Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary
ARROW-ROOT - ASH-COLORED
1. The Maranta; a genus of plants, natives of the Indies. The Indians are said to employ the roots of the arundinacea, in extracting the virus of poisoned arrows; whence the name. There are several species. From the root of the arundinacea, or starch-plant, is obtained the arrow-root of the shops.
2. The starch of the maranta, or arrow-root, a nutritive medicinal food.
1. Consisting of arrows.
2. Formed like an arrow.
ARSE, n. ‘ars. The buttocks or hind part of an animal.
To hang an arse, is to lag behind; to be sluggish, or tardy.
ARSE-SMART, n. The vulgar name of a species of polygonum, or knot-grass.
ARSENAL, n. [L. arx navalis, a naval citadel or repository.]
A repository or magazine of arms and military stores, whether for land or naval service.
ARSENIAC, ARSENICAL ACID. Arsenic combined with a greater proportion of oxygen, than in the arsenious acid. It is called arsenic acid by most authors.
ARSENIATE, n. A neutral salt, formed by arsenical acid combined with any metallic, earthy or saline base.
ARSENIC, n. [Gr.‘L. arsenicum.]
Arsenic, as it is usually seen in the shops, is not a metal, but an oxyd, from which the metal may be easily obtained by mixing it with half its weight of black flux, and introducing the mixture into a Florence flask, gradually raised to a red heat, in a sand bath. A brilliant metallic sublimate of pure arsenic collects in the upper part of the flask. Arsenic is of a steel blue color, quite brittle, and the metal with all its compounds, is a virulent poison, vulgarly called rats-bane. It forms alloys with most of the metals. Combined with sulphur it forms orpiment or realgar, which are the yellow and red sulphurets of arsenic. Orpiment is the true arsenicum of the ancients. Plin. 34, 18. native orpiment appears in yellow, brilliant, and seemingly talcky masses of various sizes; realgar is red, of different shades, and often crystallized in needles. Arsenic is also found as a mineralizer in cobalt, antimony, copper, iron and silver ores. It is brought chiefly from the cobalt works in Saxony, where zaffer is made.
ARSENICAL, a. Belonging to arsenic; consisting of or containing arsenic.
ARSENICATE, v.t. To combine with arsenic.
ARSENICATED, a. combined with arsenic.
ARSENIOUS, a. Pertaining to, or containing arsenic. The arsenious acid, or white oxyd of arsenic, is a combination of arsenic with a less proportion of oxygen than in the arseniac acid.
ARSENITE, n. a salt formed by the arsenious acid, with a base.
ARSHINE, n. a russian measure of two feet, four inches and 242 decimals. This seems to be the Chinese arschin, of which four make three yards English.
ARSON, n. ‘arsn.
In law, the malicious burning of a dwelling house or outhouse of another man, which by the common law is felony. The definition of this crime is varied by statutes in different countries and states. In Connecticut, the burning not only of a dwelling house or contiguous building, but of a ship or other vessel, is declared to be arson, if human life is thereby destroyed or put to hazard.
ART, The second person, indicative mode, present tense, of the substantive veb am.
ART, n. [L. ars, artis.]
1. The disposition or modification of things by human skill, to answer the purpose intended. In this sense art stands opposed to nature.
2. A system of rules, serving to facilitate the performance of certain actions; opposed to science, or to speculative principles; as the art of building or engraving. Arts are divided into useful or mechanic, and liberal or polite. The mechanic arts are those in which the hands and body are more concerned than the mind; as in making clothes, and utensils. These art are called trades. The liberal or polite arts are those in which the mind or imagination is chiefly concerned; as poetry, music and painting.
In America, literature and the elegant arts must grow up side by side with the coarser plants of daily necessity.
3. Skill, dexterity, or the power of performing certain actions, acquired by experience, study or observation; as, a man has the art of managing his business to advantage.
ARTEMISIA, n. Mug-wort, southernwood, and wormwood; a genus of plats of numerous species. Of these, the absinthium or common wormwood is well known.
1. Pertaining to an artery or the arteries; as arterial action.
2. Contained in an artery; as arterial blood.
ARTERIOTOMY, n. [Gr. an artery, and a cutting.]
The opening of an artery by the lancet, for the purpose of letting blood.
