Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



COBISHOP, n. A joint or coadjutant bishop.

COBLE, n. A boat used in the herring fishery.

COBLOAF, n. A loaf that is irregular, uneven or crusty. Is it not a round loaf?

COBNUT, n. A boys play, or a hazle-nut so called, used in play; the conquering nut.

COBOOSE, n. [See Caboose.]

COBSTONE, n. [See Cobble.]


1. The line, thread or filament which a spider spins from its abdomen; the net-work spread by a spider to catch its prey. Hence,

2. Any snare, implying insidiousness and weakness.

In this sense it is used adjectively or in composition, for thin, flimsy; as a cobweb law.

Or slender, feeble; as the cobweb thread of life.


1. In botany, covered with a thick interwoven pubescence.

2. Covered with cobwebs.

COCALON, n. A large cocoon, of a weak texture.

COCCIFEROUS, a. Bearing or producing berries; as cocciferous trees or plants.

COCCOLITE, n. A variety of augite or pyroxene; called by Hauy, granuliform pyroxene. Its color is usually some shade of green. It is composed of granular distinct concretions, easily separable, some of which present the appearance of crystals whose angles and edges have been obliterated.

Cocculus Indicus, the fruit of the Menispermum cocculus, a poisonous berry, often used in adulterating malt liquors.

COCHINEAL, n. An insect, the Coccus cacti, of the genus Coccus, a native of the warmer climates of America, particularly of Oaxaca, in Mexico. It is found on a plant called nopal or Indian fig-tree. The female, which alone is valued for its color, is ill-shaped, tardy and stupid; the male is small, slender and active. It is of the size of a tick. At a suitable time, these insects are gathered and put in a pot, where they are confined for some time, and then killed by the application of heat. These insects thus killed form a mass or drug, which is the proper cochineal of the shops. It is used in giving red colors, especially crimson and scarlet, and for making carmine. It has been used in medicine, as a cardiac, sudorific, alexipharmic and febrifuge; but is now used only to give a color to tinctures, etc.


COCHLEATED, a. Having the form of a screw; spiral; turbinated; as a cochleate pod.

COCHLITE, n. A fossil shell having a mouth like that of a snail.

COCK, n.

1. The male of birds, particularly of gallinaceous or domestic fowls, which having no appropriate or distinctive name, are called dunghill fowls or barn-door fowls.

2. A weather-cock; a vane in shape of a cock. [It is usually called a weather-cock.]

3. A spout; an instrument to draw out or discharge liquor from a cask, vat or pipe; so named from its projection.

4. The projecting corner of a hat.

5. A small conical pile of hay, so shaped for shedding rain; called in England a cop. When hay is dry and rolled together for carting, the heaps are not generally called cocks, at least not in New England. A large conical pile is called a stack.

6. The style or gnomon of a dial.

7. The needle of a balance.

8. The piece which covers the balance in a clock or watch.

9. The notch of an arrow.

10. The part of a musket or other fire arm, to which a flint is attached, and which, being impelled by a spring, strikes fire, and opens the pan at the same time.

11. A small boat. It is now called a cock-boat, which is tautology, as cock itself is a bot.

12. A leader; a chief man.

Sir Andrew is the cock of the club.

13. Cock-crowing; the time when cocks crow in the morning.

Cock a hoop, or cock on the hoop, a phrase denoting triumph; triumphant; exulting.

Cock and a bull, a phrase denoting tedious trifling stories.

COCK, v.t.

1. To set erect; to turn up; as, to cock the nose or ears.

2. To set the brim of a hat so as to make sharp corners or points; or to set up with an air of pertness.

3. To make up hay in small conical piles.

4. To set or draw back the cock of a gun, in order to fire.

COCK, v.i.

1. To hold up the head; to strut; to look big, pert, or menacing.

2. To train or use fighting cocks.

3. To cocker.

COCKADE, n. A ribin or knot of ribin, or something similar, worn on the hat, usually by officers of the army or navy, sometimes by others. It most usually designates the military character; sometimes political parties.

COCKADED, a. Wearing a cockade.

COCKAL, n. A game called huckle bone.

COCKATTO, n. A bird of the parrot kind.

COCKATRICE, n. A serpent imagined to proceed from a cocks egg.

COCK-BILL. In seamens language, the anchor is a cock-bill, when it is suspended perpendicularly from the cat-head, ready to be let go in a moment.

COCK-BOAT, n. A small boat. [See Cock, No. 11.]

COCK-BRAINED, a. Giddy; rash.

