The Conditionalist Faith of Our Fathers, vol. 2


Subject Guide

Since this book deals with a limited number of subjects, this outline of the chapter contents is included in place of a subject index.

1. Sundry Voices Break General Medieval Silence15
I. Jerusalem Patriarch Sophronius Asserts Immortality a Gift15
1. Immortality the Grant of God17
2. Read Into a General Council Record17
II. Arabian Philosopher Averroes Projects Crisis18
III. Greek Bishop Nicholas—Immortality Is Gift of God20
IV. Leading Medieval Rabbis Maintain Final Extinction of Wicked21
1. Maimonides Teaches Complete “Excision” of Wicked23
2. Nachmanides Also Taught Excision of Soul24
3. Abravanel’s Second Death Is Annihilation24
4. Manasseh: Wicked Souls Cut Off25
V. Witness of the Medieval Waldenses of Piedmont26
1. Early Historic Backgrounds in Survey29
2. Recognized Identity of Antichrist and! His Perversions30
VI. Purgatory Errors Stem From Paganism, Not Scripture30
1. Platonic Paganism Source of Purgatory Dogma30
2. “Youth Catechism“: Purgatory Against “Commandments of God”31
3. “Noble Lesson“: Reward at Day of Judgment32
4. “Antichrist” Treatise: No Souls in Purgatory32
5. “Now in Heaven” Contention Is Papal Innovation33
6. II Maccabees Cited as Papal Ground for Purgatory33
7. Papal Inquisitor Confirms Waldenses’ Rejection of Purgatory34
VII. John XXII Digresses From Catholic Disposition of Soul at Death35
1. The Troubled Reign of Pope John XXII35
2. Soul Not in Presence of God Till After Resurrection36
3. Disconcerting Questions Arise From Declaration37
2. Horrifies of Hell and Foibles of Purgatory39
I. Horrifies of Hell Portrayed in Literature and Art of Middle Ages39
II. Historical Development and Involvements of Purgatory41
1. Multiple Pagan Sources of Catholic Purgatory41
2. Progressive Establishment in Catholic Circles42
3. Becomes Powerful Force in Hands of Priesthood44
4. Four Scriptural Passages Sometimes Invoked45
5. Wherein Purgatory Differs From Hell46
6. Summary: Mitigating the Horrors of Hell47
3. Wyclif Pioneers and Pomponazzi Precipitates Crisis49
I. Agitation During Dominance of Papal Traditionalism49
1. Challenges to Innate Immortality Erupt50
II. Wyclif: Death—Unconscious Sleep, Not Anguish in Purgatory50
III. Progressive Developments in Thought and Action52
1. Conflicts With Ecclesiastical Authority53
2. Breaks Next With Medieval Theology54
3. Anticipated Fundamental Principles of Protestantism55
IV. Soul Sleep and the Myth of Purgatory57
1. Led to Identification of Antichrist by Bible Prophecy58
2. “Unconscious Sleep” Between Death and Resurrection58
3. Immortality Received at the Resurrection59
4. No Doctrine to Be Based on a Parable59
V. Italian Professor Pomponatius Precipitates a Crisis60
4. Luther Revives Conditionalism at Reformation Outset64
I. Revival of Conditionalism Gradually Gathers Momentum64
II. Luther Revives Conditionalism at Outset of Reformation65
III. The Torments of Hell and the Pains of Purgatory67
1. Proclaims Simplicity of the Gospel68
2. Crisis Over Releasing Souls From Purgatory69
IV. Dramatic Break With the Might of Rome70
1. Final Rupture by Burning “Bull of Antichrist”71
2. Traditionism Crowded Into Background72
V. “Immortal Soul” Concept Derived From “Roman Dunghill of Decretals”73
1. “Immortal Soul” Included Among Poke’s “Monstrous Opinions”73
2. Blackburne’s Opinion on Luther’s Position74
3. Kantonen Confirms Luther’s Emphasis on “Sleep”74
4. Did Luther Later Reverse His Position?75
5. Retains “Suspended Consciousness” Concept Till Day of Death75
6. Luther’s Followers Sought to Conceal Sentiments76
VI. Counters Purgatory With Unconscious Sleep of Soul76
1. Dead Are Unconscious of Passing Time77
2. Death a “Deep, Strong, Sweet Sleep”77
3. Sleeps in Unconscious Rest and Peace77
4. Rests Securely Till Awakener Calls78
5. Question of Eternal Torment Left Untouched78
VII. Anabaptist Often Involved in Conflict Over “Soul” in Death79
1. Regeneration Prerequisite to Valid Baptism80
2. Distinguish Sound Adherents From Fanatics80
3. Five Categories of Anabaptists81
4. Principles Held by Sound Anabaptists82
5. Characteristics of Geographical Groups82
VIII. Polish Anabaptists—Eternal Life After Resurrection85
IX. Many Socinians Likewise Hold Conditionalist Positions86
5. Tyndale and Frith Testify: Ethiopia and India Support88
I. Clear-cut Stand on the Sleep of the Soul93
1. Prophetic Depiction of Papal Perversions93
2. Departed Souls Not in Heaven, Hell, or Purgatory94
3. Innate Immortality From Paganism and Popery94
4. “Saints in Heaven” Destroys Resurrection Argument95
