Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



DEOXYDIZED, pp. Deoxydated.

DEOXYDIZING, ppr. Deoxydating.

NOTE. Deoxydate and deoxydize are synonymous; but the former is preferable, on account of the length of the word deoxydization.

DEOXYGENATE, v.t. To deprive of oxygen.

DEOXYGENATED, v.t. Deprived of oxygen.

DEOXYGENATING, ppr. Depriving of oxygen.

DEOXYGENATION, n. The act or operation of depriving of oxygen.

DEPAINT, v.t. [L. To paint.]

1. To paint; to picture; to represent in colors, as by painting the resemblance.

2. To describe in words.

DEPAINTED, pp. Painted; represented in colors; described.

DEPAINTER, n. A painter.

DEPAINTING, ppr. Painting; representing in colors; describing.

DEPART, v.i.

1. To go or move from.

Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire. Matthew 25:41.

It is followed by from, or from is implied before the place left.

I will depart to my own land, that is, I will depart from this place to my own land. Numbers 10:30.

2. To go from; to leave; to desist, as from a practice. Jehu departed not from the sins of Jeroboam. Jehoshaphat departed not from the way of Asa his father.

3. To leave; to deviate from; to forsake; not to adhere to or follow; as, we cannot depart from our rules.

I have not departed from thy judgments. Psalm 119:102.

4. To desist; to leave; to abandon; as, he would not depart from his purpose, resolution, or demand.

5. To be lost; to perish; to vanish; as, his glory has departed.

6. To die; to decease; to leave this world.

Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word. Luke 2:29.

To depart this life is elliptical, from being understood.

8. To cease.

The prey departeth not. Nahum 3:1.

9. To deviate; to vary from.

If the plan of the convention be found to depart from republican principles-

10. To vary; to deviate from the title or defense in pleading.

11. To part with.

To depart from God, is to forsake his service and live in sin; to apostatize; to revolt; to desert his government and laws.

God departs from men, when he abandons them to their own sinful inclinations, or ceases to bestow on them his favor. Hosea 9:12.

DEPART, v.t. To divide or separate; to part.

1. The act of going away; death.

2. Division; separation.

DEPARTER, n. One who refines metals by separation.

DEPARTING, ppr. Going from; leaving; desisting; forsaking; vanishing; dying.

DEPARTING, n. A going away; separation.


1. Literally, a separation or division; hence, a separate part, or portion; a division of territory; as the departments of France.

2. A separate allotment or part of business; a distinct province, in which a class of duties are allotted to a particular person; as the department of state, assigned to the secretary of state; the treasury department; the department of war.

3. A separate station; as, the admirals had their respective departments. Nearly in this sense, during war, were used in America, the terms, Northern and Southern departments.

DEPARTMENTAL, a. Pertaining to a department, or division.


1. The act of going away; a moving from or leaving a place; as a departure from London.

2. Death; decease; removal from the present life.

The time of my departure is at hand. 2 Timothy 4:6.

3. A forsaking; abandonment; as a departure from evil.

4. A desisting; as a departure from a purpose.

5. Ruin; destruction. Ezekiel 26:18.

6. A deviation from the title or defense in pleading.

7. In navigation, the distance of two places on the same parallel, counted in miles of the equator.

DEPASCENT, a. [L. To feed.] Feeding.

DEPASTURE, v.t. To eat up; to consume.

DEPASTURE, v.i. To feed; to graze.

If a man takes in a horse, or other cattle, to graze and depasture in his grounds, which the law calls agistment-

DEPASTURING, ppr. Feeding; grazing; eating up.

DEPAUPERATE, v.t. [L. To beggar.] To make poor; to impoverish; to deprive of fertility or richness; as, to depauperate the soil or the blood.

DEPAUPERATED, pp. Impoverished; made poor.

DEPAUPERATING, ppr. Impoverishing; making poor.

DEPECTIBLE, a. [L. To comb.] Tough; thick.

DEPEINCT, v.t. To paint.

DEPEND, v.i. [L. To hang.]

1. To hang; to be sustained by being fastened or attached to something above; followed by from.

From the frozen beard

Long icicles depend.

2. To be connected with anything, as the cause of its existence or of its operation and effects; to rely on; to have such connection with any thing as a cause, that without it, the effect would not be produced; followed by on or upon. We depend on God for existence; we depend on air for respiration; vegetation depends on heat and moisture; the infant depends on its parents for support; the peace of society depends on good laws and a faithful administration.