COCK-BROTH, n. Broth made by boiling a cock.

COCK-CHAFFER, n. The May-bug or dorr-beetle, a species of Scarabaeus.

COCK-CROWING, n. The time at which cocks crow; early morning. Mark 13:35.

COCKER, v.t. To fondle; to indulge; to treat with tenderness; to pamper.


1. One who follows cock-fighting.

2. A sort of spatter-dash.

COCKEREL, n. A young cock.

COCKERING, n. Indulgence.

COCKET, a. Brisk; pert.

COCKET, n. A seal of the custom-house; a royal seal; rather a scroll of parchment, sealed and delivered by the officers of the customhouse, to merchants, as a warrant that their merchandize is entered. The office of entry.

COCKET-BREAD, n. The finest sort of wheat bread.

COCK-FIGHT, COCK-FIGHTING, n. A match or contest of cocks; a barbarous sport of the ancients, and moderns, in which cocks are set to fight with each other, till one or the other is conquered.

COCK-HORSE, a. On horse back; triumphant; exulting.

COCKING, n. Cock-fighting.

COCKLE, n. A plant or weed that grows among corn, the cornrose, a species of Agrostemma. It is also applied to the Lolium or darnel.


1. A small testaceous shell; or rather a genus of shells, the Cardium. The general characteristics are; shells nearly equilateral and equivalvular; hinge with two small teeth, one on each side near the beak, and two larger remote lateral teeth, one on each side; prominent ribs running from the hinge to the edge of the valve.

2. A mineral; a name given by the Cornish miners to shirl or shorl.

3. A young cock.

COCKLE, v.i. or t. To contract into wrinkles; to shrink, pucker, or wrinkle, as cloth.


1. Contracted into folds or wrinkles; winding.

2. Having shells.

COCKLER, n. One that takes and sells cockles.

COCKLE-STAIRS, n. Winding or spiral stairs.

COCK-LOFT, n. [See Cock.] The top-loft; the upper room in a house or other building; a lumber room.

COCK-MASTER, n. One who breeds game cocks.

COCK-MATCH, n. A match of cocks; a cock-fight.


1. A native of London, by way of contempt.

2. An effeminate, ignorant, despicable citizen.

COCKNEYLIKE, a. Resembling the manners of a cockney.

COCK-PADDLE, n. The lump fish or sea-owl.


1. A pit or area, where game cocks fight.

2. In ships of war, a room or apartment, in which the wounded men are dressed; situated near the after-hatchway, under the lower gun-deck. The fore-cockpit is a place leading to the magazine passage and the store room of the boatswain, gunner and carpenter.

COCKROACH, n. A genus of insects, the Blatta, of several species. They have four semicrustaceous wings, and resemble the beetle; the head is inflected towards the breast; the feelers are hard like bristles; the elytra and wings are plain and resemble parchment. These animals are very troublesome, as they enter chests of clothes, meal-tubs, pantries, and infest beds. They avoid the light, and have a very unsavory smell.


1. The caruncle or comb of a cock.

2. A plant. This name is given to the Celosia cristata, the Pedicularis or louse-wort, and the Rhinanthus, or yellow rattle.

3. A fop, or vain silly fellow. [See Coxcomb.]

COCKSHEAD, n. A plant, the Hedysarum or sainfoin.

COCKSHUT, n. The close of the day, when fowls go to roost.

COCKSPUR, n. Virginia hawthorn, a species of medlar.

COCKSURE, a. Confidently certain.

COCKSWAIN, n. [See Swain.] An officer on board of a ship who has the care of the boat and the boats crew.

COCK-WEED, n. A plant called also dittander and pepperwort.

COCOA, n. A tree belonging to the genus Cocos, of the order of Palmae; and the fruit or nut of the tree. This tree grows in the warm climates of both the Indies. It rises to the highth of 60 feet, and the stem is like an apothecarys pestle, of equal thickness at the ends, but somewhat smaller in the middle. The bark is smooth, of a pale brown color, and the tree often leans to one side. The leaves or branches are 14 or 15 feet long, about 28 in number, winged, of a yellow color, straight and tapering. The nuts hang in clusters of a dozen each, on the top of the tree. The husk of this nut consists of strong, tough, stringy filaments, resembling coarse oakum. This covers a hard shell, which contains a white kernel that is wholesome food, and a liquor which is a cooling beverage.

COCOA-NUT, n. The nut or fruit of the cocoa-tree.

COCOON, n. An oblong ball or case in which the silk-worm involves itself, formed by threads which compose silk.

