Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary
CLYSTER — COBIRON
CLYSTER, n. An injection; a liquid substance injected into the lower intestines, for the purpose of promoting alvine discharges, relieving from costiveness, and cleansing the bowels. Sometimes it is administered to nourish and support patients who cannot swallow aliment.
CLYSTER-PIPE, n. A tube, or pipe used for injections.
CLYSTERWISE, adv. In the manner of a clyster.
COACERVATE, v.t. To heap up; to pile.
COACERVATE, a. Heaped; raised into a pile; collected into a crowd.
COACERVATION, n. The act of heaping, or state of being heaped together.
COACH, n. A close vehicle for commodious traveling, borne on four wheels, and drawn by horses or other animals. It differs from a chariot in having seats in front, as well as behind. It is a carriage of state, or for pleasure, or for travelling.
Hackney-coach, a coach kept for hire. In some cities, they are licensed by authority, and numbered, and the rates of fare fixed by law.
Mail-coach, a coach that carries the public mails.
Stage-coach, a coach that regularly conveys passengers from town to town. [See Stage.]
COACH, COUCH, n. An apartment in a large ship of war near the stern, the roof of which is formed by the poop.
COACH, v.t. To carry in a coach.
COACH-BOX, n. The seat on which the driver of a coach sits.
COACH-HIRE, n. Money paid for the use of a hired coach.
COACH-HORSE, n. A horse used in drawing coaches.
COACH-HOUSE, n. A house to shelter a coach from the weather.
COACH-MAKER, n. A man whose occupation is to make coaches.
COACHMAN, n. The person who drives a coach.
COACHMANSHIP, n. Skill in driving coaches.
COACT, v.i. To act together.
COACTED, pp. or a. Forced; compelled.
COACTION, n. Force; compulsion, either in restraining or impelling.
1. Forcing; compulsory; having the power to impel or restrain.
2. Acting in concurrence.
COACTIVELY, adv. In a compulsory manner.
COADJUTANT, a. Helping; mutually assisting or operating.
1. One who aids another; an assistant; a fellow-helper; an associate in operation.
2. In the canon law, one who is empowered or appointed to perform the duties of another.
CO-ADJUTORSHIP, n. State of a coadjutor; joint assistance.
COADJUTRIX, n. A female assistant.
COADJUVANCY, n. Joint help; assistance; concurrent aid; cooperation.
COADUNATE, a. In botany, coadunate leaves are several united at the base. The word is used also to denote one of the natural orders of plants in Lines system.
COADUNITION, n. The union of different substances in one mass.
COADVENTURER, n. A fellow adventurer.
COAFFOREST, v.t. To convert ground into a forest.
COAGENT, n. An assistant or associate in an act.
COAGMENT, v.t. To congregate or heap together.
COAGMENTATION, n. Collection into a mass or united body; union; conjunction.
COAGMENTED, a. Congregated; heaped together; united in one mass.
COAGULABILITY, n. The capacity of being coagulated.
COAGULABLE, a. [See Coagulate.] That may be concreted; capable of congealing or changing from a liquid to an inspissated state; as coagulable lymph.
COAGULATE, v.t. To concrete; to curdle; to congeal; to change from a fluid into a fixed substance, or solid mass; as, to coagulate blood; rennet coagulates milk. This word is generally applied to the change of fluids into substances like curd or butter, of a moderate consistence, but not hard or impenetrable.
COAGULATE, v.i. To curdle or congeal; to turn from a fluid into a consistent state, or fixed substance; to thicken.
CLOAGULATED, pp. Concreted; curdled.
CLAGULATING, ppr. Curdling; congealing.
COAGULATION, n. The act of changing from a fluid to a fixed state; concretion; the state of being coagulated; the body formed by coagulating.
COAGULATIVE, a. That has the power to cause concretion.
COAGULATOR, n. That which causes coagulation.
COAGULUM, n. Rennet; curd; the clot of blood, separated by cold, acid, etc.
COAITI, n. A species of monkey in South America.
1. A piece of wood, or other combustible substance, ignited, burning, or charred. When burning or ignited, it is called a live coal, or burning coal, or coal of fire. When the fire is extinct, it is called charcoal.
2. In the language of chimists, any substance containing oil, which has been exposed to a fire in a close vessel, so that its volatile matter is expelled, and it can sustain a red heat without further decomposition.
3. In mineralogy, a solid, opake, inflammable substance, found in the earth, and by way of distinction called fossil coal. It is divided by recent mineralogists into three species, anthracite or glance coal, black or bituminous coal, and brown coal or lignite; under which are included many varieties, such as cannel coal, bovey coal, jet, etc.
1. To burn to coal, or charcoal; to char.
2. To mark or delineate with charcoal.
COAL-BLACK, a. Black as a coal; very black.
COAL-BOX, n. A box to carry coal to the fire.
COAL-FISH, n. A species of Gadus or cod, named from the color of its back. It grows to the length of two feet, or two and a half, and weighs about thirty pounds. This fish is found in great numbers about the Orkneys, and the northern parts of Britain.
