Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary

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DUNE — DYSENTERY

DUNE, n. A hill. [See Down.]

DUN-FISH, n. Codfish cured in a particular manner. [See Dunning.]

DUNG, n. [G.] The excrement of animals.

DUNG, v.t. To manure with dung.
DUNG, v.i. To void excrement.

DUNGED, pp. Manured with dung.

DUNGEON, n.

1. A close prison; or a deep, dark place of confinement.

And in a dungeon deep.

They brought Joseph hastily out of the dungeon. Genesis 41:14.

2. A subterraneous place of close confinement.

DUNGEON, v.t. To confine in a dungeon.

DUNGFORK, n. A fork used to throw dung from a stable or into a cart, or to spread it over land.

DUNGHILL, n.

1. A heap of dung.

2. A mean or vile abode.

3. Any mean situation or condition.

He lifteth the beggar from the dunghill. 1 Samuel 2:8.

4. A term of reproach for a man meanly born. [Not used.]

DUNGHILL, a. Sprung from the dunghill; mean; low; base; vile.

DUNGY, a. Full of dung; filthy; vile.

DUNGYARD, n. A yard or inclosure where dung is collected.

DUNLIN, n. A fowl, a species of sandpiper.

DUNNAGE, n. Faggots, boughs or loose wood laid on the bottom of a ship to raise heavy goods above the bottom.

DUNNED, pp. [from dun.] Importuned to pay a dept; urged.

DUNNER, n. [from dun.] One employed in soliciting the payment of debts.

DUNNING, ppr. [from dun.] Urging for payment of a debt, or for the grant of some favor, or for the obtaining any request; importuning.

DUNNING, ppr. or n. [from dun, a color.] The operation of curing codfish, in such a manner as to give it a particular color and quality. Fish for dunning are caught early in spring, and often in February. At the Isles of Shoals, off Portsmouth, in New Hampshire, the cod are taken in deep water, split and slack-salted; then laid in a pile for two or three months, in a dark store, covered, for the greatest part of the time, with salt-hay or eel-grass, and pressed with some weight. In April or May, they are opened and piled again as close as possible in the same dark store, till July or August, when they are fit for use.

DUNNISH, a. Inclined to a dun color; somewhat dun.

DUNNY, a. Deaf; dull of apprehension. [Local.]

DUO, n. [L., two.] A song in two parts.

DUODECAHEDRAL, DUODECAHEDRON, [See Dodecahedral, Dodecahedron.]

DUODECIMFID, a. [L., twelve; to cleave.] Divided into twelve parts.

DUODECIMO, a. [L., twelve.] Having or consisting of twelve leaves to a sheet; as a book of duodecimo form or size.

DUODECIMO, n. A book in which a sheet is folded into twelve leaves.

DUODECUPLE, a. [L., two; tenfold.] Consisting of twelves.

DUODENUM, n. [L.] The first of the small intestines.

DUOLITERAL, a. [L., two; a letter.] Consisting of two letters only; biliteral.

DUPE, n. [See the verb.] A person who is deceived; or one easily led astray by his credulity; as the dupe of a party.

DUPE, v.t. To deceive; to trick; to mislead by imposing on ones credulity; as, to be duped by flattery.

DUPION, n. A double cocoon, formed by two or more silk-worms.

DUPLE, a. [L.] Double. Duple ratio is that of 2 to 1, 8 to 4, etc.

DUPLICATE, a. [L., to double; twofold; to fold. See Double.] Double; twofold.

Duplicate proportion or ratio, is the proportion or ratio of squares. Thus in geometrical proportion, the first term to the third is said to be in a duplicate ratio of the first to the second, or as its square is to the square of the second. Thus in 2. 4. 8. 16., the ratio of 2 to 8 is a duplicate of that of 2 to 4, or as the square of 2 is to the square of 4.

DUPLICATE, n.

1. Another corresponding to the first; or a second thing of the same kind.

2. A copy; a transcript. Thus a second letter or bill of exchange exactly like the first is called a duplicate.

DUPLICATE, v.t. [L.] To double; to fold.

DUPLICATION, n.

1. The act of doubling; the multiplication of a number by 2.

2. A folding; a doubling; also, a fold; as the duplication of a membrane.

DUPLICATURE, n. A doubling; a fold. In anatomy, the fold of a membrane or vessel.

DUPLICITY, n. [L., double.]

