Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



ENFORM, v.t. To form; to fashion. [See Form.]

ENFOULDERED, a. Mixed with lightning. [Not in use.]

1. To make free of a city, corporation or state; to admit to the privileges of a freeman. The English colonies were enfranchised by special charters.

2. To free or release from custody.

3. To naturalize; to denizen; to receive as denizens; as, to enfranchise foreign words.

ENFRANCHISED, pp. Set free; released from bondage.

1. Admitted to the rights and privileges of freemen.

ENFRANCHISEMENT, n. Release from slavery or custody.

1. The admission of persons to the freedom of a corporation or state; investiture with the privileges of free citizens; the incorporating of a person into any society or body politic.

ENFRANCHISER, n. One who enfranchises.

ENFRANCHISING, ppr. Setting free from slavery or custody; admitting to the rights and privileges of denizens or free citizens in a state, or to the privileges of a free man in a corporation.

ENFROWARD, v.t. To make froward or perverse. [Not used.]

ENFROZEN, a. Frozen; congealed. [Not used.]

ENGAGE, v.t.

1. To make liable for a debt to a creditor; to bind one’s self as surety.

2. To pawn; to stake as a pledge.

3. To enlist; to bring into a party; as, to engage men for service; to engage friends to aid in a cause.

4. To embark in an affair; as, be not hasty to engage yourself in party disputes.

5. To gain; to win and attach; to draw to.

Good nature engages every one to its possessor.

To very duty he could minds engage.

6. To unite and bind by contract or promise. Nations engage themselves to each other by treaty. The young often engage themselves to their sorrow.

7. To attract and fix; as, to engage the attention.

8. To occupy; to employ assiduously. We were engaged in conversation. The nation is engaged in war.

9. To attack in contest; to encounter. The army engaged the enemy at ten o’clock. The captain engaged the ship, at point blank distance.

ENGAGE, v.i. To encounter; to begin to fight; to attack in conflict. The armies engaged at Marengo, in a general battle.

1. To embark in any business; to take a concern in; to undertake. Be cautious not to engage in controversy, without indispensable necessity.

2. To promise or pledge one’s word; to bind one’s self; as, a friend has engaged to supply the necessary funds.

ENGAGED, pp. or a. Pledged; promised; enlisted; gained and attached; attracted and fixed; embarked; earnestly employed; zealous.

ENGAGEDLY, adv. With earnestness; with attachment.

ENGAGEDNESS, n. The state of being seriously and earnestly occupied; zeal; animation.

ENGAGEMENT, n. The act of pawning, pledging or making liable for debt.

1. Obligation by agreement or contract. Men are often more ready to make engagements than to fulfil them.

2. Adherence to a party or cause; partiality.

3. Occupation; employment of the attention.

Play, by too long or constant engagement, becomes like an employment or profession.

4. Employment in fighting; the conflict of armies or fleets; battle; a general action; appropriately the conflict of whole armies or fleets, but applied to actions between small squadrons or single ships, rarely to a fight between detachments of land forces.

5. Obligation; motive; that which engages.

ENGAGER, n. One that enters into an engagement or agreement.

ENGAGING, ppr. Pawning; making liable for debt; enlisting; bringing into a party or cause; promising; binding; winning and attaching; encountering; embarking.

1. Winning; attractive; tending to draw the attention or the affections; pleasing; as engaging manners or address.

ENGAGINGLY, adv. In a manner to win the affections.

ENGALLANT, v.t. To make a gallant of. [Not used.]

ENGAOL, v.t. enja’le. To imprison. [not used.]

ENGARBOIL, v.t. To disorder. [Not in used.]

ENGARLAND, v.t. To encircle with a garland.

ENGARRISON, v.t. To furnish with a garrison; to defend or protect by a garrison.

ENGASTRIMUTH, n. A ventriloquist.

ENGENDER, v.t. [L. gener, genero, geno, gigno. See Generate.]

1. To beget between the different sexes; to form in embryo.

2. To produce; to cause to exist; to cause to bring forth. Meteors are engendered in the atmosphere; worms are sometimes engendered in the stomach; intemperance engenders fatal maladies; angry words engender strife.

ENGENDER, v.i. To be caused or produced.

Thick clouds are spread, and storms engender there.

ENGENDERED, pp. Begotten; caused; produced.

