Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



ARMINIAN, a. Pertaining to Arminius, or designating his principles.

ARMINIAN, n. One of a sect or party of Christians, so called from Arminius or Harmansen, of Holland, who flourished at the close of the 16th century, and beginning of the 17th. The Arminian doctrines are,

1. conditional election and reprobation, in opposition to absolute predestination.

2. Universal redemption, or that the atonement was made by Christ for all mankind, though none but believers can be partakers of the benefit.

3. That man, in order to exercise true faith, must be regenerated and renewed by the operation of the Holy Spirit, which is the gift of God; but that this grace is not irresistible and may be lost; so that men may relapse from a state of grace and die in their sins.

ARMINIANISM, n. The peculiar doctrines or tenets of the Arminians.

ARMIPOTENCE, n. [arma and potentia. See Potency.] Power in arms.

ARMIPOTENT, a. [arma and sonus. See Sound.] Sounding or rustling in arms.

ARMISONOUS, a. [arma and sonus. See Sound.] Sounding or rustling in arms.

ARMISTICE, n. [L. arma and sisto, to stand still, Gr.]

A cessation of arms, for a short time, by convention; a truce; a temporary suspension of hostilities by agreement of the parties.

ARMLESS, a. Without an arm; destitute of weapons.

ARMLET, n. [dim. of arm.] A little arm; a piece of armor for the arm; a bracelet.

ARMOR, n. [from arm.]

1. Defensive arms; any habit worn to protect the body in battle; formerly called harness. A complete armor formerly consisted of a casque or helmet, a gorget, cuirass, gauntlets, tasses, brassets, crushes, and covers for the legs to which the spurs were fastened.

In English statutes, armor is used for the whole apparatus of war; including offensive as well as defensive arms. The statutes of armor directed what arms every man should provide, 27. Hen. II. and of Westminster. Hence armor includes all instruments of war.

2. In a spiritual sense, a good conscience, faith and Christian graces are called armor. Romans 13:12; Ephesians 6:11, 13; 2 Corinthians 6:7.

Coat-armor is the escutcheon of a person or family, with its several charges and other furniture, as mantling, crest, supporters, motto, etc.

ARMOR-BEARER, n. One who carries the armor of another.

ARMORER, n. A maker of armor or arms; a manufacturer of instruments of war. The armorer of a ship has the charge of the arms, to see that they are in a condition fit for service.

ARMORIAL, a. Belonging to armor, or to the arms or escutcheon of a family; as ensigns armorial.


Designating the northwestern part of France, formerly called Armorica, afterward Bretague, or Britanny. This part of France is peopled by inhabitants who speak a dialect of the Celtic. It is usually supposed their ancestors were refugees or colonists from England.

ARMORIC, n. The language of the Armoricans; one of the Celtic dialects which have remained to the present times.

ARMORICAN, n. A native of Armorica, or Bretagne.

ARMORIST, n. One skilled in heraldry.


1. A place where arms, and instruments of war are deposited for safe keeping.

2. Armor; defensive arms.

3. Ensigns armorial.

4. The knowledge of coat-armor; skill in heraldry.

ARMPIT, n. [arm and pit.] The hollow place or cavity under the shoulder.

ARMS, n. plu. [L. arma.]

1. Weapons of offense, or armor for defense and protection of the body.

2. War; hostility.

Arms and the man I sing.

To be in arms, to be in a state of hostility, or in a military life.

To arms is a phrase which denotes a taking arms for war or hostility; particularly, a summoning to war.

To take arms, is to arm for attack or defense.

Bred to arms denotes that a person has been educated to the profession of a soldier.

3. The ensigns armorial of a family; consisting of figures and colors borne in shields, banners, etc., as marks of dignity and distinction, and descending from father to son.

4. In law, arms are any thing which a man takes in his hand in anger, to strike or assault another.

5. In botany, one of the seven species of fulcra or props of plants, enumerated by Linne and others. The different species of arms or armor, are prickles, thorns, forks and stings, which seem intended to protect the plants from injury by animals.