3. To adhere; to hold to; to be retained.

4. To be in suspense; to be undetermined; as, the cause still depends. But the verb is seldom used in this sense. We use the participle; as, the suit is still depending in court.

5. To rely; to rest with confidence; to trust; to confide; to have full confidence or belief, we depend on the word or assurance of our friends. We depend on the arrival of the mail at the usual hour. Depend on it, the knave will deceive us.

To depend on or upon, to rely; to trust in, with confidence.

DEPENDABLE, a. That may be depended on; as dependable friendships.


1. A state of hanging down from a supporter.

2. Any thing hanging down; a series of things hanging to another.

And made a long dependence from the bough.

3. Concatenation; connection by which one thing is sustained by another, in its place, operations or effects, or is affected by it.

But of this frame the bearings and the ties,

The strong connections, nice dependencies.

4. A state of being at the disposal of another; a state of being subject to the will of an intelligent cause, or to the power and operation of any other cause; inability to sustain itself without the aid of.

We ought to feel our dependence on God for life and support. The child should be sensible of his dependence on his parents. In the natural and moral world, we observe the dependence of one thing on another.

5. Reliance; confidence; trust; a resting on; as, we may have a firm dependence on the promises of God.

6. Accident; that of which the existence presupposes the existence of something else; that which pertains to something else; as modes which are considered as dependencies or affections of substances.

7. That which is attached to, but subordinate to something else; as this earth and its dependencies.

8. A territory remote from the kingdom or state to which it belongs, but subject to its dominion; as distant isles or countries. Great Britain has its dependencies, in Asia, Africa and America.


1. Hanging down; as a dependent leaf.

The furs in the tails were dependent.

2. Subject to the power of; at the disposal of; not able to exist or sustain itself without the will or power of. Thus, we are dependent on God and his providence; and effect may be dependent on some unknown cause.

3. Relying on for support or favor; unable to subsist or to perform any thing, without the aid of.

Children are dependent on their parents for food and clothing. The pupil is dependent on his preceptor for instruction.

DEPENDENT, n. One who is at the disposal of another; one who is sustained by another, or who relies on another for support or favor; a retainer; as, the prince was followed by a numerous train of dependents.

DEPENDER, n. One who depends; a dependent.


1. Hanging down; relying.

2. a. Pending; undecided; as a suit or question.

DEPERDIT, a. That which is lost or destroyed.

DEPERDITION, n. Loss; destruction.

DEPHLEGMATE, v.t. [Gr. To burn.] To deprive of superabundant water, as by evaporation or distillation, used of spirit and acids; to clear spirit or acids of aqueous matter; to rectify.

DEPHLEGMATION, n. The operation of separating water from spirits and acids, by evaporation or repeated distillation; called also concentration, particularly when acids are the subject.

DEPHLEGMEDNESS, n. A state of being freed from water.

DEPHLOGISTICATE, v.t. [Gr. Burnt, inflammable.] To deprive of phlogiston, or the supposed principle of inflammability.

DEPHLOGISTICATED, pp. Deprived of phlogiston. Dephlogisticated air, is an elastic fluid capable of supporting animal life and flame much longer than common air. It is now called oxygen, oxygen gas, or vital air.

DEPICT, v.t. [L. To paint.]

1. To paint; to portray; to form a likeness in colors; as, to depict a lion on a shield.

2. To describe; to represent in words; as, the poet depicts the virtues of his hero in glowing language.

DEPICTED, pp. Painted; represented in colors; described.

DEPICTING, ppr. Painting; representing in colors, or in words.

DEPICTURE, v.t. To paint; to picture; to represent in colors.

DEPILATE, v.t. [L. Hair.] To strip of hair.

DEPILATION, n. The act of pulling off the hair.

DEPILATORY, a. Having the quality or power to take off hair and make bald.

DEPILATORY, n. Any application which is used to take off the hair of an animal body; such as lime and orpiment.

DEPILOUS, a. Without hair.

DEPLANTATION, n. The act of taking up plants from beds.

DEPLETION, n. [L. To fill.] The act of emptying; particularly, in the medical art, the act of diminishing the quantity of blood in the vessels by venesection; bloodletting.


