Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



DEMORALIZED, pp. Corrupted in morals.


1. Corrupting or destroying morals or moral principles.

2. a. Tending to destroy morals or moral principles.

DEMULCE, v.t. Demuls. To sooth; to soften or pacify.

DEMULCENT, a. [L. To stroke, to soften; allied perhaps to mollis, mellow.] Softening; mollifying; lenient; as, oil is demulcent.

DEMULCENT, n. Any medicine which lessens acrimony, or the effects of stimulus on the solids; that which softens or mollifies; as gums, roots of marsh-mallows, and other mucilaginous substances.

DEMUR, v.i. [L. To stay or delay.]

1. To stop; to pause; to hesitate; to suspend proceeding; to delay determination or conclusion.

On receiving this information, the minister demurred, till he could obtain further instructions.

2. In law, to stop at any point in the pleadings, and rest or abide on that point in law for a decision of the cause. Thus, the defendant may demur to the plaintiffs declaration, alledging it to be insufficient in law; the plaintiff may demur to the defendants plea, for a like reason.

DEMUR, v.t. To doubt of.
DEMUR, n. Stop; pause; hesitation as to the propriety of proceeding; suspense of proceeding or decision.

All my demurs but double his attacks.

DEMURE, a. Sober; grave; modest; downcast; as a demure countenance; a demure abasing of the eye.

DEMURE, v.i. To look with a grave countenance.

DEMURELY, adv. With grave, solemn countenance; with a fixed look; with a solemn gravity.

Esops damsel sat demurely at the boards end.

DEMURENESS, n. Gravity of countenance; soberness; a modest look.

DEMURRAGE, n. An allowance made to the master of a trading vessel, for delay or detention in port beyond the appointed time of departure. This expense is paid by the merchant who causes the detention.


1. One who demure.

2. In law, a stop at some point in the pleadings, and a resting of the decision of the cause on that point; an issue on matter of law. A demurrer confesses the fact or facts to be true, but denies the sufficiency of the facts in point of law to support the claim or defense. A demurrer may be tendered to the declaration, to the plea, to the replication, to the rejoinder, etc.

DEMURRING, ppr. Stopping; pausing; suspending proceedings or decision; resting or abiding on a point in law.

DEMY, n.

1. A particular size of paper; a kind of paper of small size.

2. A half fellow at Magdalen college, Oxford.

DEN, n.

1. A cave or hollow place in the earth; usually applied to a cave, pit, or subterraneous recess, used for concealment, shelter, protection or security; as a lions den; a den of robbers or thieves.

The beasts go into dens. The children of Israel made themselves dens. Job 37:8; Judges 6:2.

2. As a termination, in names of places, it denotes the place to be in a valley or near a wood.

DEN, v.i. To dwell as in a den.

DENARCOTIZE, v.t. [de and narcotic.] To deprive of the narcotic principle or quality; as, to denarcotize opium.

DENARY, a. Containing ten.

DENARY, n. The number ten.

DENATIONALIZE, v.t. To divest of national character or rights, by transferrence to the service of another nation. A ship built and registered in the United States, is denationalized by being employed in the service of another nation and bearing its flag.

DENAY, n. Denial; refusal.

DENAY, v.t. To deny.

DENDRACHATE, n. [Gr. A tree, and agate.] Arborescent agate; agate containing the figures of shrubs or parts of plants.

DENDRITE, n. [Gr. A tree.] A stone or mineral on or in which are the figures of shrubs or trees; an arborescent mineral.

DENDRITIC, DENDRITICAL, a. Containing the figures of shrubs or trees.

DENDROID, a. [Gr. A tree, and form.] Resembling a shrub.

DENDROIT, n. A fossil which has some resemblance in form to the branch of a tree.

DENDROLITE, n. [Gr. A tree and a stone.] A petrified or fossil shrub, plant, or part of a plant.

DENDROLOGY, n. [Gr. A tree and a discourse.] A discourse or treatise on trees; the natural history of trees.

DENDROMETER, n. [Gr. Tree and to measure.] An instrument to measure the highth and diameter of trees.

DENEGATE, v.t. To deny.

DENEGATION, n. Denial.

DENIABLE, a. That may be denied, or contradicted.


1. An affirmation to the contrary; an assertion that a declaration or fact stated is not true; negation; contradiction. It is often expressed by no or not, simply.

2. Refusal to grant; the negation of a request or petition; the contrary to grant, allowance or concession; as, his request or application met with a direct denial.

3. A rejection, or refusing to acknowledge; a disowning; as a denial of God: or a refusing to receive or embrace; as a denial of the faith or the truth.

4. A denial of ones self, is a declining of some gratification; restraint of ones appetites or propensities.

DENIER, n. One who denies, or contradicts; one who refuses or rejects; a disowner; one who does not own, avow or acknowledge; as a denier of a fact, or of the faith, or of Christ.