Sire arms, are such as may be charged with powder, as cannon, muskets, mortars, etc.

A stand of arms consists of a musket, bayonet, cartridge-box and belt, with a sword. But for common soldiers a sword is not necessary.

In falconry, arms are the legs of a hawk from the thigh to the foot.

ARMS-END, n. At the end of the arms; at a good distance; a phrase taken from boxers or wrestlers.

ARMY, n.

1. A collection or body of men armed for war, and organized in companies, battalions, regiments, brigades and divisions, under proper officers. In general, an army in modern times consists of infantry and cavalry, with artillery; although the union of all is not essential to the constitution of an army. Among savages, armies are differently formed.

2. A great number; a vast multitude; as an army of locusts or caterpillars. Joel 2:25.

ARNOLDIST, n. A disciple of Arnold of Brescia, who in the 12th century, preached against the Romish Church, for which he was banished; but he was afterwards permitted to return. By his preaching, an insurrection was excited, for which he was condemned and executed.

ARNOT, n. A name of the bunium, pignut or earthnut.

ARNOTTO, The Anotta, which see. Also a tree so called.

ARNUTS, n. Tall oat grass.

AROMA, n. [Gr.] The quality of plants which constitutes their fragrance, which is perceived by an agreeable smell, or a warm spicy taste.

AROMATIC, AROMATICAL, a. Fragrant; spicy; strong-scented; odoriferous; having an agreeable odor.

AROMATIC, n. A plant which yields a spicy, fragrant smell, or a warm pungent taste; as sage, summer savory, geranium, sweet marjoram, etc.

AROMATITE, n. A bituminous stone, in smell and color resembling myrrh.

AROMATIZATION, n. The act of impregnating or scenting with aroma, or rendering aromatic.

AROMATIZE, v.t. To impregnate with aroma; to infuse an aromatic odor; to give a spicy scent or taste; to perfume.

AROMATIZED, pp. Impregnated with aroma; rendered fragrant.

AROMATIZER, n. That which communicates an aromatic quality.

AROMATIZING, ppr. Rendering spicy; impregnating with aroma.

AROMATOUS, a. Containing aroma, or the principle of fragrance.

AROPH, [A contraction of aroma philosophorum.]

1. A name by which saffron is sometimes called.

2. A chimical preparation of Paracelsus, formed by sublimation from equal quantities of hematite and sal ammoniac. The word is also used by the same writer as synonymous with lithontriptic, a solvent for the stone.

AROSE, The past or preterit tense of the verb, to arise.

AROUND, prep. [a and round. See Round.]

1. About; on all sides; encircling; encompassing; as, a lambent flame around his brows.

2. In a looser sense, from place to place; at random.

AROUND, adv.

1. In a circle; on every side.

2. In a looser sense, at random; without any fixed direction; as, to travel around from town to town. [See Round.]

AROURA, n. [Gr.] A Grecian measure of fifty feet. Also, a square measure of half the plethron, a measure not ascertained. The Egyptian aroura was the square of a hundred feet or a hundred cubits.

AROUSE, v.t. arouz’. [Heb.]

To excite into action, that which is at rest; to stir, or put in motion or exertion that which is languid; as, to arouse one from sleep; to arouse the dormant faculties.

AROUSED, pp. Excited into action; put in motion.

AROUSING, ppr. Putting in motion; stirring; exciting into action or exertion.

AROW, adv. [a and row.] In a row; successively.

AROYNT, adv. Be gone; away. Obs.


The distinct sound of the notes of an instrumental chord, accompanying the voice.


In Domesday, it is written arpennus, arpendus, and arpent. Columella mentions that the arepennis was equal to half the Roman juger. The word is supposed to be corrupted from arvipendium, or aripennium, the measuring of land with a cord.