5. Does “Master More” Know More Than Paul?95
II. Frith—Martyrdom for Denial of Consciousness in Purgatory%
III. Twin Causes of Frith’s Death by Fire100
1. Parable Is Basis of Bishop’s Contention101
2. Conscious Torment Destroys Resurrection Argument101
3. Righteous Rest in Peace, Not in Torment102
4. Abraham’s Bosom Is Abraham’s Faith102
5. Denial of Purgatory Becomes Death Warrant102
IV. Continuous Ethiopian Witness for Thousand Years103
1. Frumentius Becomes Bishop of Abyssinia104
2. Jesuit Missionaries Discover Dissenting Belief105
V. Origin and Witness of Malabar St. Thomas Christians106
1. Rise and Spread of the Nestorian Movement106
2. Significance of the Nestorian Movement107
3. Characteristics of Malabar St. Thomas Christians108
VI. Malabar Coast Witness—Dead Rest Until Judgment108
1. Jesuit Record of Malabar Conditionalism109
2. Protestant Record Confirms Conditionalist Beliefs109
3. Tampering With the Records111
6. Vehement Calvinist Positions and Anglican Opposites Develop112
I. Calvin—Foremost Protestant Foe of “Soul Sleep” Postulate112
1. Sovereignty of God and Theocracy for Man114
II. Servetus—Conditionalism Included Among His “Heresies”115
III. Historical Setting of Calvin’s Psychopannychia116
IV. Hurls Invectives Against Anabaptist Soul Sleepers118
V. The Gist of Calvin’s Attack on Soul Sleep120
1. Calvin’s Definition of the Soul121
2. Death of “Soul” is “Abandonment by God”121
3. “Dead” Defined as Not “Visibly Existing”121
4. “Thoughts Perishing” Construed as “Designs” Dissipated121
5. Central Attack Is on “Sleep” of Soul121
6. “Sleep” Applies Only to “Body” Never to “Soul”122
7. Acquaintance With Platonism Disclosed122
8. Authority of Tradition Is Invoked122
9. The Soul Returns to God at Death122
10. Freed From Body, Soul Soars Aloft123
11. Contends “Rich Man and Lazarus” Not a Parable123
12. Christ Intensely Alive During His Death123
13. Alleges Jonah Prayed While Dead in Whale124
14. Wicked Said to Feel Ceaseless Flame of Eternal Fire124
15. Soul Sleep Declared a Fabricated Abomination124
VI. Eternal Torment Not Established Dogma of Anglican Church125
1. Earliest Anglican Articles (1553) Condemn “Soul Sleep”125
2. Elizabethan Revisions (1563) Reduce Articles to “Thirty-nine”126
VII. “Mystic” Renato—Soul Sleeps Unconsciously Until Resurrection127
7. Persecution Unto Death for Faith Under Queen Elizabeth130
I. Terwoort and Pieters Burned for Faith Under Queen Elizabeth130
II. Conditionalists Legatt and Wightman Burned at Stake Under James I134
1. “Rotton Contagious Member” Is “Cut Off”135
2. Included “Heresy” of “Soul Sleep”136
3. Last Public Burning for “Heresy” by Protestant Monarch138
III. 20,000 Baptists Declare “Faith” in Confession of 1660138
1. Comprehensive Portrayal of Belief139
2. Concept of Nature and Destiny of Man140
IV. Signatory Caffyn—Immortality Held in “Promise,” Not Present Possession142
V. Unitarian John Biddle—Persecuted for Conditionalist Beliefs144
VI. Immortality for Saints; Utter Destruction for Sinners146
1. Eternal Life Limited to Believing Saints147
2. Wicked Are Devoured, Pass Away, Perish in “Second Death”147
3. The Soul to Be Destroyed in Hell147
4. First Resurrection for Saints; Second Death for Sinners147
8. Poets Mihon and Wither—The Whole Man Dies in Death150
I. Milton the Outspoken Proponent of Conditionalism152
1. Man a Unit, Not a Compound152
2. Death of Body Is Extinction of Life153
3. Whole Man Suffers Privation of Life153
4. Sentence of Death Executed Upon Whole Man154
5. Crown of Righteousness Not Yet Received154
6. Souls Not in Heaven During Death155
7. Soul of Lazarus Not Recalled From Heaven155
8. Natural Propagation, Not Special Creations155
II. Conditionalism Even Woven Into Paradise Lost156
III. Milton Answers Nine Stock “Objection” Passages157
1. Soul Redeemed From Power of Grave157
2. Spirit Returns to God, Body to Grave157
3. Body, Temporal Life; Soul, Spiritual Life157
4. Intervening Time “Annihilated” for Those Who Sleep158
5. Grave “Common Guardian of All” Till Judgment Day158
6. Souls Under Altar Not Separated From Body158
7. Obscure Must Not Override Many Clear Passages159
8. Christ Committed Body, Soul, and Spirit to God159
9. Not Separation of Soul From Body159
IV. Poet George Wither—Man a Candidate for Immortality160
1. Soul Nonexistent Apart From Body161
2. Life “Doth Principally Form the Soul”161
9. Overton Imprisoned, Canne Exiled, and Chamberlen Derided163
I. Overton’s Stormy Career as Conditionalist Pamphleteer163
II. Samplings of Overton’s Conditionalist Contentions167