ARTERY, n. [Gr. from air and to preserve or contain; so called, from the opinion of the ancients, that the arteries contained or circulated air. The term was also applied to the trachea or wind pipe, anteria aspera.]
A cylindrical vessel or tube, which conveys the blood from the heart to all parts of the body. There are two principal arteries; the aorta, which rises from the left ventricle and ramifies through the whole body; and the pulmonary artery, which conveys the blood from the right ventricle to the lungs, to undergo respiration. An artery is composed of three coats; the outer consists of condensed cellular membrane, and is supplied with numerous blood vessels and nerves; the middle coat consists of circular fibers, generally supposed to be muscular; the inner coat, thin, smooth, and dense, confines the blood within its canal, and facilitates its motion.
1. Performed with art or skill.
2. Artificial, as opposed to natural
3. Cunning; practicing art, or stratagem; crafty; as an artful boy. [This is the most usual sense.]
4. Proceeding from art or craft; as an artful scheme.
ARTFULLY, adv. With art, or cunning; skillfully; dexterously.
ARTFULNESS, n. Art; craft; cunning; address.
ARTHRITIC, ARTHRITICAL, a. Pertaining to the joints, or to the gout; affecting the joints.
ARTHRITIS, n. [Gr. from a joint. It seems to be of the same family as artus, a limb.]
In a general sense, any painful disease of the joints; but more particularly, the gout, an hereditary, intermitting disease, usually affecting the small joints; sometimes the stomach.
ARTHRODIA, n. [Gr. from to frame or articulate.]
1. A species of articulation, in which the head of one bone is received into the shallow socket of another; as the humerus and the scapula.
2. In natural history, a genus of imperfect crystals, found in complex masses, and forming long single pyramids, with very short and slender columns.
ARTIC, This word is by mistake used by some authors for arctic.
ARTICHOKE, n. [Gr.; L. carduus, chard, thistle, corrupted.]
A plant somewhat resembling a thistle, with a dilated, imbricated and prickly calyx. The head is large, rough and scaly, on an upright stalk. It is composed of numerous, oval scales, inclosing the florets, sitting on a broad receptacle, which, with the fleshy base of the scales, is the eatable part of the plant.
The Jerusalem artichoke is a species of sunflower or helianthus.
ARTICLE, n. [L. articulus, a joint, from artus; Gr.]
1. A single clause in a contract, account system of regulations, treaty, or other writing; a particular separate charge or item, in an account; a term, condition, or stipulation, in a contract. In short, a distinct part of a writing, instrument or discourse, consisting of two or more particulars; as, articles of agreement; an account consisting of many articles.
2. A point of faith; a doctrinal point or proposition in theology; as the thirty-nine articles.
3. A distinct part.
Upon each article of human duty.
4. A particular commodity, or substance; as, an article of merchandise; salt is a necessary article. In common usage, this word is applied to almost every separate substance or material.
The articles which compose the blood.
5. A point of time. [Not in use.]
6. In botany, that part of a stalk or stem, which is between two joints.
7. In grammar, an adjective used before nouns, to limit or define their application; as hic, ille, ipse, in Latin; in Greek; the, this, that, in English. The primary use of these adjectives was to convert an indeterminate name into a determinate one; or to limit the application of a common name, to a specific, known, or certain individual. But article being an improper term to express the true signification, I make use of definitive, which see.
1. To draw up in distinct particulars; as, to article the errors or follies of a man.
2. To accuse or charge by an exhibition of articles. “He shall be articled against in the High Court of admiralty.” Stat. 33. George III.
3. To bind by articles of covenant or stipulation; as, to article an apprentice to a mechanic.
ARTICLE, v.i. [supra.] To agree by articles; to stipulate.
ARTICLED, pp. Drawn up in particulars; accused or bound by articles.
ARTICULAR, a. [L. articularis.]
Belonging to the joints; as, the gout is an articular disease.
ARTICULATE, a. [L. articulatus, jointed, distinct.]
1. Formed by jointing or articulation of the organs of speech; applied to sound. An articulate sound is made by closing and opening the organs of speech. The junction or closing of the organs forms a joint or articulation, as in the syllables ab, ad, ap; in passing from one articulation to another, the organs are, or may be opened, and a vowel is uttered, as in attune; and the different articulations, with the intervening vocal sounds, from what is called articulate sounds; sounds distinct, separate, and modified by articulation or jointing. This articulation constitutes the prominent difference between the human voice and that of brutes. Brutes open the mouth and make vocal sounds, but have either not at all, or very imperfectly, the power of articulation.