1. That may be deplored or lamented; lamentable; that demands or causes lamentation; hence, sad; calamitous; grievous; miserable; wretched; as, the evils of life are deplorable; the Pagan world is in a deplorable condition.

Deplorate, in a like sense, is not used.

2. In popular use, low; contemptible; pitiable; as deplorable stupidity.

DEPLORABLENESS, n. The state of being deplorable; misery; wretchedness; a miserable state.

DEPLORABLY, adv. In a manner to be deplored; lamentably; miserable; as, manners are deplorably corrupt.

DEPLORATION, n. The act of lamenting. In music, a dirge or mournful strain.

DEPLORE, v.t. [L. To howl; to wail.] To lament; to bewail; to mourn; to feel or express deep and poignant grief for. We deplored the death of Washington.

DEPLORED, pp. Lamented; bewailed; deeply regretted.

DEPLOREDLY, adv. Lamentably.

DEPLORER, n. One who deplores, or deeply laments; a deep mourner.

DEPLORING, ppr. Bewailing; deeply lamenting.

DEPLOY, v.t. To display; to open; to extend; a military term.

DEPLOY, v.i. To open; to extend; to form a more extended front or line.

DEPLOYING, ppr. Opening; extending; displaying.


1. The stripping or falling off of plumes or feathers.

2. A tumor of the eye-lids with loss of hair.

DEPLUME, v.t. [L. A feather.] To strip or pluck off feathers; to deprive of plumage.

DEPLUMED, pp. Stripped of feathers or plumes.

DEPLUMING, ppr. Stripping off plumes or feathers.

DEPOLARIZE, v.t. To deprive of polarity.

DEPONE, v.t. To lay down as a pledge; to wage.


1. Laying down.

2. A deponent verb, in the Latin Grammar, is a verb which has a passive termination, with an active signification, and wants one of the passive participles; as, loquor, to speak.


1. One who deposes, or gives a deposition under oath; one who gives written testimony to be used as evidence in a court of justice. With us in New England, this word is never used, I believe, for a witness who gives oral testimony in court. In England, a deponent is one who gives answers under oath to interrogatories exhibited in chancery.

2. A deponent verb.

DEPOPULATE, v.t. [L. To ravage or lay waste.] To dispeople; to unpeople; to deprive of inhabitants, whether by death, or by expulsion. It is not synonymous with laying waste or destroying, being limited to the loss of inhabitants; as, an army or a famine may depopulate a country. It rarely expresses an entire loss of inhabitants, but often a great diminution of their numbers. The deluge nearly depopulated the earth.

DEPOPULATE, v.i. To become dispeopled.

DEPOPULATED, pp. Dispeopled; deprived of inhabitants.

DEPOPULATING, ppr. Dispeopling; depriving of inhabitants.

DEPOPULATION, n. The act of dispeopling; destruction or expulsion of inhabitants.

DEPOPULATOR, n. One who depopulates; one who destroys or expels the inhabitants of a city, town or country; a dispeopler.

DEPORT, v.t. [L. To carry.]

1. With the reciprocal pronoun, to carry; to demean; to behave.

Let an embassador deport himself in the most graceful manner before a prince.

2. To transport; to carry away, or from one country to another.

He told us, he had been deported to Spain, with a hundred others like himself.

DEPORT, n. Behavior; carriage; demeanor; deportment; as goddess-like deport.

DEPORTATION, n. Transportation; a carrying away; a removal from one country to another, or to a distant place; exile; banishment.

DEPORTED, pp. Carried away; transported; banished.

DEPORTING, ppr. Carrying away; removing to a distant place or country; transporting; banishing.

DEPORTMENT, n. Carriage; manner of acting in relation to the duties of life; behavior; demeanor; conduct; management.

DEPOSABLE, a. That may be deposed, or deprived of office.

DEPOSAL, n. The act of deposing, or divesting of office.

DEPOSE, v.t. [L. To lay or put.]

1. To lay down; to throw; to let fall; as, the flood deposed fine particles of earth on the bank of the river. In this sense, we now use deposit.

2. To reduce from a throne or other high station; to dethrone; to degrade; to devest of office; as, to depose a king or a pope.

3. To give testimony on oath, especially to give testimony which is committed to writing; to give answers to interrogatories, intended as evidence in a court.