1. During Death Man Ceases to Be Until the Resurrection167
2. Mortalized by Adam; Immortalized by Christ167
3. All Hope Grounded on Resurrection168
4. Paradise Entered by Way of Resurrection168
III. Canne Braves Reprisals to Print Overton’s Conditionalist Treatise169
IV. Court Physician—Death a Sleep, With Resurrection Awakening171
10. Seventeenth-Century Voices Augment Conditionalist Witness176
I. Stegmann of Germany—Dead Restored to Life Through Resurrection176
II. Cumulative Argument on Unconscious State of Dead178
1. The Immortal-Soulist Position178
2. Consciousness in Death Foundation of Purgatory178
3. Recalled to Life at Resurrection179
4. Was the Apostle Paul in Error?179
5. Absurd to Hold Christ and Apostles in Error179
6. Disembodied Souls Have No Consciousness180
7. Body and Spirit Rejoined at Resurrection180
III. Puritan Nathaniel Homes Stresses Resurrection181
1. Significance of Peter Sterry’s Endorsement182
IV. Baptist Richardson Opposes Eternal Torment Dogma183
V. Professor Isaac Barrow—Temporal Offenders Not Punished Eternally185
VI. Philosopher John Locke—Bold Stand Against Innate Immortality187
1. Wicked Do “Not Live Forever”189
2. Death Not “Eternal Life in Misery”190
3. Eternal Life Rests on Promises of God190
VII. Terse Excerpts From Locke’s Arguments191
VIII. Archbishop Tillotson Undercuts Dogma of Eternal Torment191
1. Declares Innate-Immortality Assumed, Not “Revealed”192
2. Similar Continental Denial by Von Stosch193
IX. Physician William Coward Denies Separate Entity of Soul193
X. Rejects Immortal-Soulism Because of Pagan Origin196
1. Wicked Not Yet in Torment, Nor Righteous in Heaven1%
2. Immortal-Soulism Derived From Heathen Philosophers196
3. The Contention of the Philosophers197
4. Platonic Philosophy Interwoven Into Early Christian Doctrine197
5. Crept Into Church Through Platonic Fathers197
6. Life Interrupted by Death Restored at Resurrection198
XI. Lawyer Layton Produces Succession of Conditionalist Treatises199
XII. Scope of Writing Revealed by Twelve Titles201
XIII. Witnesses Span Centuries; Opponents Invoke Same Arguments202
11. Brilliant Witnesses on Both Sides of Atlantic205
I. Blackburne—Historian of Reformation Conflict Over Soul Question205
II. Blackburne’s Personal Views on Conditionalism209
1. The Question of Disembodied Souls209
2. Immortality Only Through Resurrection209
3. No Separate Intermediate Life of Soul210
4. Reformers Lopped “Branches,” Left “Root” of Error210
5. Unfairness of Charge of “Heresy”211
6. Restoration of “Whole Man” to Life211
7. Dead Made Alive Only Through Resurrection211
8. Immortal-Soulism “Overturns Whole Christian System”211
III. Four Basic Charges Made by Blackburne212
IV. Scientist Priestley—Total Insensibility Characterizes Death214
V. Priestley on the Condition of Man in Death216
1. Death Is State of “Absolute Insensibility”216
2. Fallacy of “Separate Conscious State”216
3. Future Life Based on Resurrection217
4. “Soul-Sleep” Revival Credited to Bible217
5. Time Will Remove Current Prejudices218
VI. Two Illustrious Questioners of Eternal-Torment Thesis218
1. Hymnist Watts—Does Not “Death” Include “Destruction” of Soul?218
2. Bishop Warburton—Challenges Proponents of Everlasting Punishment221
VII. Restorationism Revived as “Universalism” in Post Reformation221
12. Eighteenth-Century Stalwarts Buttress Conditionalist Positions224
I. Baptist Professor Whiston—Holds to Complete Destruction of the Wicked224
1. Chaff Is “Burnt Up” in Utter Destruction226
2. Flaming Fire to “Utterly Consume” Wicked226
3. Eternal Life for Righteous Only226
II. Nonconformist Hallett: If “No Resurrection, No Future State”227
1. Lost Immortality Restored Through Christ228
2. Resurrection for All; Immortality Only for Saints228
III. “Anonymous”—Consciousness Utterly Ceases in Death228
1. Death Is “Utter Extinction” of Consciousness229
2. Flame of Life “Rekindled” at Resurrection229
3. Jewish Paradise Unsupported by Scripture229
IV. Physician Scott—Complete Destruction Awaits the Wicked230
1. Destruction, Not “Never-Ceasing Misery,” for Wicked231
2. Perpetual Torment Dogma Conflicts With Scripture231
V. Bishop Law—Entrance Upon Immortality Only Through Resurrection231
1. Life Not Inherent, but a Gift Through Christ233
2. Gives Seven Equations of Death233
3. Resurrection the Climax of Hope of Immortality233
VI. Cambridge Master Peckard—Man Mortal; Immortality Solely Through Christ234
1. If Immortality Innate, Christ Not Our “Life”234
2. Hope of Future Existence Based Solely Upon Christ235