2. Expressed in articles, or in separate particulars. [Not used.]
3. Jointed; formed with joints.
1. To utter articulate sounds; to utter distinct syllables or words.
2. To draw up or write in separate particulars. [Not used.]
3. To treat, stipulate or make terms. [Not used.]
4. To joint.
1. Uttered distinctly in syllables or words.
2. Jointed; having joints, as a plant.
1. With distinct utterance of syllables or words.
2. Article by article; in detail.
ARTICULATENESS, n. The quality of being articulate.
ARTICULATING, ppr. Uttering in distinct syllables or words.
1. In anatomy, the joining or juncture of the bones. This is of three kinds: 1st, diarthrosis, or a movable connection, including enarthrosis, or the ball and socket joint; arthrodia, which is the same, but more superficial; ginglymus, or hinge-like joint; and trochoid, or the wheel and axle: 2d, synarthrosis, immovable connection, as by suture, or junction by serrated margins; harmony, or union by straight margins; and gomphosis, like a nail driven in a board, as the teeth in their sockets: 3d, symphysis, or union by means of another substance; as synchondrosis, union by a cartilage; syssarcosis, union by muscular fibres; synneurosis, union by a tendon; syndesmosis, union by ligaments; and synostosis, union by a bony substance.
2. In botany, the connection of the parts of a plant by joints; also the nodes or joints, as in cane and maize.
3. The forming of words; a distinct utterance of syllables and words by the human voice, by means of closing and opening the organs.
4. A consonant; a letter noting a jointing or closing of the organs.
ARTIFICE, n. [L. artificium, from ars, art, and facio, to make.]
1. Stratagem; an artful or ingenious device, in a good or bad sense. In a bad sense, it corresponds with trick, or fraud.
2. Art; trade; skill acquired by science or practice. [Rarely used.]
ARTIFICER, n. [L. artifex, from ars, and facio.]
1. An artist; a mechanic or manufacturer; one whose occupation requires skill or knowledge of a particular kind; as a silversmith, or sadler.
2. One who makes or contrives; an inventor; as an artificer of fraud or lies.
3. A cunning, or artful fellow. [not used.]
1. Made or contrived by art, or by human skill and labor, in opposition to natural; as artificial heat or light; an artificial magnet.
2. Feigned, fictitious; not genuine or natural; as artificial tears.
3. Contrived with skill or art.
4. Cultivated; not indigenous; not being of spontaneous growth; as artificial grasses.
Artificial arguments, in rhetoric, are arguments invented by the speaker, in distinction from laws, authorities and the like, which are called inartificial arguments of proofs.
Artificial lines, on a sector or scale, are lines so contrived as to represent the logarithmic sines and tangents, which, by the help of the line of numbers, solve, with tolerable exactness, questions in trigonometry, navigation, etc.
Artificial numbers, the same with logarithms.
ARTIFICIALITY, n. The quality of being artificial; appearance of art.
ARTIFICIALLY, adv. By art, or human skill and contrivance; hence, with good contrivance; with art or ingenuity.
ARTIFICIALNESS, n. The quality of being artificial.
ARTILLERY, n. This word has no plural.
1. In a general sense, offensive weapons of war. Hence it was formerly used for bows and arrows.
And Jonathan gave his artillery to his lad. 1 Samuel 20:40.
But in present usage, appropriately,
2. Canon; great guns; ordinance, including guns, mortars and grenades, with their furniture of carriages, balls, bombs and shot of all kinds.
3. In a more extended sense, the word includes powder, cartridges, matches, utensils, machines of all kinds, and horses that belong to a train of artillery.
4. The men who manage cannon and mortars, including matrosses, gunners, bombardiers, cannoniers, or by whatever name they are called, with the officers, engineers and persons who supply the artillery with implements and materials.
An artist; one skilled in any art, mystery or trade; a handicrafts-man; a mechanic; a tradesman.
