi constitute an order of plants of a peculiar organization and manner of growth. The word is also applied to excrescences on plants.

2. A spungy excrescence in animal bodies as proud flesh formed in wounds.

The term is particularly applied to any morbid excrescence, whether in wounds or arising spontaneously.

FUNICLE, n. [L. faniculus, dim of funis, a cord.]

A small cord; a small ligature; a fiber.

FUNICULAR, a. Consisting of a small cord or fiber.

FUNK, n. An offensive smell. [Vulgar.]


1. A passage or avenue for a fluid or flowing substance, particularly the shaft or hollow channel of a chimney through which smoke ascends.

2. A vessel for conveying fluids into close vessels; a kind of hollow cone with a pipe; a tunnel.

FUNNELFORM, FUNNELSHAPED, a. Having the form of a funnel or inverted hollow cone.

FUNNY, a. [from fun.] Droll; comical.

FUNNY, n. A light boat.

FUR, n.

1. The short, fine, soft hair of certain animals, growing thick on the skin, and distinguished from the hair, which is longer and coarser. Fur is one of the most perfect non-conductors of heat, and serves to keep animals warm in cold climates.

2. The skins of certain wild animals with the fur; peltry; as a cargo of furs.

3. Strips of skin with fur, used on garments for lining or for ornament. Garments are lined or faced with fur.

4. Hair in general; a loose application of the word.

5. A coat of morbid matter collected on the tongue in persons affected with fever.

FUR, v.t.

1. To line, face or cover with fur; as a furred robe.

2. To cover with morbid matter, as the tongue.

3. To line with a board, as in carpentry.

FURWROUGHT, a. fur’raut. Made of fur.

FURACIOUS, a. [L. furax, from furer, to steal.]

Given to theft; inclined to steal; thievish. [Little used.]

FURACITY, n. Thievishness. [Little used.]

FURBELOW, n. A piece of stuff plaited and puckered, on a gown or petticoat; a flounce; the plaited border of a petticoat or gown.

FURBELOW, v.t. To put on a furbelow; to furnish with an ornamental appendage of dress.


To rub or scour to brightness; to polish; to burnish; as, to furbish a sword or spear; to furbish arms.

FURBISHED, pp. Scoured to brightness; polished; burnished.

FURBISHER, n. One who polishes or makes bright by rubbing; one who cleans.

FURBISHING, ppr. Rubbing to brightness; polishing.

FURCATE, a. [L. furca, a fork.] Forked; branching like the prongs of a fork.

FURCATION, n. A forking; a branching like the times of a fork.

FURDLE, v.t. To draw up into a bundle. [Not used.]

FURFUR, n. [L.] Dandruff; scurf; scales like bran.

FURFURACEOUS, a. [L. furfuraceus.] Scaly; branny; scurfy; like bran.

FURIOUS, a. [See Fury.]

1. Rushing with impetuosity; moving with violence; as a furious stream; a furious wind or storm.

2. Raging; violent; transported with passion; as a furious animal.

3. Mad; phrenetic.

FURIOUSLY, adv. With impetuous motion or agitation; violently; vehemently; as, to run furiously; to attack one furiously.


1. Impetuous motion or rushing; violent agitation.

2. Madness; phrensy; rage.

FURL, v.t.

To draw up; to contract; to wrap or roll a sail close to the yard, stay or mast, and fasten it by a gasket or cord.

FURLED, pp. Wrapped and fastened to a yard, etc.

FURLING, ppr. Wrapping or rolling and fastening to a yard, etc.


A measure of length; the eighth part of a mile; forty rods, poles or perches.

FURLOW, n. [See Fare and Leave.]

Leave of absence; a word used only in military affairs. Leave or license given by a commanding officer to an officer or soldier to be absent from service for a certain time.

FURLOW, v.t. To furnish with a furlow; to grant leave of absence to an officer or soldier.

FURMENTY, n. [See Frumenty.]

FURNACE, n. [L. fornax, furnus, either from burning, or the sense is an arch.]

1. A place where a vehement fire and heat may be made and maintained, for melting ores or metals, etc. A furnace for casting cannon and other large operations is inclosed with walls through which a current of air is blown from a large bellows. In smaller operations a vessel is constructed with a chamber or cavity, with a door and a grate.

2. In scripture, a place of cruel bondage and affliction. Deuteronomy 4:20.

3. Grievous afflictions by which men are tried. Ezekiel 22:20-22.

4. A place of temporal torment. Daniel 3:6, 11, 15.

5. Hell; the place of endless torment. Matthew 13:42, 50.

FURNACE, v.t. To throw out sparks as a furnace.

FURNIMENT, n. Furniture. [Not in use.]

FURNISH, v.t. [There is a close affinity, in sense and elements, between furnish, garnish, and the L. orno, which may have been forno or horno. We see in furlow, above the f is lost in three of the languages, and it may be so in orno. The primary sense is to put on, or to set on.]

1. To supply with any thing wanted or necessary; as, to furnish a family with provisions; to furnish arms for defense; to furnish a table; to furnish a library; to furnish one with money or implements.

2. To supply; to store; as, to furnish the mind with ideas; to furnish one with knowledge or principles.

3. To fit up; to supply with the proper goods, vessels or ornamental appendages; as, to furnish a house or a room.

4. To equip; to fit for an expedition; to supply.

FURNISHED, a. Supplied; garnished; fitted with necessaries.

FURNISHER, n. One who supplies or fits out.

FURNISHING, ppr. Supplying; fitting; garnishing.


1. Goods, vessels, utensils and other appendages necessary or convenient for housekeeping; whatever is added to the interior of a house or apartment, for use or convenience.

2. Appendages; that which is added for use or ornament; as the earth with all its furniture.

3. Equipage; ornaments; decorations; in a very general sense.

FURRED, pp. Lined or ornamented with fur; thickened by the addition of a board.

FURRIER, n. A dealer in furs; one who makes or sells muffs, tippets, etc.

FURRIERY, n. Furs in general.

FURRING, ppr. Lining or ornamenting with fur; lining with a board.

FURROW, n. [Gr. to plow.]

1. A trench in the earth made by a plow.

2. A long narrow trench or channel in wood or metal; a groove.

3. A hollow made by wrinkles in the face.

FURROW, v.t.

1. To cut a furrow; to make furrows in; to plow.

2. To make long narrow channels or grooves in.

3. To cut; to make channels in; to plow; as, to furrow the deep.

4. To make hollows in by wrinkles. Sorrow furrows the brow.

FURROWFACED, a. Having a wrinkled or furrowed face.

FURROWWEED, n. A weed growing on plowed land.

FURRY, a. [from fur.]

1. Covered with fur; dressed in fur.

2. Consisting of fur or skins; as furry spoils.


1. More or most distant; as the further end of the field.

2. Additional. We have a further reason for this opinion. We have nothing further to suggest.

What further need have we of witnesses? Matthew 26:65.

FURTHER, adv. To a greater distance. He went further.

To help forward; to promote; to advance onward; to forward; hence, to help or assist.

This binds thee then to further my design.

FURTHERANCE, n. A helping forward; promotion; advancement.

I know that I shall abide and continue with you all, for your furtherance and joy of faith. Philippians 1:25.

FURTHERED, pp. Promoted; advanced.

FURTHERER, n. One who helps to advance; a promoter.

FURTHERMORE, adv. Moreover; besides; in addition to what has been said.

FURTHEST, a. Most distant either in time or place.

FURTHEST, adv. At the greatest distance.

FURTIVE, a. [L. furtivus.]

Stolen; obtained by theft.