4. To lay aside.

5. To take away; to strip; to divest.

6. To examine on oath.

DEPOSE, v.i. To bear witness.

DEPOSED, pp. Dethroned; degraded; testified.

DEPOSER, n. One who deposes or degrades from office.

DEPOSING, ppr. Dethroning; degrading; bearing witness.

DEPOSING, n. The act of dethroning.


1. To lay down; to lay; to throw down. A crocodile deposits her eggs in the sand. A bird deposits eggs in a nest. An inundation deposits particles of earth on a meadow.

2. To lay up; to lay in a place for preservation. We deposit the produce of the earth in barns, cellars of storehouses. We deposit goods in a warehouse, and books in a library.

3. To lodge in the hands of a person for safe-keeping or other purpose; to commit to the care of; to entrust; to commit to one as a pledge. We say, the bond is deposited in the hands of an attorney; money is deposited as a pledge, or security.

4. To lay aside.


1. That which is laid or thrown down; any matter laid or thrown down, or lodged.

The deposit already formed affording to the succeeding portions of the charged fluid, a basis.

2. Any thing entrusted to the care of another; a pledge; a pawn; a thing given as security, or for preservation; as, these papers are committed to you as a sacred deposit; he has a deposit of money in his hands.

3. A place where things are deposited; a depository.

4. A city or town where goods are lodged for safe-keeping or for reshipment.

In deposit, in a state of pledge, or for safe keeping.


1. A person with whom any thing is left or lodged in trust; one to whom a thing is committed for safe keeping, or to be used for the benefit of the owner; a trustee; a guardian. The Jews were the depositaries of the sacred writings.

2. In law, one to whom goods are bailed to be kept for the bailor without a recompense.

DEPOSITING, ppr. Laying down; pledging; repositing.


1. The act of laying or throwing down; as, soil is formed by the deposition of fine particles, during a flood.

2. That which is thrown down; that which is lodged; as, banks are sometimes depositions of alluvial matter.

3. The act of giving testimony under oath.

4. The attested written testimony of a witness; an affidavit.

5. The act of dethroning a king, or the degrading of a person from an office or station; a divesting of sovereignty, or of office and dignity; a depriving of clerical orders. A deposition differs from abdication; an abdication being voluntary, and a deposition, compulsory.

DEPOSITORY, n. A place where any thing is lodged for safe-keeping. A warehouse is a depository for goods; a clerks office, for records.

DEPOSITUM, n. A deposit.

DEPOT. [A french word. See Deposit.]


1. The act of making bad or worse; the act of corrupting.

2. The state of being made bad or worse; degeneracy; a state in which good qualities are lost, or impaired. We speak of the depravation of morals, manners or goverment; of the heart or mind; of nature, taste, etc.

3. Censure; defamation.

DEPRAVE, v.t. [L. Crooked, perverse, wicked.]

1. To make bad or worse; to impair good qualities; to make bad qualities worse; to vitiate; to corrupt; as, to deprave manners, morals, government, laws; to deprave the heart, mind, will, understanding, taste, principles, etc.

2. To defame; to vilify.


1. Made bad or worse; vitiated; tainted; corrupted.

2. a. Corrupt; wicked; destitute of holiness or good principles.

DEPRAVEDLY, adv. In a corrupt manner.

DEPRAVEDNESS, n. Corruption; taint; a vitiated state.

DEPRAVEMENT, n. A vitiated state.

DEPRAVER, n. A corrupted; he who citiates; a vilifier.

DEPRAVING, n. A traducing.


1. Corruption; a vitiated state; as the depravity of manners and morals.

2. A vitiated state of the heart; wickedness; corruption of moral principles; destitution of holiness or good principles.

DEPRECATE, v.t. [L. To pray.]

1. To pray against; to pray or intreat that a present evil may be removed, or an expected one averted.

The judgments we would deprecate are not removed.

We should all deprecate the return of war.

2. More generally, to regret; to have or to express deep sorrow at a present evil, or at one that may occur. This word is seldom used to express actual prayer; but it expresses deep regret that an evil exists or may exist, which implies a strong desire that it may be removed or averted.

3. To implore mercy of.

DEPRECATED, pp. Prayed against; deeply regretted.

DEPRECATING, ppr. Praying against; regretting.


1. A praying against; a praying that an evil may be removed or prevented.

2. Intreaty; petitioning; an excusing; a begging pardon for.