1. One skilled in an art or trade; one who is master or professor of a manual art; a good workman in any trade.
2. A skilful man; not a novice.
3. In an academical sense, a proficient in the faculty of arts; a philosopher.
4. One skilled in the fine arts; as a painter, sculptor, architect, etc.
1. Unskillful; wanting art, knowledge or skill.
2. Free from guile, art, craft or stratagem; simple; sincere; unaffected; undesigning; as an artless mind.
3. Contrived without skill or art; as an artless tale.
1. Without art or skill; in an artless manner.
2. Without guile; naturally; sincerely; unaffectedly.
ARTLESSNESS, n. The quality of being void of art or guile; simplicity; sincerity; unaffectedness.
ARTOTYRITE, n. [Gr. bread, and cheese.]
One of a sect of heretics, in the primitive church, who celebrated the eucharist with bread and cheese, alleging that the first oblations of men were not only the fruit of the earth, but of their flocks. They admitted females to the priesthood and episcopacy.
ARTS-MAN, n. A learned man. Obs.
ARUNDELIAN, a. Pertaining to Arundel, as Arundelian marbles. The Arundelian marbles are ancient stones, containing a chronological detail of the principal events of Greece, from Cecrops, who lived about 1582 years before Christ, to the archonship of Diognetus, before Christ 264. The engraving was done in Paros, and the chronology is called the Parian Chronicle. These stones are called arundelian from the Earl of Arundel, who employed William Petty to procure relics of antiquity in the East in 1624. These, with other curiosities, were purchased, and by the Earl’s grandson presented to the University of Oxford. Their antiquity and even their authenticity has been questioned.
ARUNDINACEOUS, a. [L. arundo, a reed.]
Pertaining to a reed; resembling the reed or cane.
ARUNDINEOUS, a. Abounding with reeds.
ARUSPEX, n. [L.] A soothsayer.
ARUSPICE, n. Written also haruspice. [L. aruspex, or haruspex, a soothsayer, or diviner, who attempted to foretell events by consulting the entrails of beasts slain in sacrifice.]
A priest, in ancient Rome, whose business was to inspect the entrails of victims, killed in sacrifice, and by them to foretell future events.
ARUSPICY, n. The act of prognosticating by inspection of the entrails of beasts, slain in sacrifice.
AS, adv. az. [Gr. But more probably the English word is contracted from als.]
1. Literally, like; even; similar. “Ye shall be as Gods, knowing good and evil.” “As far as we can see,” that is, like far, equally far. Hence it may be explained by in like manner; as, do as you are commanded.
2. It was formerly used where we now use that. Obs.
The relations are so uncertain as they require a great deal of examination.
3. It was formerly used where we now use that. Obs.
He lies, as he his bliss did know.
4. While; during; at the same time. “He trembled as he spoke.” But in most of its uses, it is resolvable into like, equal, even, or equally, in like manner. In some phrases, it must be considered a nominative word, or other words must be supplied. “Appoint to office such men as deserve public confidence.” This phrase may be elliptical for “such men as those who deserve public confidence.”
As seems, in some cases, to imply the sense of proportion. “In general, men are more happy, as they are less involved in public concerns.”
As, in a subsequent part of a sentence, answers to such; give us such things as you please; and in a preceding part of a sentence, has so to answer to it; as with the people, so with the priest.
AS, n. [L.]
1. A Roman weight of 12 ounces, answering to the libra or pound.
2. A Roman coin, originally of a pound weight; but reduced, after the first Punic war, to two ounces; in the second Punic war, to one ounce; and by the Papirian law, to half an ounce. It was originally stamped with the figure of a sheep, sow, or ox; and afterwards with a Janus, on one side, and on the reverse, a rostrum or prow of a ship.
3. An integer; a whole or single thing. Hence the English ace. Hence the Romans used the word for the whole inheritance; haeres ex asse, an heir to the whole estate.
ASA-DULCIS, The same as benzoin.
ASA-FETIDA, n. [Asa, gum, and L. fatidus, fetid.]
A fetid gum-resin, from the East Indies. It is the concrete juice of a large unbelliferous plant, much used in Medicine, as an antispasmodic.
Pertaining to asbestus, or partaking of its nature and qualities; incombustible.
Asbestus.] The actinolite or strahlstein.
Calciferous abestinite; a variety of steatite.