A portion of land in France, ordinarily containing one hundred square rods or perches, each of 18 feet. But the arpent is different in different parts of France. The arpent of Paris contains 900 square toises. It is less than the English acre, by about one seventh.


1. A distilled liquor applied to a bruise.

2. The shot of an arquebuse.


A hand gun; a species of fire arms, anciently used, which was cocked with a wheel. It carried a ball that weighed nearly two ounces. A larger kind, used in fortresses carried a ball of three ounces and a half.

ARQUEBUSIER, n. a soldier armed with an arquebuse.

ARRACH, n. a plant. See Orrach.

ARRACK, n. Contacted into rack. a spirituous liquor imported from the East Indies. The name is said to signify, in the East, any spirituous liquor; but that which usually bears this name is toddy, a liquor distilled from the juice of the cocoanut tree, procured by incision. Some persons allege it to be a spirit distilled from rice or sugar, fermented with the juice of the cocoanut.


In mineralogy, a species of carbonate of lime, but not pure, and said to contain 3 or 4 per cent. of carbonate of strontian. It differs from pure carbonate of lime, in hardness, specific gravity, crystaline structure, etc. It is harder than calcarious spar, and exhibits several varieties of structure and form. It is often crystallized, generally in hexahedral prisms or pyramids. The massive varieties have usually a fibrous structure, exhibiting various imitative forms, being sometimes coraloidal.

ARRAIGN, v.t. arra’ne. [L. reus, contracted from the root of res.]

1. To call or set a prisoner at the bar of a court, to answer to the matter charged against him in an indictment or information. When called, the indictment is read to him, and he is put to plead, guity or not guilty, and to elect by whom he will be tried.

2. According to Law writers, to set in order; to fit for trial; as, to arraign a writ of novel disscisin. To arraign the assize, is to cause the tenant to be called to make the plaint, and set the cause in order, that the tenant may be brought to answer.

3. To accuse; to charge with faults. More correctly, to call before the bar of reason, or taste; to call in question, for faults before any tribunal.

They will not arraign you for want of knowledge.

ARRAIGN, n. arra’ne. Arraignment; as, clerk of the arraigns.

ARRAIGNED, pp. Called before a tribunal to answer, and elect triers; accused; called in question.

ARRAIGNING, ppr. Calling before a court or tribunal; accusing.


1. The act of arraigning; the act of calling and setting a prisoner before a court to answer to an accusation, and to choose his triers.

2. Accusation.

3. A calling in question for faults.

ARRAIMENT, n. [See Array.] Clothes; garments. We now use raiment.


1. To put in proper order; to dispose the parts of a whole in the manner intended, or best suited for the purpose; as troops arranged for battle.

2. To adjust; to settle; to put in order; to prepare; a popular use of the word of very general application.

ARRANGED, pp. Put in order; disposed in the proper order; adjusted.


1. The act of putting in proper order; the state of being put in order; disposition in suitable form.

2. That which is disposed in order; system of parts disposed in due order.

The interest of that portion of social arrangement is in the hands of all those who compose it.

3. Preparatory measure; previous disposition; as, we have made arrangements for receiving company.

4. Final settlement; adjustment by agreement; as, the parties have made an arrangement between themselves concerning their disputes; a popular use of the word.

5. Classification of facts relating to a subject, in a regular, systematic order; as the Linnean arrangement of plants.

ARRANGER, n. One that puts in order.

ARRANGING, ppr. Putting in due order or form; adjusting.

ARRANT, a. [I know not the origin of this word.]

Notorious, in an ill sense; infamous; mere; vile; as an arrant rogue or coward.

ARRANTLY, adv. Notoriously, in an ill sense; infamously; impudently; shamefully.

ARRAS, n. Tapestry; hangings wove with figures.


1. Order; disposition in regular lines; as an army in battle array. Hence a posture of defense.

2. Dress; garments disposed in order upon the person.

3. In law, the act of impaneling a jury; or a jury impaneled; that is, a jury set in order by the sheriff, or called man by man.