DENIER, n. A small denomination of French money, the twelfth part of a sol; a small copper coin.

DENIGRATE, v.t. [L. Black.] To blacken; to make black.

DENIGRATION, n. The act of making black; a blackening.

DENITRATION, n. A disengaging of nitric acid.

DENIZATION, n. The act of making one a denizen, subject or citizen. This in England is done by the kings letters patent.


1. In England, an alien who is made a subject by the kings letters patent, holding a middle state between an alien and a natural born subject. He may take land by purchase or devise, which an alien cannot; but he cannot take by inheritance.

2. A stranger admitted to residence and certain rights in a foreign country.

Ye gods,

Natives, or denizens, of blest abodes.

3. A citizen.

DENIZEN, v.t. To make a denizen; to admit to residence with certain rights and privileges; to infranchise.

DENOMIINABLE, a. That may be denominated, or named.

DENOMINATE, v.t. [L. To name.] To name; to give a name or epithet to; as, a race of intelligent beings denominated man. Actions are denominated virtuous, or vicious, according to their character.

DENOMINATED, pp. Named; called.

DENOMINATING, ppr. Naming.


1. The act of naming.

2. A name or appellation; a vocal sound, customarily used to express a thing or a quality, in discourse; as, all man fall under the denomination of sinners; actions fall under the denomination of good or bad.

3. A class, society or collection of individuals, called by the same name; as a denomination of christians.

DENOMINATIVE, a. That gives a name; that confers a distinct appellation.


1. He that gives a name.

2. In arithmetic, that number placed below the line in vulgar fractions, which shows into how many parts the integer is divided. Thus in 3/5, 5 is the denominator, showing that the integer is divided into five parts; and the numerator 3 shows how many parts are taken, that is, three fifths.

DENOTABLE, a. That may be denoted or marked.

DENOTATION, n. The act of denoting.

DENOTATIVE, a. Having power to denote.

DENOTE, v.t. [L. To note or mark.]

1. To mark; to signify by a visible sign; to indicate; to express. The character X denotes multiplication.

2. To show; to betoken; to indicate; as, a quick pulse denotes fever.

DENOTED, pp. Marked; signified, indicated.

DENOTEMENT, n. Sign; indication.

DENOTING, ppr. Marking; expressing; indicating.

DENOUEMENT, n. The unraveling or discovery of a plot.

DENOUNCE, v.t. [L. To tell, or declare.]

1. To declare solemnly; to proclaim in a threatening manner; to announce or declare, as a threat.

I denounce to you this day, that ye shall surely perish. Deuteronomy 30:18.

So we say, to denounce war; to denounce wrath.

2. To threaten by some outward sign, or expression.

His look denounced revenge.

3. To inform against; to accuse; as, to denounce one for neglect of duty.


1. Threatened by open declaration; as, punishment is denounced against the ungodly.

2. Accused; proclaimed; as, he was denounced as an enemy.

DENOUNCEMENT, n. The declaration of a menace, or of evil; denunciation.

DENOUNCER, n. One who denounces, or declares a menace.

Here comes the sad denouncer of my fate.

DENOUNCING, ppr. Declaring, as a threat; threatening; accusing.


1. Close; compact; having its constituent parts closely united; applied to solids or fluids; as a dense body; dense air.

2. Thick; as a dense cloud, or fog.

DENSENESS, n. The same as density.


1. Closeness of constituent parts; compactness. Density is opposed to rarity; and in philosophy, the density of a body indicates the quantity of matter contained in it, under a given bulk. If a body of equal bulk with another is of double the density, it contains double the quantity of matter.

2. Thickness; as the density of fog.

DENT, n.

1. Literally, a tooth or projecting point. But it is used to express a gap or notch, or rather a depression or small hollow in a solid body; a hollow made by the pressure of a harder body on a softer; indentation. In this sense, it is in customary use in the United States.

2. A stroke.

DENT, v.t. To make a dent or small hollow.

DENTAL, a. Pertaining to the teeth. In grammar, formed or pronounced by the teeth, with the aid of the tongue; as, D and T are dental letters.


1. An articulation or letter formed by placing the end of the tongue against the upper teeth, or against the gum that covers the root of the upper teeth, as D, T, and Th.

2. A genus of shell-fish, Dentalium, of several species. The shell consists of one tubulous straight valve, open at both ends.

DENTALITE, n. A fossil shell of the genus Dentalium.

DENTATE, DENTATED, a. Toothed; notched.

In botany, a dentated root is one that consists of a concatenation of joints, resembling a necklace.

A dentate leaf is one that has horizontal points, with a space between each, or points in the plane of the disk, or having points like teeth on the margin.