3. Object of Christ’s Coming to Bring Life236
VII. Dissenter Bourn—Punishment of Wicked to Be “Total Extinction”236
1. Dogma of Eternal Torment “Diabolical”237
2. Punishment Is “Proportionate to Guilt”237
3. Absolute and “Eternal Destruction” for Wicked238
4. Everlasting Life Restricted to “Righteous”238
5. Death of Wicked “Total Extinction of Life”238
VIII. Lesser Lights Support Testimony of Major Witnesses239
IX. “Fringe” Writers Complicate the Controversy241
13. Resurgence of Conditionalism Characterizes Nineteenth Century247
I. Unprecedented Developments Characterize the New Decades247
1. Imposing Array of Talent Champions Conditionalism248
II. Reaction to French Revolution Violence Impels Fresh Bible Study249
III. Historical Setting for Nineteenth-Century Impetus250
1. Hundred Books on Eschatology Appear251
2. Parallel Awakening in Old World and New251
3. Christendom-wide Resurgence of Premillennialism252
IV. Little-known Conditionalists Open Witness of Century253
V. Congregation Splits Over Immortality and Resurrection Issues255
VI. Wesleyan Watson—Lost Title to Immortality Regained Through Christ256
1. Sinful Man Lost Title to Immortality257
2. “Seed” Takes Place of “Tree” as Pledge of Immortality258
3. Immortality a Gift, Dependent on Giver258
VII. Baptist Hall—Eternal Torment Not Essential Article of Faith258
VIII. Bishop Hampden—Brands “Innatism” as Remnant of Scholasticism259
IX. Taylor—Predicts Unfettered Interpretation of Punishment Will Come260
X. Archbishop Whately Expressly Rejects Immortal-Soulist Positions261
1. Deals Major Blow Against “Innatist” Theory262
2. Philosophy Does Not Establish Immortality262
3. Jesus the Source and Assurance of Immortality262
4. No Purgatory and No Second Probation263
5. “Sleep” the Declared Condition in Death263
6. Unconscious of Passing Time in Death-Sleep264
7. No “Interval” Between Death and Resurrection264
8. Wicked to Be Destroyed, and Cease to Exist264
14. Belated Appearance of Conditionalism in Colonial America266
I. Tremendous Shift From Theocratic Puritanism to Advent Expectancy266
1. Involvements of the Puritan Theocracy267
2. Rhode Island Becomes Haven for Soul Freedom268
3. Establishment of Religious Liberty and Bill of Rights268
4. Religious Revivals Enter the Picture269
5. Multiple Sources of Religious Liberty Principles269
6. Resurgence of Eschatology Begins Under Spalding270
7. Joseph Lathrop Emphasizes Time of the End271
II. Revulsion Against Calvinist Extremism Led to Universalism271
III. Edwards—Supreme Exponent of Never-ending Torment272
1. Excruciating Torments “Never, Never” End273
2. Never Be Delivered From Excruciating Torment274
3. Kept in Hell Solely for Endless Suffering274
IV. Hopkins—Agonies of Damned Add to Joys of Saved275
1. Suffering of Damned Said to Give Joy to Redeemed276
2. God’s Grace Magnified by Eternally Burning Hell276
V. Upsurge of Universalism in Colonial and Early National America277
1. Universalism Gathers Momentum in Nineteenth Century277
2. Battle of Books Over Universalism278
VI. Significance and Result of the Battle of Pens281
1. Belated Appearance of Conditionalist View281
2. Comes to Fore in Early Nineteenth Century282
15. American Conditionalists Begin to Appear283
I. Bird’s-eye Preview of Far-flung Nineteenth-Century Awakening283
1. From Grew to Storrs to Advent Movement284
2. Prominent Accessions Follow Mid-century284
3. 1877 Marks the New Period of Extension285
II. Anonymous (1795) Precursor of Conditionalists to Follow286
III. Bishop White—Mankind Universally Mortal Through Adam288
1. Obtained Episcopal Orders for Daughter American Church288
2. Turned Away From Calvin’s Predestinarianism289
3. Mortality Inherited by All From Adam290
4. Fall Brought Withdrawal of Privileges290
IV. Elias Smith—Emphatically Rejects Popular Concept of Hell291
1. Rejects Popular Concept of Endless Hell292
2. Five “Hells” of Popular Belief292
3. Protestant Hell From Pagan Mythology293
4. Three Alternatives As to Fate of Wicked293
5. Indefeasible Immortality Derived From Platonism294
6. Alerted by Book on “Destructionism”294
V. Sellon—Impelled to Declare Conditionalist Convictions295
1. Punishment Would Not Exceed Sentence295
2. Gehenna Denotes “Total and Utter Destruction”296
3. Souls of Unbelievers Are Not Immortal296
4. Sinner Free to Choose Destruction Rather Than Life297
5. Eternal Torture Inconsistent With God’s Character297
6. Eternal Torment Not Scriptural, Therefore False297
7. Gehenna Total Destruction After Death298
8. Fire Indicates Total Consumption, Not Eternal Torture298