ENGENDERER, n. He or that which engenders.

ENGENDERING, ppr. Begetting; causing to be; producing.

ENGILD, v.t. To gild; to brighten.

ENGINE, n. [L. ingenium.]

1. In mechanics, a compound machine, or artificial instrument, composed of different parts, and intended to produce some effect by the help of the mechanical powers; as a pump, a windlas, a capstan, a fire engine, a steam engine.

2. A military machine; as a battering ram, etc.

3. Any instrument; that by which any effect is produced. An arrow, a sword, a musket is an engine of death.

4. A machine for throwing water to extinguish fire.

5. Means; any thing used to effect a purpose.

6. An agent for another; usually in an ill sense.

ENGINEER, n. In the military art, a person skilled in mathematics and mechanics, who forms plans of works for offense or defense, and marks out the ground for fortifications. Engineers are also employed in delineating plans and superintending the construction of other public works, as aqueducts and canals. The latter are called civil engineers.

1. One who manages engines or artillery.

ENGINERY, n. en’ginry. The act of managing engines or artillery.

1. Engines in general; artillery; instruments of war.

2. Machination.

ENGIRD, v.t. [See Gird.] To surround; to encircle; to encompass.

ENGIRDED, ENGIRT, pp. Surrounded; encompassed.

ENGIRDING, ppr. Encircling; surrounding.

ENGLAD, v.t. To make glad; to cause to rejoice.

ENGLAIMED, a. Furred; clammy. [Not used.]

ENGLAND, n. [See English.]

ENGLISH, a. ing’glish. [L. ango, from the sense of pressing, depression, laying, which gives the sense of level.]

Belonging to England, or to its inhabitants.

ENGLISH, n. The people of England.

1. The language of England or of the English nation, and of their descendants in India, America and other countries.

ENGLISH, v.t. To translate into the English language.

ENGLISHED, pp. Rendered into English.

ENGLISHRY, n. The state or privilege of being an Englishman. [Not used.]

ENGLUT, v.t. [L. glutio.]

1. To swallow.

2. To fill; to glut. [This word is little used. See Glut.]

ENGORE, v.t. To pierce; to gore. [See Gore.]

ENGORGE, v.t. engorj’. To swallow;; to devour; to gorge; properly, to swallow with greediness, or in large quantities.

ENGORGE, v.t. engorj’. To devour; to feed with eagerness or voracity.

ENGORGED, pp. Swallowed with greediness, or in large draughts.

ENGORGEMENT, n. engorj’ment. the act of swallowing greedily; a devouring with voracity.

ENGORGING, ppr. Swallowing with voracity.

ENGRAFT, v.t. To ingraft, which see.

ENGRAIL, v.t. In heraldry, to variegate; to spot as with hail; to indent or make ragged at the edges, as if broken with hail; to indent in curve lines.

ENGRAILED, pp. Variegated; spotted.

ENGRAIN, v.t. [from grain.] To dye in grain, or in the raw material to dye deep.

ENGRAINED, pp. Dyed in the grain; as engrained carpets.

ENGRAINING, ppr. Dyeing in the grain.

ENGRAPPLE, v.t. [from grapple. To grapple; to seize and hold; to close in and hold fast. See Grapple, which is generally used.]

ENGRASP, v.t. [from grasp.] To seize with a clasping hold; to hold fast by inclosing or embracing; to gripe. [See Grasp, which is generally used.]

ENGRAVE, v.t. pret. engraved; pp. engraved or engraven.

Literally, to scratch or scrape. Hence,

1. To cut, as metals, stones or other hard substances, with a chisel or graver; to cut figures, letters or devices, on stone or metal; to mark by incision.

Thou shalt engrave the two stones with the names of the children of Israel. Exodus 28:11.

2. To picture or represent by incisions.

3. To imprint; to impress deeply; to infix.

Let the laws of God and the principles of morality be engraved on the minds in early years.

4. To bury; to deposit in the grave; to inter; to inhume. [Not now used.]

ENGRAVED, ENGRAVEN, pp. Cut or marked, as with a chisel or graver; imprinted; deeply impressed.

ENGRAVEMENT, n. Engraved work; act of engraving.

ENGRAVER, n. One who engraves; a cutter of letters, figures or devices, on stone, metal or wood; a sculptor; a carver.