DENTATO-SINUATE, a. Having points like teeth with hollows about the edge.

DENTED, a. Indented; impressed with little hollows.

DENTELLI, n. Modillions.

DENTICLE, n. A small tooth or projecting point.

DENTICULATE, DENTICULATED, a. [L. A tooth.] Having small teeth or notches; as a denticulate leaf, calyx or seed.

DENTICULATION, n. The state of being set with small teeth, or prominences or points, resembling the teeth of a saw.

DENTIFORM, a. [L. A tooth and form.] Having the form of a tooth.

DENTIFRICE, n. [L. A tooth and to rub] A powder or other substance to be used in cleaning the teeth. Burnt shells and charcoal pulverized make an excellent dentifrice.

DENTIL, n. [L. A tooth.] In architecture, an ornament in cornices bearing some resemblance to teeth; used particularly in the Ionic and Corinthian order.

DENTIST, n. One whose occupation is to clean and extract teeth, or repair the loss of them.

DENTITION, n. [L. To breed teeth.]

1. The breeding or cutting of teeth in infancy.

2. The time of breeding teeth.

DENTIZE, v.t. To renew the teeth, or have them renewed.

DENTOID, a. [L. A tooth and form.] Having a form of teeth.

DENUDATE or DENUDE, v.t. [L. To make bare; naked.] To strip; to divest of all covering; to make bare or naked.


1. The act of stripping off covering; a making bare.

2. In geology, the act of washing away the surface of the earth by the deluge or other flood.

DENUDED, pp. Stripped; divested of covering; laid bare.

DENUDING, ppr. Stripping of covering; making bare.

DENUNCIATE, v.t. To denounce, which see.


1. Publication; proclamation; annunciation; preaching; as a faithful denunciation of the gospel.

2. Solemn or formal declaration, accompanied with a menace; or the declaration of intended evil; proclamation of a threat; a public menace; as a denunciation of war, or of wrath.


1. He that denounces; one who publishes or proclaims, especially intended evil; one who threatens.

2. An accuser; one who informs against another.

DENY, v.t.

1. To contradict; to gainsay; to declare a statement or position not to be true. We deny what another says, or we deny a proposition. We deny the truth of an assertion, or the assertion itself. The sense of this verb is often expressed by no or nay.

2. To refuse to grant; as, we asked for bread, and the man denied us.

3. Not to afford; to withhold.

Who find not Providence all good and wise,

Alike in what it gives, and what denies?

4. To disown; to refuse or neglect to acknowledge; not to confess.

5. To reject; to disown; not to receive or embrace.

He hath denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel. 1 Timothy 5:8.

Denying ungodliness and worldly lusts. Titus 2:12.

6. Not to afford or yield.

To deny ones self, is to decline the gratification of appetites or desires; to refrain from; to abstain. The temperate man denies himself the free use of spirituous liquors. I denied myself the pleasure of your company.

God cannot deny himself. He cannot act in contradiction to his character and promises. He cannot be unfaithful. 2 Timothy 2:13.

DEOBSTRUCT, v.t. [L. To stop; to pile.]

To remove obstructions, or impediments to a passage; to clear from any thing that hinders the passage of fluids in the proper ducts of the body; as, to deobstruct the pores or lacteals.

DEOBSTRUCTED, pp. Cleared of obstructions; opened.

DEOBSTRUCTING, ppr. Removing impediments to a passage.

DEOBSTRUENT, a. Removing obstructions; having power to clear or open the natural ducts of the fluids and secretions of the body; resolving viscidities; aperient.

DEOBSTRUENT, n. Any medicine which removes obstructions and opens the natural passages of the fluids of the body, as the pores and lacteal vessels; an aperient Calomel is a powerful deobstruent.

DEODAND, n. [L. To be given to God.]

In England, a personal chattel which is the immediate occasion of the death of a rational creature, and for that reason, given to God, that is, forfeited to the king, to be applied to pious uses, and distributed in alms by his high almoner. Thus, if a cart runs over a man and kills him, the cart is forfeited as a deodand.

DEONERATE, v.t. To unload.

DEOPPILATE, v.t. To free from obstructions; to clear a passage.

DEOPPILATION, n. The removal of obstructions.

DEOPPILATIVE, a. Deobstruent; aperient.

DEORDINATION, n. Disorder.

DEOSCULATE, v.t. To kiss.

DEOSCULATION, n. A kissing.

DEOXYDATE, v.t. To deprive of oxygen, or reduce from the state of an oxyd.

DEOSYDATED, pp. Reduced from the state of an oxyd.

DEOXYDATING, ppr. Reducing from the state of an oxyd.

DEOXYDATION, n. The act or process of reducing from the state of an oxyd.

DEOXYDIZATION, n. Deoxydation.

DEOXYDIZE, v.t. To deoxydate.