Commission of array, in English history, was a commission given by the prince to officers in every county, to muster and array the inhabitants, or see them in a condition for war.

ARRAY, v.t.

1. To place or dispose in order, as troops for battle.

2. To deck or dress; to adorn with dress; it is applied especially to dress of a splendid kind.

Array thyself with glory. Job 40:10.

Pharaoh arrayed Joseph with fine linen. Genesis 41:42.

3. To set a jury in order for the trial of a cause; that is, to call them man by man.

4. To envelop.

In gelid caves with horrid glooms arrayed.

ARRAYED, pp. Set in order, or in lines; arranged in order for attack or defense; dressed; adorned by dress; impaneled, as a jury; enveloped.

ARRAYER, n. One who arrays. In English history, an officer who had a commission of array, to put soldiers of a country in a condition for military service.

ARRAYING, ppr. Setting in order; putting on splendid raiment; impaneling.

ARREAR, adv. [L. ad and retro.]

Behind; at the hinder part. In this sense obsolete. But from this use, we retain the word as a noun in the phrase, in arrear, to signify behind in payment.

ARREAR, n. That which is behind in payment, or which remains unpaid, though due. It is generally used in the plural, as the arrears of rent, wages and taxes; and supposes a part of the money already paid.


Arrears; any sum of money remaining unpaid, after previous payment of a part. A person may be in arrear for the whole amount of a debt; but arrears and arrearage imply that apart has been paid.

ARRECT, ARRECTED, a. [L. arrectus, raised, erect, from arrigo. See Reach.] Erect; attentive; as a person listening.

ARRENTATION, n. [See Rent.]

In the forest laws of England, a licensing the owner of land in a forest, to inclose it with a small ditch and low hedge, in consideration of a yearly rent.

ARREPTITIOUS, a. [L. arreptus, of ad and rapio, to snatch. See Rapacious.]

1. Snatched away.

2. Crept in privily.

ARREST, v.t. [L. resto, to stop; Eng. to rest. See Rest.]

1. To obstruct; to stop; to check or hinder motion; as, to arrest the current of a river; to arrest the senses.

2. To take, seize or apprehend by virtue of a warrant from authority; as, to arrest one for debt or for a crime.

3. To seize and fix; as, to arrest the eyes or attention.

The appearance of such a person in the world, and at such a period, ought to arrest the consideration of every thinking mind.


1. The taking or apprehending of a person by virtue of a warrant from authority. An arrest is made by seizing or touching the body.

2. Any seizure, or taking by power, physical or moral.

3. A stop, hindrance or restraint.

4. In law, an arrest of judgment is the staying or stopping of a judgment after verdict, for causes assigned. Courts have power to arrest judgment for intrinsic causes appearing upon the face of the record; as when the declaration varies from the original writ; when the verdict differs materially from the pleadings; or when the case laid in the declaration is not sufficient in point of law, to found an action upon. The motion for this purpose is called a motion in arrest of judgment.

5. A mangy humor between the ham and pastern of the hind legs of a horse.

ARRESTATION, n. The act of arresting; an arrest, or seizure.

ARRESTED, pp. Seized; apprehended; stopped; hindered; restrained.

ARRESTER, ARRESTOR, n. One who arrests.

ARRESTING, ppr. Seizing; staying; hindering; restraining.


The order of a judge by which a debtor to the arrestor’s debtor is prohibited to make payment, till the debt due to the arrestor is paid or secured.

ARRET, n. arreste’.

The decision of a court tribunal or council; a decree published; the edict of a soverign prince.

ARRET, v.t. To assign; to allot. Obs.

ARRIDE, v.t. [L. arrideo.] To laugh at; to please well. [Not in use.]

ARRIERE, n. The last body of an army; now called rear, which see.