COAL-HOUSE, n. A house or shed for keeping coal.
COAL-MINE, n. A mine or pit in which coal is dug.
COAL-MINER, n. One who works in a coal-mine.
COAL-MOUSE, n. A small species of titmouse, with a black head.
COAL-PIT, n. A pit where coal is dug. In America, a place where charcoal is made.
COAL-SHIP, n. A ship employed in transporting coal.
COAL-STONE, n. A kind of cannel-coal.
COAL-WORK, n. A coalery; a place where coal is dug, including the machinery for raising the coal.
COALERY, n. A coal-mine, coal-pit, or place where coals are dug, with the engines and machinery used in discharging the water and raising the coal.
1. To grow together; to unite, as separate bodies, or separate parts, into one body, as separate bones in an infant, or the fingers or toes.
2. To unite and adhere in one body or mass, by spontaneous approximation or attraction; as, vapors coalesce.
3. To unite in society, in a more general sense,
The Jews were incapable of coalescing with other nations.
COALESCENCE, n. The act of growing together; the act of uniting by natural affinity or attraction; the state of being united; union; concretion.
COALESCING, ppr. Growing or coming together; uniting in a body or mass; uniting and adhering together.
COALITE, v.t. To unite or coalesce.
1. Union in a body or mass; a coming together, as of separate bodies or parts, and their union in one body or mass; as, a coalition of atoms or particles.
2. Union of individual persons, parties or states.
CO-ALLY, n. A joint ally; as the subject of a co-ally.
COALY, a. Like coal; containing coal.
COAMINGS, n. In ships, the raised borders or edges of the hatches, made to prevent water from running into the lower apartments from the deck.
COAPPREHEND, v.t. To apprehend with another.
COAPTATION, n. The adaptation or adjustment of parts to each other.
1. To press together; to crowd; to straiten; to confine closely.
2. To restrain; to confine.
1. Confinement; restraint to a narrow space.
2. Pressure; contraction.
3. Restraint of liberty.
1. Thick; large or gross in bulk; comparatively of large diameter; as coarse thread or yarn; coarse hair; coarse sand. This seems to be the primary sense of the word; opposed to fine or slender. Hence,
2. Thick; rough; or made of coarse thread or yarn; as coarse cloth.
3. Not refined; not separated from grosser particles, or impurities; as coarse metal; coarse glass.
4. Rude; rough; unrefined; uncivil; as coarse manners.
5. Gross; not delicate.
The coarser tie of human law.
6. Rude; rough; unpolished; inelegant; applied to language.
7. Not nicely expert; not accomplished by art or education; as a coarse practitioner.
8. Mean; not nice; not refined or elegant; as a coarse perfume; a coarse diet.
COARSELY, adv. Roughly; without fineness or refinement; rudely; inelegantly; uncivilly; meanly; without art or polish.
1. Largeness of size; thickness; as the coarseness of thread.
2. The quality of being made of coarse thread or yarn; whence thickness and roughness; as the coarseness of cloth.
3. Unrefined state; the state of being mixed with gross particles or impurities; as the coarseness of glass.
4. Roughness; grossness; rudeness; applied to manners; as the coarseness of a clown.
5. Grossness; want of refinement or delicacy; want of polish; as the coarseness of expression or of language.
6. Meanness; want of art in preparation; want of nicety; as the coarseness of food or of raiment.
COASSESSOR, n. [See Assess.] A joint assessor.
COASSUME, v.t. [con and assume.] To assume something with another.
1. The exterior line, limit or border of a country, as in Scripture. From the river to the uttermost sea shall your coast be. Deuteronomy 11:24. And ships shall come from the coast of Chittim. Numbers 24:24. Hence the word may signify the whole country within certain limits. Exodus 10:4.
2. The edge or margin of the land next to the sea; the sea-shore. This is the more common application of the word; and it seems to be used for sea-coast, the border of the sea. Hence it is never used for the bank of a river.
3. A side; applied to objects indefinitely, by Bacon and Newton. This is a correct use of the word, but now obsolete.
4. The country near the sea-shore; as, populous towns along the coast.
The coast is clear, is a proverbial phrase signifying, the danger is over; the enemies have marched off, or left the coast.
1. To sail near a coast; to sail by or near the shore, or in sight of land.
The ancients coasted only in their navigation.
2. To sail from port to port in the same country.
1. To sail by or near to; as, to coast the American shore.
2. To draw near; to approach; to follow.
COASTED, pp. Sailed by.
1. One who sails near the shore.
2. A vessel that is employed in sailing along a coast, or is licensed to navigate or trade from port to port in the same country. In the United States, coasting vessels of twenty tuns burthen and upwards must be enrolled at the custom house.
COASTING, ppr. Sailing along or near a coast.
COASTING-PILOT, n. A pilot who conducts vessels along a coast.
COASTING-TRADE, n. The trade which is carried on between the different ports of the same country, or under the same jurisdiction, as distinguished from foreign trade.