COCTILE, a. Made by baking, or exposing to heat, as a brick.

COCTION, n. The act of boiling or exposing to heat in liquor. In medicine, that alteration in the crude matter of a disease, which fits it for a discharge; digestion.

COD, COD-FISH, n. A species of fish, of the genus Gadus, inhabiting northern seas, but particularly the banks of Newfoundland, and the shores of New England. [See Haddock.]

COD, n.

1. Any husk, envelop or case, containing the seeds of a plant; a pod.

2. A bag; the scrotum.

3. A pillow.

CODDED, a. Inclosed in a cod.

CODDER, n. A gatherer of cods or peas.

CODDY, a. Husky.

CODE, n.

1. A collection of the laws and constitutions of the Roman emperors, made by order of Justinian, containing twelve books. The name is also given to other collections of Roman laws; as the Theodosian code. Hence in general,

2. Any collection or digest of laws.

CODGER, n. A rustic; a clown; a miserly man.

CODICIL, n. A writing by way of supplement to a will.

CODILLE, n. A term at ombre, when the game is won.

CODLE, CODDLE, v.t. To parboil, or soften by the heat of water.

CODLE, v.t. To make much of.

CODLING, CODLIN, n. An apple codled; or one suitable for codling, or used for that purpose.

CODLING, n. A young cod.

COEFFICACY, n. Joint efficacy; the power of two or more things acting together to produce an effect.

COEFFICIENCY, n. Cooperation; joint power of two or more things or causes, acting to the same end.


1. That which unites in action with something else to produce the same effect.

2. In algebra, a number or known quantity put before letters, or quantities, known or unknown, and into which it is supposed to be multiplied; as in 3x and ax, 3 and a are the coefficients of x.

3. In fluxions, the coefficient of any generating term is the quantity which arises from the division of that term by the generated quantity.

COEFFICIENTLY, adv. By cooperation.

CO-ELDER, n. An elder of the same rank.

COELIAC, CELIAC, a. Pertaining to the belly, or to the intestinal canal.

Coeliac artery is the artery which issues from the aorta just below the diaphragm.

Coeliac passion, the lientery, a flux or diarrhoea of undigested food.

Coeliac vein, a vein of the intestinum rectum.

COEMPTION, n. The act of purchasing the whole quantity of any commodity.

COENJOY, v.t. To enjoy together.

COEQUAL, a. Equal with another person or thing; of the same rank, dignity or power.

COEQUAL, n. One who is equal to another.

COEQUALITY, n. The state of being equal with another; equality in rank, dignity or power.

COEQUALLY, adv. With joint equality.

COERCE, v.t.

1. To restrain by force; to keep from acting, or transgressing, particularly by moral force, as by law or authority; to repress.

2. To compel; to constrain.

These causes--coerced by those which preceded and coercing those which followed.

COERCED, pp. Restrained by force; compelled.

COERCIBLE, a. That may or ought to be restrained or compelled.

COERCING, ppr. Restraining by force; constraining.

COERCION, n. Restraint, check, particularly by law or authority; compulsion; force.


1. That has power to restrain, particularly by moral force, as of law or authority.

2. Compulsory; constraining; forcing.

COERCIVELY, adv. By constraint.

COESSENTIAL, a. Partaking of the same essence.

We bless and magnify that coessential spirit, eternally proceeding from the father and son.

COESSENTIALITY, n. Participation of the same essence.

COESSENTIALLY, adv. In a coessential manner.

COESTABLISHMENT, n. Joint establishment.

COETANEOUS, a. Of the same age with another; beginning to exist at the same time; with to. Every fault has penal effects, coetaneous to the act. But with may be preferable to to. This word is sometimes used as synonymous with cotemporary; but coetaneous seems properly to denote cotemporary in origin, rather than cotemporary in existence at any other period. It may however be used in both senses.

COETENRNAL, a. Equally eternal with another.

COETERNALLY, adv. With equal eternity.

COETERNITY, n. Existence from eternity equal with another eternal being; equal eternity.

COEVAL, a. Of the same age; beginning to exist at the same time; of equal age; usually and properly followed by with.

COEVAL, n. One of the same age; one who begins to exist at the same time. It is not properly used as synonymous with cotemporary.

COEVOUS, a. The same as coeval, but not used.

CO-EXECUTOR, n. A joint executor.

COEXIST, v.i. To exist at the same time with another; followed by with.

COEXISTENCE, n. Existence at the same time with another; followed regularly by with.

COEXISTENT, a. Existing at the same time with another; regularly followed by with.