1. Doubleness; the number two.

2. Doubleness of heart or speech; the act or practice of exhibiting a different or contrary conduct, or uttering different or contrary sentiments, at different times, in relation to the same thing; or the act of dissembling ones real opinions for the purpose of concealing them and misleading persons in the conversation and intercourse of life; double-dealing; dissimulation; deceit.

3. In law, duplicity is the pleading of two or more distinct matters or single pleas.

DURABILITY, n. [See Durable.] The power of lasting or continuing, in any given state, without perishing; as the durability of cedar or oak timber; the durability of animal and vegetable life is very limited.

DURABLE, a. [L., to last; hard.] Having the quality of lasting or continuing long in being, without perishing or wearing out as durable timber; durable cloth; durable happiness.

DURABLENESS, n. Power of lasting; durability; as the durableness of honest fame.

DURABLY, adv. In a lasting manner; with long continuance.

DURANCE, n. [L.]

1. Imprisonment; restraint of the person; custody of the jailer.

2. Continuance; duration. [See Endurance.]

DURANT, n. A glazed woolen stuff; called by some everlasting.

DURATION, n.

1. Continuance in time; length or extension of existence, indefinitely; as the duration of life; the duration of a partnership; the duration of any given period of time; everlasting duration. This holding on or continuance of time is divided by us arbitrarily into certain portions, as minutes, hours and days; or it is measured by a succession of events, as by the diurnal and annual revolutions of the earth, or any other succession; and the interval between two events is called a part of duration. This interval may be of any indefinite length, a minute or a century.

2. Power of continuance.

DURE, v.i. [L. See Durable.] To last; to hold on in time or being; to continue; to endure. [This word is obsolete; endure being substituted.]

DUREFUL, a. Lasting.

DURELESS, a. Not lasting; fading.

DURESS, n. [L. See Durable.]

1. Literally, hardship; hence, constraint. Technically, duress, in law, is of two kinds; duress of imprisonment, which is imprisonment or restraint of personal liberty; and duress by menaces or threats [per minas,] when a person is threatened with loss of life or limb. Fear of battery is no duress. Duress then is imprisonment or threats intended to compel a person to do a legal act, as to execute a deed; or to commit an offense; in which cases the act is voidable or excusable.

2. Imprisonment; restraint of liberty.

DURING, ppr. Of dure. Continuing; lasting; holding on; as during life, that is, life continuing; during our earthly pilgrimage; during the space of a year; during this or that. These phrases are the case absolute, or independent clauses; durante vita, durante hoc.

DURITY, n. [L.]

1. Hardness; firmness.

2. Hardness of mind; harshness. [Little used.]

DUROUS, a. Hard. [Not used.]

DURRA, n. A kind of millet, cultivated in North Africa.

DURST, pret. Of dare.

DUSE, n. A demon or evil spirit. Quosdam daemones quos dusios Galli nuncupant. August. De Civ. Dei, 15. 23. What the duse is the matter? The duse is in you. [Vulgar.]

DUSK, a. [G., tarnish; to tarnish; to become dull or obscure. Gr.]

1. Tending to darkness, or moderately dark.

2. Tending to a dark or black color; moderately black.

DUSK, n.

1. A tending to darkness; incipient or imperfect obscurity; a middle degree between light and darkness; twilight; as the dusk of the evening.

2. Tendency to a black color; darkness of color.

Whose dusk set off the whiteness of the skin.

DUSK, v.t. To make dusky. [Little used.]
DUSK, v.i. To begin to lose light or whiteness; to grow dark. [Little used.]

DUSKILY, adv. With partial darkness; with a tendency to blackness or darkness.

DUSKINESS, n. Incipient or partial darkness; a slight or moderate degree of darkness or blackness.

DUSKISH, a. Moderately dusky; partially obscure; slightly dark or black; as duskish smoke.

Duskish tincture.

DUSKISHLY, adv. Cloudily; darkly.

DUSKISHNESS, n. Duskiness; approach to darkness.

DUSKY, a.

1. Partially dark or obscure; not luminous; as a dusky valley.

A dusky torch.

2. Tending to blackness in color; partially black; dark-colored; not bright; as a dusky brown.

Dusky clouds.

3. Gloomy; sad.

This dusky scene of horror.

4. Intellectually clouded; as a dusky sprite.

DUST, n.

1. Fine dry particles of earth or other matter, so attenuated that it may be raised and wafted by the wind; powder; as clouds of dust and seas of blood.