9. Eternal Torture Is “Invention of Man”299
10. Four Falsehoods Involved in Eternal Torment299
16. “Deacon” Grew-George Storrs Line of Transmission300
I. “Deacon” Grew—Brings Conditionalism to George Storrs300
1. Relinquishes Pastoral Post Because of Convictions300
2. Unique Relationship to American Conditionalism301
II. Essence of Grew’s “Intermediate State” Tract302
1. Soul Not Capable of Separate Conscious Existence302
2. “Unconsciousness” Marks Period Between Death and Resurrection303
3. All Future Existence Depends on Resurrection303
4. “Future Felicity” Begins at Second Advent303
III. Gist of “Future Punishment, Not Eternal Life in Misery” Tract304
1. No “Immortal or Deathless Spirits”304
2. Second Death Not “Interminable Miserable Existence”305
IV. Storrs—Introduces Conditionalism Into Second Advent Movement305
1. Becomes a Conditionalist After Three Years’ Study306
2. Origin of the Famous “Six Sermons”307
V. Digest of Storrs’s Famous “Six Sermons”308
1. Indefeasible Immortality Involves Eternal Suffering308
2. Supposed “Indestructibility” of Soul Is Pure Assumption309
3. Death Is Total Deprivation of Life309
4. Perishing Is Ceasing to Exist310
5. Death Is “Extinction of Conscious Being”311
6. Fathers Mingled Philosophy With Words311
7. Immortal-Soulism Derived From Platonism311
8. No Evidence of “Eternal Sin and Suffering”312
VI. Fitch—Storrs’s First Ministerial Convert to Conditionalism313
1. Adds Conditionalism to Second Advent Emphasis313
VII. French—Death an Unconscious State Until Resurrection314
1. All Dead in Unconscious State Until Advent314
17. White—Creates New Epoch of Understanding316
I. Mid-century Begins Attainment of New Stature and Standing316
1. Credit Must Be Given to Edward White316
2. Pulpiteers and Scholars Give Momentum317
II. Foster—Renounced Dogma of Eternal Torment of Wicked318
1. Rejected Doctrine of Eternal Torment Half Century Prior318
2. Endless Torment a “Slander” Against God319
3. Unable to Reconcile Endless Torment With God’s Love320
III. Dobney—Explicitly Maintains Conditionalist Position320
1. Sinners Will Not Live Forever321
2. Saints Do Not Go to Heaven at Death321
3. Immortality Not Provable From Reason321
IV. Edward White—Pre-eminent Champion of Conditionalism322
1. Troubled in Twenties Over Nature of Man323
2. Persuaded of Conditionalism by Fontaine324
3. Seven-Year Search Results in Clear Convictions325
4. First Book (1846) Creates Storm of Indignation325
5. Builds Constituency of Friendship From Hawley Road327
6. Honored With Chairmanship of Congregational Union328
7. First Conditionalist Conference in Christian History329
8. Made Chairman of Congregational Union of Britain329
9. Honored as Pre-eminent Champion of Conditionalism330
10. Re-affirmation of Truth and Repudiation of Error331
11. Shifted Emphasis From Negative to Positive332
V. Presents Positive Conditionalism to World Successfully332
1. Larger Significance of Conditionalism334
VI. Dunn—Doctrine of Eternal Torment Not in Scripture335
18. Constable’s Pre-eminent British Contribution337
I. Outstanding Champion of Conditional Immortality337
1. His Conditionalist Books Become Standard338
2. Conditionalism Augments Every Basic Doctrine339
II. Masterful Portrayal of Historical Trilemma (Three Conflicting Positions)339
1. Innate Immortality + Eternal Punishing = Eternal Misery340
2. Eternal Death of Wicked Involves Ultimate Nonexistence341
3. Original Sentence Involved Loss of Existence341
4. Priceless Tabulation of Greek Terms Used342
5. Opposing Positions Tabulated and Illustrated342
6. Scripture Negates Both Eternal Tormentism and Universalism342
7. Scripture Asserts Utter Extinction of Evil343
8. Challenges Opponents to Controvert View343
9. Cites Justin Martyr and Irenaeus as Conditionalists344
10. Tertullian Builds on Athenagoras’ Foundation344
11. Led to “Forced” Interpretation of Scripture345
12. Origen Converts Hell Into “Vast Purgatory”345
13. Purification of the “Indestructible” Sinner346
14. Spiritualized Scripture to Support Platonism346
15. Eternity of Evil Counters Bible Testimony346
16. Error’s Fatal Gap of Two Centuries347
III. Companion Volume Becomes Conditionalist Classic347
1. Genesis on True Relation of Body and Soul348
2. Man Is One Person, Not Two348
3. Relation of Breath of Life to Immortality349
4. Distinction Between Soul and Spirit350
5. Soul Does Not Survive the Body350
6. Gravedom: State of Profound Unconscious Sleep351
7. Death Eternal, Except for Resurrection351
8. No Perception of Time in Death Sleep352
9. Time Annihilated to Those Who Sleep352