COASTING-VESSEL, n. A vessel employed in coasting; a coaster.
1. An upper garment, of whatever material it may be made. The word is, in modern times, generally applied to the garment worn by men next over the vest.
God made coats of skin and clothed them. Genesis 3:21.
Jacob made Joseph a coat of many colors. Genesis 37:3.
He shall put on the holy linen coat. Leviticus 16:4.
Goliath was armed with a coat of mail. 1 Samuel 17:5.
2. A petticoat; a garment worn by infants or young children.
3. The habit or vesture of an order of men, indicating the order or office.
Men of his coat should be minding their prayers.
So we say, men of his cloth.
4. External covering, as the fur or hair of a beast, the skin of serpents, the wool of sheep, etc.
5. A tunic of the eye; a membrane that serves as a cover; a tegument.
6. The division or layer of a bulbous root; as the coats of an onion.
7. A cover; a layer of any substance covering another; as a coat of tar, pitch or varnish; a coat of canvas round a mast; a coat of tin-foil.
8. That on which ensigns armorial are portrayed; usually called a coat of arms. Anciently knights wore a habit over their arms, reaching as low as the navel, open at the sides, with short sleeves, on which were the armories of the knights, embroidered in gold and silver, and enameled with beaten tin of various colors. This habit was diversified with bands and fillets of several colors, placed alternately, and called devises, as being divided and composed of several pieces sewed together. The representation of these is still called a coat of arms.
9. A coat of mail is a piece of armor, in form of a shirt, consisting of a net-work of iron rings.
10. A card; a coat-card is one on which a king, queen or knave is painted.
1. To cover or spread over with a layer of any substance; as, to coat a retort; to coat a ceiling; to coat a vial.
2. To cover with cloth or canvas; as, to coat a mast or a pump.
COAT-ARMOR, n. A coat of arms; armorial ensigns.
1. Covered with a coat; loricated; covered or overspread with any thing that defends; clothed with a membrane.
2. Having concentric coats or layers, as a bulbous root.
COATI, n. An animal of South America, resembling the raccoon, but with a longer body and neck, shorter fur and smaller eyes; the Viverra nasua of Linne.
COATING, ppr. Covering with a coat; overspreading.
1. A covering, or the act of covering; lorication; any substance spread over for cover or defense; as the coating of a retort or of a vial.
2. Cloth for coats; as, merchants advertise an assortment of coatings.
COAX, v.t. To wheedle; to flatter; to soothe, appease or persuade by flattery and foundling.
COAXED, pp. Soothed or persuaded by flattery.
COAXER, n. A wheedler; a flatterer.
COAXING, ppr. Wheedling; flattering.
1. The top or head; a covetous wretch; a foreign coin.
2. In America, the receptacle of the maiz, or American corn; a shoot in form of a pin or spike, on which grows the corn in rows. This receptacle, with the corn, is called the ear.
3. A sea-fowl, the sea-cob.
4. A ball or pellet for feeding fowls.
5. In some parts of England, a spider. Old Dutch, kop or koppe, a spider, retained in koppespin, spinnekop, a spider.
6. A horse not castrated; a strong poney.
COB, v.t. In seamens language, to punish by striking the breech with a flat piece of wood, or with a board.
COBALT, n. A mineral of a reddish gray or grayish white color, very brittle, of a fine close grain, compact, but easily reducible to powder. It crystalizes in bundles of needles, arranged one over another. It is never found in a pure state; but usually as an oxyd, or combined with arsenic or its acid, with sulphur, iron, etc. Its ores are arranged under the following species, viz. Arsenical cobalt, of a white color, passing to steel gray; its texture is granular, and when heated it exhales the odor of garlic: gray cobalt, a compound of cobalt, arsenic, iron, and sulphur, of a white color, with a tinge of red; its structure is foliated, and its crystals have a cube for their primitive form; sulphuret of cobalt, compact and massive in its structure: oxyd of cobalt, brown or brownish black, generally friable and earthy: sulphate and arseniate of cobalt, both of red color, the former soluble in water. The impure oxyd of cobalt is called zaffer; but when fused with three parts of siliceous sand and an alkaline flux, it is converted into a blue glass, called smalt. The great use of cobalt is to give a permanent blue color to glass and enamels upon metals, porcelain and earthern wares.
Cobalt-bloom, acicular arseniate of cobalt.
Cobalt-crust, earthy arseniate of cobalt.
COBALTIC, a. Pertaining to cobalt, or consisting of it; resembling cobalt, or containing it.
COBBLE, COBBLE-STONE, n. A roundish stone; a pebble; supposed to be a fragment, rounded by the attrition of water. We give this name to stones of various sizes, from that of a hens egg or smaller, to that of large paving stones. These stones are called by the English copple-stones and bowlder-stones or bowlders. The latter name is among us known only in books.
1. To make or mend coarsely, as shoes; to botch.
2. To make or do clumsily or unhandily; as, a cobble rhymes.
1. A mender of shoes.
2. A clumsy workman.
3. A mean person.