ENGRAVERY, n. The work of an engraver. [Little used.]

ENGRAVING, ppr. Cutting or marking stones or metals, with a chisel or graver; imprinting.

ENGRAVING, n. The act or art of cutting stones, metals and other hard substances, and representing thereon figures, letters, characters and devices; a branch of sculpture.

ENGRIEVE, v.t. To grieve; to pain. [See Grieve.]


1. Primarily, to make thick or gross; to thicken. [Not now used.]

2. To make larger; to increase in bulk. [Not used.]

3. To seize in the gross; to take the whole; as, worldly cares engross the attention of most men, but neither business nor amusement should engross our whole time.

4. To purchase, with a view to sell again, either the whole or large quantities of commodities in market, for the purpose of making a profit by enhancing the price. Engrossing does not necessarily imply the purchase of the whole of any commodity, but such quantities as to raise the price, by diminishing the supplies in open market, and taking advantage of an increased demand.

5. To copy in a large hand; to write a fair, correct copy, in large or distinct, legible characters, for preservation or duration; as records of public acts, on paper or parchment.

6. To take or assume in undue quantities or degrees; as, to engross power.

ENGROSSED, pp. Made thick; taken in the whole; purchased in large quantities for sale; written in large fair characters.

ENGROSSER, n. He or that which takes the whole; a person who purchases the whole or such quantities of articles in a market as to raise the price.

1. One who copies a writing in large, fair characters.

ENGROSSING, ppr. Taking the whole; buying commodities in such quantities as to raise the price in market.

1. Writing correct copies in large, fair characters.

ENGROSSMENT, n. The act of engrossing; the act of taking the whole.

1. The appropriation of things in the gross, or in exorbitant quantities; exorbitant acquisition.

ENGUARD, v.t. [See Guard.] To guard; to defend.

ENGULF, v.t. To throw or to absorb in a gulf.

ENGULFED, pp. Absorbed in a whirlpool, or in a deep abyss or gulf.

ENGULFMENT, n. An absorption in a gulf, or deep cavern, or vortex.

ENHANCE, v.t. enh`ans.

1. To raise; to lift; applied to material things by Spenser, but this application is entirely obsolete.

2. To raise; to advance; to highthen; applied to price or value. War enhances the price of provisions; it enhances rents, and the value of lands.

3. To raise; applied to qualities, quantity, pleasures, enjoyments, etc. Pleasure is enhanced by the difficulty of obtaining it.

4. To increase; to aggravate. The guilt of a crime may be enhanced by circumstances.

ENH`ANCE, v.i. enh`ans. To be raised; to swell; to grow larger. A debt enhances rapidly by compound interest.

ENHANCED, pp. Raised; advanced; highthened; increased.

ENHANCEMENT, n. Rise; increase; augmentation; as the enhancement of value, price, enjoyment, pleasure, beauty.

1. Increase; aggravation; as the enhancement of evil, grief, punishment, guilt or crime.

ENHANCER, n. One who enhances; he or that which raises price, etc.

ENHANCING, ppr. Raising; increasing; augmenting; aggravating.

ENHARBOR, v.i. To dwell in or inhabit.

ENHARDEN, v.t. To harden; to encourage.

ENHARMONIC, a. [from harmonic, harmony.] In music, an epithet applied to such species of composition, as proceed on very small intervals, or smaller intervals that the diatonic and chromatic. An enharmonic interval is the eighth of a tone.

ENIGMA, n. [L. oenigma; Gr. to hint.] A dark saying, in which some known thing is concealed under obscure language; an obscure question; a riddle. A question, saying or painting, containing a hidden meaning, which is proposed to be guessed.

ENIGMATIC, ENIGMATICAL, a. Relating to or containing a riddle; obscure; darkly expressed; ambiguous.

1. Obscurely conceived or apprehended.

ENIGMATICALLY, adv. In an obscure manner; in a sense different from that which the words in common acceptation imply.

ENIGMATIST, n. A maker or dealer in enigmas and riddles.

ENIGMATIZE, v.i. To utter or form enigmas; to deal in riddles.

ENIGMATOGRAPHY, ENIGMATOLOGY, n. The art of making riddles; or the art of solving them.