10. Early Epitaphs Attest “Sleep,” Awaiting Resurrection353
11. “Apostolic Fathers” Were Conditionalists353
19. Various Scholars Augment Conditionalist Appeal355
I. Bishop Perowne—Scholarly Advocate of Conditionalism355
1. We Are But “Candidates for Immortality”356
II. Thom—Innate Immortality Inference “Falls to the Ground”356
1. Death of the Soul Inevitable356
III. Tinling—”Promise of Life” Through Christ Alone357
1. Accepted Conditionalism From Bible Alone357
2. Eternal Torment a “Stumbling-Block” to World358
3. Based Upon Assumptions and Assertions359
4. Ethnic Religions Taught Ultimate Loss of Personality359
5. Not Left in Ignorance for 4,000 Years359
6. No More “Immortal” Than Omnipotent, Omniscient, or Omnipresent360
7. Eternal Life Through Christ Alone361
8. Everything Depends on Immortality Through Christ363
IV. Tomlinson—Takes Issue With Bishop of Liverpool363
1. Challenges Bishop’s Position on Eternal Torment364
2. Invokes Bible and Cites Bishop Porteus365
3. The Soul “Not Immortal in Itself”365
4. “Quotes” Illustrating Line of Thought366
5. Protests Alteration of Word and Intent366
6. Cites Similar “Bible Standard” Criticism366
7. Supreme Conditionalist Is Jesus Christ367
8. Fishing in Same Boat With Rome367
9. Admonition: Beware of Johoiakim’s Penknife Technique368
V. Canon Row—Powerful Strokes Against Eternal-Tormentism368
1. Athanasian Creed Statement Is Indefinite369
2. Philosophy Does Not Prove Immortality of Man369
3. Genesis Narrative Favors Conditionalist “Theory”370
4. Resurrection, Not Innate Immortality370
5. New Testament Symbols Indicate Ultimate Destruction371
6. The Twofold Premise of Conditionalism371
7. No Creature Has Inherent Endless Existence371
8. “Universal Acceptance” Theory Simply Not True372
VI. Canon Aitken—Champions Conditionalism for Quarter Century372
1. Eternal Destruction a State, Not a Process374
2. Word and Work Closes Columns to Him375
3. Four Questions Propounded by Aitken375
4. No “Infinite Penalty” for “Finite Sin”376
5. Many Pulpits Sealed Against Him376
6. Church Parochial Mission Society Continues to Use Him376
7. No Eternal Torment for Brief Earthly Life377
8. Death the Forfeiture of Eternal Life377
20. Periodical Discussion and Pulpit Publicity379
I. Bishop Courtenay—Wicked End in “Total Cessation of Being”379
II. Leask—Editor of Conditionalist Journal The Rainbow380
1. The Rainbow Rides Out Terrific Storm of Criticism381
2. Helps Form Conditional Immortality Association382
III. Maude—Epochal Rainbow Article Creates Crisis383
1. Steps in Adoption of Conditionalism383
2. Conditionalist Article Stirs Public Opinion384
3. Three Major Contentions of Article385
4. Christianity Early Poisoned by Platonism386
5. Goes Back to Conflicting Declarations of Eden386
6. Full Testimony of Scripture Alone Determinative387
7. Three Distinct Classes of Passages388
8. Fundamental Fallacy of Universal Salvation388
9. Eternal Suffering Involves Character of God389
IV. Minton—Helps Lift “Life in Christ” From Obscurity389
1. Approval and Condemnation for Espousing Conditionalism390
2. First Speaker at 1876 Conference on Conditionalism390
V. Dale—Conditionalism Makes Christian Fundamentals Invulnerable391
1. Highest Honor Within Gift of Congregationalism393
2. Public Stand on Conditionalism in 1873393
3. Conditionalism Strengthens Fundamentals of Faith394
VI. Anglican Test Case of Wilson vs. Fendall Decided in 1864394
1. Acquittal Comes at Height of Controversy395
2. Discussion Grows in Intensity396
3. The Stage Set for Further Events397
VII. Darby—“Immortality of Soul” Comes From Platonism397
1. Earliest Statement: “No Source in Gospel”398
2. Position Modified in Later Edition398
3. No Immortal Sinners in Divine Plan399
4. Historical Note From The Bible Echo399
VIII. Christadelphians—Likewise Adhere to Main Conditionalist Positions399
1. Name Christadelphian Substituted for Christian400
2. Epitome of Christadelphian Conditionalist Beliefs400
3. Positions Unchanged in Current Writings401
21. Farrar—Westminster Sermon Precipitates Crisis404
I. Dean Farrar—Dramatically Repudiates “Dogma of Eternal Torment”404
1. Repudiation Voiced in Abbey, on November 11, 1877405
2. Expected Condemnation, but Received Widespread Approval406
3. Widespread Publicity Followed by Concentrated Attack407
II. Farrar’s Written Record of His Tremendous Researches408
1. Scriptures Absolutely Silent on “Eternal Torture”408
2. Dark Shadow of Augustine Falls on Medieval Theology408
3. Deplores Specious Arguments for Endless Torment409
4. Condemns Misuse of Texts Out of Context409