A mineral, which has frequently the appearance of a vegetable substance. It is always fibrous, and its fibers sometimes appear to be prismatic crystals. They are sometimes delicate, flexible, and elastic; at other times, stiff and brittle. Its powder is soft to the touch; its colors are some shade of white, gray or green, passing into brown, red or black. It is incombustible, and has been wrought into a soft, flexible cloth, which was formerly used as a shroud for dead bodies. It has been also manufactured into incombustible paper, and wicks for lamps.
Ligniform asbestus is a variety of a brown color, of a splintery fracture, and if broken across, presents an irregular filamentous structure, like wood.
ASCARIS, n. plu. ascar’ides. [Gr.]
In zoology, a genus of intestinal worms. The body is cylindrical, and tapering at the ends. It includes two of the most common worms in the human intestines, the ascarides, and the lumbricoides.
ASCEND, v.i. [L. ascendo, from scando, to mount or climb.]
1. To move upwards; to mount; to go up; to rise, whether in air or water, or upon a material object.
2. To rise, in a figurative sense; to proceed from an inferior to a superior degree, from mean to noble objects, from particulars to generals, etc.
3. To proceed from modern to ancient times; to recur to former ages; as, our inquiries ascend to the remotest antiquity.
4. In a corresponding sense, to proceed in a line towards ancestors; as, to ascend to our first progenitors.
5. To rise as a star; to proceed or come above the horizon.
6. In music, to rise in vocal utterance; to pass from any note to one more acute.
ASCEND, v.t. To go or move upwards upon, as to ascend a hill or ladder; or to climb, as to ascend a tree.
ASCENDABLE, a. That may be ascended.
1. Superiority or commanding influence; as, one man has the ascendant over another.
2. An ancestor, or one who precedes in genealogy, or degrees of kindred; opposed to descendant.
3. Height; elevation. [Little used.]
4. In astrology, that degree of the ecliptic which rises above the horizon at the time of one’s birth. That part of the ecliptic at any particular time above the horizon, supposed to have influence on a person’s life and fortune.
1. Superior; predominant; surpassing.
2. In astrology, above the horizon.
ASCENDED, pp. or a. Risen; mounted up; gone to heaven.
ASCENDENCY, n. Power; governing or controlling influence.
Custom has an ascendency over the understanding.
ASCENDING, ppr. Rising; moving upwards; proceeding from the less to the greater; proceeding from modern to ancient, from grave to more acute. A star is said to be ascending, when rising above the horizon, in any parallel of the equator.
Ascending latitude is the latitude of a planet, when moving towards the North pole.
Ascending node is that point of a planet’s orbit, wherein it passes the ecliptic to proceed northward. It is also called the northern node.
Ascending vessels, in anatomy, are those which carry the blood upward or toward the superior parts of the body.
ASCENSION, n. [L. ascensio.]
1. The act of ascending; a rising. It is frequently applied to the visible elevation of our Savior to Heaven.
2. The thing rising, or ascending. [not authorized.]
3. In astronomy, ascension is either right or oblique. Right ascension of the sun or of a star, is that degree of the equinoctial, counted from the beginning of Aries, which rises with the sun or star, in a right sphere. Oblique ascension is an arch of the equator, intercepted between the first point of Aries, and that point of the equator which rises together with a star, in an oblique sphere.
ASCENSION-DAY, n. A festival of some christian churches, held ten days or on the Thursday but one, before Whitsuntide, which is called Holy Thursday, in commemoration of our Savior’s ascension into heaven, after his resurrection.
Ascensional difference is the difference between the right and oblique ascension of the same point on the surface of the sphere.
ASCENSIVE, a. Rising; tending to rise, or causing to rise.
ASCENT, n. [L. ascensus.]
1. The act of rising; motion upwards, whether in air, water or other fluid, or on elevated objects; rise; a mounting upwards; as the ascent of vapors from the earth.
2. The way by which one ascends; the means of ascending.
3. An eminence, hill or high place.
4. The degree of elevation of an object, or the angle it makes with a horizontal line; as, a road has an ascent of five degrees.
5. Acclivity; the rise of a hill; as a steep ascent.
ASCERTAIN, v.t. [L. ad certum, to a certainty.]
1. To make certain; to define or reduce to precision by moving obscurity or ambiguity.
The divine law ascertains the truth.