2. Fine dry particles of earth; fine earth.

The peacock warmeth her eggs in the dust. Job 39:13-14.

3. Earth; unorganized earthy matter.

Dust thou art, and to dust shalt thou return. Genesis 3:19.

4. The grave.

For now shall I sleep in the dust. Job 7:21.

5. A low condition.

God raiseth the poor out of the dust. 1 Samuel 2:8.

DUST, v.t.

1. To free from dust; to brush, wipe or sweep away dust; as, to dust a table or a floor.

2. To sprinkle with dust.

3. To levigate.

DUST-BRUSH, n. A brush for cleaning rooms and furniture.

DUSTER, n. An utensil to clear from dust; also, a sieve.

DUSTINESS, n. The state of being dusty.

DUST-MAN, n. One whose employment is to carry away dirt and filth.

DUSTY, a.

1. Filled, covered or sprinkled with dust; clouded with dust.

2. Like dust; of the color of dust; as a dusty white; a dusty red.

DUTCH, n. The people of Holland; also, their language.

DUTCH, a. Pertaining to Holland, or to its inhabitants.

DUTEOUS, a. [from duty.]

1. Performing that which is due, or that which law, justice or propriety requires; obedient; respectful to those who have natural or legal authority to require service or duty; as a duteous child or subject.

2. Obedient; obsequious; in a good or bad sense.

Duteous to the vices of thy mistress.

3. Enjoined by duty, or by the relation of one to another; as duteous ties. [Little used.]

DUTIABLE, a. [See Duty.] Subject to the imposition of duty or customs; as dutiable goods.

DUTIED, a. Subjected to duties or customs.

DUTIFUL, a.

1. Performing the duties or obligations required by law, justice or propriety; obedient; submissive to natural or legal superiors; respectful; as a dutiful son or daughter; a dutiful ward or servant; a dutiful subject.

2. Expressive of respect or a sense of duty; respectful; reverential; required by duty; as dutiful reverence; dutiful attentions.

DUTIFULLY, adv. In a dutiful manner; with a regard to duty; obediently; submissively; reverently; respectfully.

DUTIFULNESS, n.

1. Obedience; submission to just authority; habitual performance of duty; as dutifulness to parents.

2. Reverence; respect.

DUTY, n.

1. That which a person owes to another; that which a person is bound, by any natural, moral or legal obligation, to pay, do or perform. Obedience to princes, magistrates and the laws is the duty of every citizen and subject; obedience, respect and kindness to parents are duties of children; fidelity to friends is a duty; reverence, obedience and prayer to God are indispensable duties; the government and religious instruction of children are duties of parents which they cannot neglect without guilt.

2. Forbearance of that which is forbid by morality, law, justice or propriety. It is our duty to refrain from lewdness, intemperance, profaneness and injustice.

3. Obedience; submission.

4. Act of reverence or respect.

They both did duty to their lady.

5. The business of a soldier or marine on guard; as, the company is on duty. It is applied also to other services or labor.

6. The business of war; military service; as, the regiment did duty in Flanders.

7. Tax, toll, impost, or customs; excise; any sum of money required by government to be paid on the importation, exportation, or consumption of goods. An impost on land or other real estate, and on the stock of farmers, is not called a duty, but a direct tax.

DUUMVIR, n. [L., two; man.] One of two Roman officers or magistrates united int he same public functions.

DUUMVIRAL, a. Pertaining to the duumvirs or duumvirate of Rome.

DUUMVIRATE, n. The union of two men in the same office; or the office, dignity or government of two men thus associated; as in ancient Rome.

DWALE, n.

1. In heraldry, a sable or black color.

2. The deadly nightshade, a plant or a sleepy potion.

DWARF, n.

1. A general name for an animal or plant which is much below the ordinary size of the species or kind. A man that never grows beyond two or three feet in highth, is a dwarf. This word when used alone usually refers to the human species, but sometimes to other animals. When it is applied to plants, it is more generally used in composition; as a dwarf-tree; dwarf-elder.

2. An attendant on a lady or knight in romances.

DWARF, v.t. To hinder from growing to the natural size; to lessen; to make or keep small.

DWARFISH, a. Like a dwarf; below the common stature or size; very small; low; petty; despicable; as a dwarfish animal; a dwarfish shrub.

DWARFISHLY, adv. Like a dwarf.

DWARFISHNESS, n. Smallness of stature; littleness of size.