ENJOIN, v.t. [L. injungo. See Join. We observe that the primary sense of join is to set, extend or lay to, to throw to or on; otherwise the sense of order or command could not spring from it. To enjoin is to set or lay to or on.]

1. To order or direct with urgency; to admonish or instruct with authority; to command. Says Johnson, “this word is more authoritative than direct, and less imperious than command.” It has the force of pressing admonition with authority; as, a parent enjoins on his children the duty of obedience. But it has also the sense of command; as the duties enjoined by God in the moral law.

2. In law, to forbid judicially; to issue or direct a legal injunction to stop proceedings.

This is a suit to enjoin the defendants from disturbing the plaintiffs.

ENJOINED, pp. Ordered; directed; admonished with authority; commanded.

ENJOINER, n. One who enjoins.

ENJOINING, ppr. Ordering; directing.

ENJOINMENT, n. Direction; command; authoritative admonition.

ENJOY, v.t.

1. To feel or perceive with pleasure; to take pleasure or satisfaction in the possession or experience of. We enjoy the dainties of a feast, the conversation of friends, and our own meditations.

I could enjoy the pangs of death,

And smile in agony.

2. To possess with satisfaction; to take pleasure or delight in the possession of.

Thou shalt beget sons, but thou shalt not enjoy them. Deuteronomy 28:41.

3. To have, possess and use with satisfaction; to have, hold or occupy, as a good or profitable thing, or as something desirable. We enjoy a free constitution and inestimable privileges.

That the children of Israel may enjoy every man the inheritance of his fathers. Numbers 36:8.

The land shall enjoy her sabbaths. Leviticus 26:34.

To enjoy one’s self, is to feel pleasure or satisfaction in one’s own mind, or to relish the pleasures in which one partakes; to be happy.

ENJOY, v.i. To live in happiness. [Unusual.]

ENJOYABLE, a. Capable of being enjoyed.

ENJOYED, pp. Perceived with pleasure or satisfaction; possessed or used with pleasure; occupied with content.

ENJOYER, n. One who enjoys.

ENJOYING, ppr. Feeling with pleasure; possessing with satisfaction.

ENJOYMENT, n. Pleasure; satisfaction; agreeable sensations; fruition.

1. Possession with satisfaction; occupancy of any thing good or desirable; as the enjoyment of an estate; the enjoyment of civil and religious privileges.

ENKINDLE, v.t. [from kindle.] To kindle; to set on fire; to inflame; as, to enkindle sparks into a flame. In this literal sense, kindle is generally used.

1. To excite; to rouse into action; to inflame; as, to enkindle the passions into a flame; to enkindle zeal; to enkindle war or discord, or the flames of war.

ENKINDLED, pp. Set on fire; inflamed; roused into action; excited.

ENKINDLING, ppr. Setting on fire; inflaming; rousing; exciting.

ENLARD, v.t. To cover with lard or grease; to baste.

ENLARGE, v.t. enlarj. [from large.] To make greater in quantity or dimensions; to extend in limits, breadth or side; to expand in bulk. Every man desires to enlarge his possessions; the prince, his dominions. and the landholder, his farm. The body is enlarged by nutrition, and a good man rejoices to enlarge the sphere of his benevolence.

God shall enlarge Japhet. Genesis 9:27.

1. To dilate; to expand; as with joy or love.

O ye, Corinthians, our mouth is open to you, our heart is enlarged. 2 Corinthians 6:11.

2. To expand; to make more comprehensive. Science enlarges the mind.

3. To increase in appearance; to magnify to the eye; as by a glass.

4. To set at liberty; to release from confinement or pressure.

5. To extend in a discourse; to diffuse in eloquence.

They enlarged themselves on this subject.

In this application, the word is generally intransitive.

6. To augment; to increase; to make large or larger, in a general sense; a word of general application.

To enlarge the heart, may signify to open and expand in good will; to make free, liberal and charitable.

ENL`ARGE, v.i. enlarj. To grow large or larger; to extend; to dilate; to expand. A plant enlarges by growth; an estate enlarges by good management; a volume of air enlarges by rarefaction.

1. To be diffuse in speaking or writing; to expatiate. I might enlarge on this topic.

2. To exaggerate.

ENLARGED, pp. Increased in bulk; extended in dimension; expanded; dilated; augmented; released from confinement or straits.

ENLARGEDLY, adv. With enlargement.