2. To make certain, by trial, examination or experiment, so as to know what was before unknown; as, to ascertain the weight of a commodity, or the purity of a metal.
3. To make sure by previous measures.
The ministry, in order to ascertain a majority in the house of lords, persuaded the queen to create twelve new peers.
4. To make certain or confident, followed by a pronoun; as, to ascertain us of the goodness of our work. [unusual.]
5. To fix; to establish with certainty; to render invariable, and not subject to will.
The mildness and precision of their laws ascertained the rule and measure of taxation.
ASCERTAINABLE, a. That may be made certain in fact, or certain to the mind; that may be certainly known or reduced to a certainty.
ASCERTAINED, pp. Made certain; defined; established; reduced to a certainty.
ASCERTAINER, n. The person who ascertains or makes certain.
ASCERTAINING, ppr. Making certain; fixing; establishing; reducing to a certainty; obtaining certain knowledge.
ASCERTAINMENT, n. The act of ascertaining; a reducing to certainty; certainty; fixed rule.
ASCETIC, a. [Gr. exercised, hardened; from to exercise.]
Retired from the world; rigid; severe; austere; employed in devotions and mortifications.
1. One who retires from the customary business of life, and devotes himself to the duties of piety and devotion; a hermit; a recluse.
2. The title of certain books, on devout exercises; as the ascetics of St. Basil.
ASCIAN, n. [L. ascii, from Gr. priv. and a shadow.]
A person, who, at certain times of the year, has no shadow at noon. Such are the inhabitants of the torrid zone, who have, at times, a vertical sun.
ASCITANS, n. [Gr. a bag or bottle of skin.]
A sect or branch of Montanists, who appeared in the second century. They introduced into their assemblies, certain bacchanals, who danced around a bag or skin distended with air, in allusion to the bottles filled with new wine. Matthew 9:17.
ASCITES, n. [Gr. a bladder.]
A dropsy or tense elastic swelling of the belly, with fluctuation, from a collection of water.
ASCITITIOUS, a. [L. ascitus; Low L. ascititius, from ascisco, to take to or associate.]
Additional; added; supplemental; not inherent or original.
Homer has been reckoned on ascititious name.
ASCLEPIAD, n. In ancient poetry, a verse of four feet, the first of which is a spondee, the second a choriamb, and the last two, dactyls; or of four feet and a cesura, the first, a spondee, the second, a dactyl, then the cesura, followed by two dactyls.
Ascribe.] That may be ascribed or attributed.
ASCRIBE, v.t. [L. ascribo, of ad and scribo, to write.]
1. To attribute, impute, or set to, as to a cause; to assign, as effect to a cause; as, losses are often to be ascribed to imprudence.
ASCRIBED, pp. Attributed or imputed; considered or alleged, as belonging.
ASCRIBING, ppr. Attributing; imputing; alleging to belong.
ASCRIPTION, n. The act of ascribing, imputing or affirming to belong.
ASCRIPTITIOUS, a. That is ascribed. This word is applied to villains under the feudal system, who are annexed to the freehold and transferable with it.
1. A well known tree, of which there are many species. There is no hermaphrodite calyx, or it is quadripartite; and no corol, or it is tetrapetalous. There are two stamens; one pistil; one seed, contained in a membranous, lanceolate capsule, and the pistil of the female flower is lanceolate. The leaves are pinnate, and the capsules grow in cluster. This wood is valuable, for fuel, as well as for timber; and the tree, when it grows in an open field, often forms, with its branches, a beautiful oval figure and a thick shade.
2. The wood of the ash tree.
ASH, a. Pertaining to or like the ash; made of ash.
ASHAME, v.t. To shame. [Not used.]
1. Affected by shame; abashed or confused by guilt or a conviction of some criminal action or indecorous conduct, or by the exposure of some gross errors or misconduct, which the person is conscious must be wrong, and which tends to impair his honor or reputation. It is followed by of.
Thou shalt remember thy ways, and be ashamed. Ezekiel 16:61.
Israel shall be ashamed of his own counsel. Hosea 10:6.
2. Confused by a consciousness of guilt or of inferiority; by the mortification of pride; by failure or disappointment.
They shall be greatly ashamed, that trust in images. Isaiah 42:17.
[This adjective always follows its noun.]