5. Old Testament Jews Never Taught “Endless Torment”409
6. Conditionalist Contentions Confirm Personal Views410
7. Invokes Witness of German Scholars410
8. Alexandrian Fathers Molded by Plato and Philo411
9. Literal Interpretation Leads to Extinctionist View411
III. Missionary Impey—Resignation From Methodist Ministry412
1. Annual Declaration of Conformity Required412
2. Resigns Over “Eternal Torment” Stipulation413
3. Takes Stand in Noble Line of Dissentients413
4. Restudy Touched Off by Farrar Repudiation414
5. Punishment “Everlasting” Because “Final and Irreversible”414
6. Takes Stand, With “So Help Me God”415
7. Categorical Answers Required of Impey415
8. Resigns Because Cannot Pledge “Silence”415
9. Forty Years of Unbroken Service Ends416
IV. Strang—Virile Conditionalist Editor and Scottish Polemicist417
The Messenger a Reflector of Turbulent Times418
May, 1878: Agitation Widespread418
June, 1879: Macrae Deposed418
January, 1883: Two Ministers Expelled418
January, 1884: H. H. Dobney Lauded419
June, 1884: Removal of Dublin Minister419
May, 1884: Laudation of George Storrs419
August, 1884: Typical Conference Reported420
V. Thorough Investigation Leads to Strong Personal Convictions420
1. Immortality of the Soul the Parent Error420
2. Platonism Adopted Because of Immortal-Soulism421
3. Philosophy Triumphs Over Pure Doctrine421
4. Development of Conflicting but Paralleling Schools422
VI. Laing—Effective Scottish Advocate of Conditionalism422
1. Steps in Becoming a Conditionalist423
2. Does Not Possess Separate Immortal Soul424
VII. Ham—Bible Excludes Notion of Independent Immortality425
1. Immortality Solely for Believer in Christ425
2. Innate Immortality Counter to Inspiration426
22. Periodicals Reflect Conflict and Advance427
I. Bible Echo—Panoramic Portrayal of Conditionalist Advances427
1. Bible Yields No Support for “Innatism”427
2. Abundant Testimony Merits a “Verdict”428
3. Address Challenged, and Conditionalist Accession429
4. Dale Declaration Received With “Plaudits”429
5. Swiss Minister Questioned but Approved430
6. Dr. Dale’s Declaration of Faith431
7. Dale Declaration Attacked by Christian World432
8. Christian World Attack Challenged by Echo432
9. Great Conditionalist Meeting in Chelsea433
10. White on Conditionalist Twenty-three-Year Spread434
11. Protests, Accessions, Repudiation, Advance435
12. Numerous Tokens of Progress435
13. L100-Offer for Missing Text436
14. Multiple Provisions of “Life” Enshrined in Christ436
15. Summarizing Statement on Conditionalism437
II. Homiletic Monthly’s “Clerical Symposium on Immortality”438
1. Stokes’s Strong Case for Conditionalism438
2. White: Widespread Contemporary Revival of Conditionalism440
3. Host of Contemporary Conditionalists Merit Hearing441
III. Active Discussion in Leading Periodicals in 1878-1879442
1. Dr. Dale Reaffirms Conditional Immortality Position442
2. Contemporary Review Airs All Views443
3. Symposiums Appear in Various Journals443
IV. Denniston—Jamaican Frontier Conditionalist443
1. Apologist for Primitive Gospel in Materialistic Age444
2. Endless Suffering Is “Intolerably Oppressive”445
3. Man Lost Immortality Through “Fall”446
4. Destruction Both a “Process” and a “Termination”446
5. Witness of Early Centuries to Conditionalism446
V. Binney—In Maturity Repudiates Eternal Torment Thesis447
VI. Westcott—Innate Immortality “Wholly Insufficient”449
VII. Rotherham—Immortality Is “Contingent and Dependent”449
23. Conditionalist Association and Extension Library451
I. Conditional Immortality Association Formed in 1878451
1. Lincoln Conference (Sept. 23-26, 1878)454
2. Maberly Conference, London (Sept. 2-4, 1879)455
3. Liverpool Conference (Sept. 7-9, 1880)455
4. Bradford Conference (Sept. 6-8, 1881)455
5. Salisbury Conference (Aug. 30-Sept. 1. 1882)455
6. Eastbourne Conference (Sept. 4-6, 1883)456
7. Glasgow Conference (Aug. 31-Sept. 2, 1884)456
8. Second London Conference (Sept. 1-3, 1885)456
9. Edinburgh Conference (Sept. 7-9. 1886)457
10. Birmingham Conference (Sept. 6-8, 1887)457
11. Second Lincoln Conference (Sept. 2-6, 1888)457
12. Dartmouth Conference (Sept. 1-5. 1889)457
13. Bacup Conference (Sept. 1-4, 1891)457
14. Faith Fellowship Founded in 1894458
15. Fifty Years of the Association-Mission (1878-1928)458
II. Remarkable Conditionalist Faith Library Exerts Widespread Influence459
1. Samplings of Titles and Writers459
2. Comprehensive Extract From Little-known Writer460
3. Historical Recitals Highly Helpful461
4. Bible Argument Presented by Expert461