Arriere-ban, or ban and arriere ban. This phrase is defined to be a general proclamation of the French kings, by which not only their immediate feudatories, but their vassals, were summoned to take the field for war. In this case, arriere is the French word signifying those who are last or behind, and ban is proclamation. [See Ban.]

Arriere-fee or fief. A fee or fief dependent or a superior fee, or a fee held of a feudatory.

Arriere vassal. The vassal of a vassal.


1. The coming to, or reaching a place, from a distance, whether by water, as in its original sense, or by land.

2. The attainment or gaining of any object, by effort, agreement, practice or study.


1. Company coming. [Not used.]

2. Arrival; a reading in progress. Obs.

ARRIVE, v.i. [L. ripa.]

1. Literally, to come to the shore, or bank. Hence to come to or reach in progress by water, followed by at. We arrived at Havre De Grace, July 10, 1924. N.W.

2. To come to or reach by traveling on land; as, the post arrives at 7 o’clock.

3. To reach a point by progressive motion; to gain or compass by effort, practice, study, enquiry, reasoning or experiment; as, to arrive at an unusual degree of excellence or wickedness; to arrive at a conclusion.

4. To happen or occur.

He to whom this glorious death arrives.

ARRIVE, v.t. To reach. [Not in use.]

ARRIVING, ppr. Coming to, or reaching by water or land; gaining by research, effort or study.

ARROBA, n. A weight in Portugal of thirty two pounds; in Spain, of twenty five pounds. Also a Spanish measure of thirty two Spanish pints.

ARROGANCE, n. [L. arrogantia, from arrogo, to claim; of ad and rogo, to beg, or desire. See Arrogate.]

The act or quality of taking much upon one’s self; that species of pride which consists in exorbitant claims of rank, dignity, estimation or power, or which exalts the worth or importance of the person to an undue degree; proud contempt of others; conceitedness; presumption.

I will cause the arrogance of the proud to cease. Isaiah 13:11; 1 Samuel 2:3; Proverbs 8:13.

ARROGANCY, n. Arrogance. [This orthography is less usual.]


1. Assuming; making or having the disposition to make exorbitant claims of rank or estimation; giving one’s self an undue degree of importance; haughty; conceited; applied to persons.

2. Containing arrogance; marked with arrogance; proceeding from undue claims of self importance; applied to things; as arrogant pretensions or behavior.

ARROGANTLY, adv. In an arrogant manner; with undue pride or self importance.

ARROGANTNESS, n. Arrogance. [Little used.]

ARROGATE, v.t. [L. arrogo, of ad and rogo.]

To assume, demand or challenge more than is proper; to make undue claims, from vanity or false pretensions to right or merit; as, the Pope arrogated dominion over kings.

ARROGATED, pp. Claimed by undue pretensions.

ARROGATING, ppr. Challenging or claiming more power or respect than is just or reasonable.

ARROGATION, n. The act of arrogating, or making exorbitant claims; the act of taking more than one is justly entitled to.

ARROGATIVE, a. Assuming or making undue claims and pretensions.


A circuit; a district; a division or portion of territory, in France, for the exercise of a particular jurisdiction.

ARROSION, n. s as z. [L. arrodo.] A gnawing.


1. A missive weapon of offense, straight, slender, pointed and barbed, to be shot with a bow.

2. In scripture, the arrows of God are the apprehensions of his wrath, which pierce and pain the conscience. Job 6:4; Psalm 38:2. In a like figurative manner, arrows represent the judgments of God, as thunder, lightning, tempests and famine. 2 Samuel 22:15; Ezekiel 5:16; Habakkuk 3:11. The word is used also for slanderous words and malicious purposes of evil men. Psalm 11:2; Proverbs 25:18; Jeremiah 9:8; Psalm 64:3.

ARROW-GRASS, n. A plant or genus of plants; the Triglochin.


1. The head of an arrow.

2. Sagittaria; a genus of aquatic plants, so called from the resemblance of the leaves to the point of an arrow.