DWAUL, v.i. To be delirious.

DWELL, v.i. pret. dwelled, usually contracted into dwelt. [See Dally.]

1. To abide as a permanent resident, or to inhabit for a time; to live in a place; to have a habitation for some time or permanence.

God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem. Genesis 9:27.

Dwell imports a residence of some continuance. We use abide for the resting of a night or an hour; but we never say, he dwelt in a place a day or a night. Dwell may signify a residence for life or for a much shorter period, but not for a day. In scripture, it denotes a residence of seven days during the feast of tabernacles.

Ye shall dwell in booths seven days. Leviticus 23:42.

The word was made flesh, and dwelt among us. John 1:14.

2. To be in any state or condition; to continue.

To dwell in doubtful joy.

3. To continue; to be fixed in attention; to hang upon with fondness.

The attentive queen dwelt on his accents.

They stand at a distance, dwelling on his looks and language, fixed in amazement.

4. To continue long; as, to dwell on a subject, in speaking, debate or writing; to dwell on a note in music.

Dwell, as a verb transitive, is not used. We who dwell this wild, in Milton, is not a legitimate phrase.

DWELLER, n. An inhabitant; a resident of some continuance in a place.

DWELLING, ppr. Inhabiting; residing; sojourning; continuing with fixed attention.

DWELLING, n. Habitation; place of residence; abode.

Hazor shall be a dwelling for dragons. Jeremiah 49:33.

1. Continuance; residence; state of life.

Thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field. Daniel 4:25.

DWELLING-HOUSE, n. The house in which one lives.

DWELLING-PLACE, n. The place of residence.

DWINDLE, v.i.

1. To diminish; to become less; to shrink; to waste or consume away. The body dwindles by pining or consumption; an estate swindles by waste, by want of industry or economy; an object dwindles in size, as it recedes from view; an army dwindles by death or desertion.

Our drooping days have dwindled down to naught.

2. To degenerate; to sink; to fall away.

Religious societies may dwindle into factious clubs.

DWINDLE, v.t. To make less; to bring low.

1. To break; to disperse.

DWINDLED, a. Shrunk; diminished in size.

DWINDLING, ppr. Falling away; becoming less; pining; consuming; moldering away.

DYE, v.t. [L. tingo, for tigo.]

To stain; to color; to give a new and permanent color to; applied particularly to cloth or the materials of cloth, as wool, cotton, silk and linen; also to hats, leather, etc. It usually expresses more or a deeper color than tinge.

DYED, pp. Stained; colored.

DYEING, ppr. Staining; giving a new and permanent color.

DYEING, n. The art or practice of giving new and permanent colors; the art of coloring cloth, hats, etc.

DYER, n. One whose occupation is to dye cloth and the like.

DYING, ppr. [from die.] Losing life; perishing; expiring; fading away; languishing.

1. a. Mortal; destined to death; as dying bodies.

DYNAMETER, n. [Gr. strength, and to measure.]

An instrument for determining the magnifying power of telescopes.

DYNAMETRICAL, a. Pertaining to a dynameter.

DYNAMICAL, a. [Gr. power.] Pertaining to strength or power.

DYNAMICS, n. [Gr., power.] That branch of mechanical philosophy which treats of the force of moving bodies; the science of moving powers, and the effect of moving bodies acting on each other and producing motion.

DYNAMOMETER, n. [See Dynameter.] An instrument for measuring the relative strength of men and other animals.

DYNAST, n. [See Dynasty.] a ruler; a governor; a prince; a government.

DYNASTIC, a. Relating to a dynasty or line of kings.

DYNASTY, n. [Gr. power, sovereignty; a lord or chief; to be able or strong, to prevail.]

Government; sovereignty; or rather a race or succession of kings of the same line or family, who govern a particular country; as the dynastics of Egypt or Persia.

The obligation of treaties and contracts is allowed to survive the change of dynasties.

DYSCRASY, a. [Gr. evil, and habit.] In medicine, an ill habit or state of the humors; distemperature of the juices.

DYSENTERIC, a. Pertaining to dysentery; accompanied with dysentery; proceeding from dysentery.

1. Afflicted with dysentery; as a dysenteric patient.

DYSENTERY, n. [L. dysenteria; Gr. bad; intestines.]

A flux in which the stools consist chiefly of blood and mucus or other morbid matter, accompanied with griping of the bowels, and followed by tenesmus.