5. Defense of Conditionalist Position and Array of Evidence462
III. Conditionalism Expounded; and Challenged by Methodism463
1. Silencing of Dr. Beet by Methodist Conference Action464
2. Perplexing to British Weekly Editor465
IV. Volume III—New Voices Add Strength and Significance465
1. Dr. Clarke Summons Succession of Able Witnesses466
2. Soul Is Capable of “Being Made Immortal”467
3. Baptist Missionary to China Testifies467
4. Engineer, Editor, and Vicar on Ultimate Destruction467
5. L1000 Offer Repeated by Clarke for Missing Text468
24. New World Voices Match Old World Witnesses469
I. Moncrieff—Scottish-Canadian Voice Champions Conditionalism469
1. Pioneer of Conditionalism in Scotland470
2. Transfers to Canada; Issues Able Book471
3. Wicked Return to Nonexistence471
4. Departs From Conscious Existence472
5. Endless Torment Makes “Mockery of Truth”472
6. Second Death Is Final Destruction473
7. All the Godless Reduced to Ashes473
II. Blain—Devastating Blow Against Eternal-Torment Innovation474
1. Appeals to Learned and to Prejudiced474
2. Cannot Stand Before Light of Word475
3. Sevenfold Scope of Book475
4. Innate Immortality but Human Assumption476
5. Analysis of Twenty “Destruction” Terms476
6. No Doctrine Settled by Parables and Symbols477
7. Popular Contentions Vitiate Bible Texts478
III. Hudson—Lifts Conditionalism to Scholarly Level of Discussion479
1. Adoption of Conditionalism Brings Loss of Pastorate479
2. Scholarly Works Force Respectful Hearing480
3. Believed Himself Called to Allotted Task481
4. Penetrates to Heart of Issue482
IV. Produces the American Conditionalist Classic482
1. Divine Justice, and Man’s Free Moral Agency483
2. Innate Immortality Not Taught or Implied in Scripture483
3. Bible Meaning of “Second Death”483
4. “Detention” Between Death and Resurrection484
5. Accurate Handling of Historical Side484
6. Masterful Survey of Witness of Centuries485
7. Conditionalism the Coordinated Portrayal of Scripture486
V. Abbot—Creator of Indispensable Aid for Evaluating Conditionalism486
1. Bible Transcendent in All Doctrinal Issues487
2. Matchless Bibliography Serves as Incomparable Check List488
VI. Physician Ives—Man Mortal: Dead Asleep; Wicked Destroyed489
1. How His Book Came to Be Written490
2. Scripture Spiritualized to Sustain Immortal-Soulism490
3. “Soul” Is “Entire Man” as “Complete Being”491
4. Immortality Conferred on “Righteous Alone”491
5. Fate of Wicked Is Death, Not Eternal Misery492
6. Recapitulation: “Unconscious Sleep”; “Loss of Existence”492
VII. Additional Features in Enlarged American Edition492
1. “Innate Immortality” Derived From Plato—493
2. “Unconscious” of Passing of Time in Death493
3. Use of Protested Term “Annihilation”493
4. Ives’s Appeal to the Clergy493
5. Supplemental Word to Laymen494
25. Representative Literature Matched by Able Pulpiteers495
I. Pettingell—Major American Writer on Conditionalism in 1880’s495
1. Gradual Change From Ostracism to Acceptance496
II. Able Coverage of Historical, Philosophical, and Biblical Evidence497
1. Contrasting Pages of Conflicting Schools’ Excerpts498
2. Conflicting Views of the Opposing Schools499
3. Introduction of Greek Platonism and Persian Dualism500
4. Historical Tracement of “Deathless Nature” Concept500
5. Origin and Transmission of “Deathless Nature” Theory500
6. Three Conflicting Schools Tabulated501
7. Arrested Reformation and Analogical Fallacies501
8. Second Life Does Not Exclude Second Death502
9. New Meanings Placed on Old Terms502
10. Man Not Independently Existent502
11. Death Is Utter Extinguishing of Life503
12. Eternal Life Is Peculiar Glory of Christ503
13. Two Classes and Two Destinies504
14. First Life Transitory: Second Life Eternal504
15. Overthrow and Abolishment of All Evil505
III. Life Everlasting Appends “Symposium” With Twenty-one Participants505
1. Platonism Penetrates Christianity; Both Are Modified506
2. Contrast Between Platonism and Revelation506
3. Paul’s Warning Unheeded, Resultant Apostasy Subverts507
4. Reformation Failed to Repudiate Immortal-Soulism507
IV. Henry Ward Beecher—Finally Repudiates Dogma of Eternal Torment508
V. Lyman Abbott—Denies Innate Immortality and Eternal Torment509
1. Rejects Both Universalism and Eternal Tormentism509
2. Repudiates Pagan Teachings on Fate of Wicked510
3. God Never Saves Soul Against Its Will510
4. Popular Theology Ignores Whole Set of Texts511
5. Misconstrues Original Intent and Use511
VI. Harriet Beecher Stowe—Famous Author in Revolt512
1. Harriet’s Essay on “Immortality” When Only Eleven512
2. In Agony Over Involvements of Calvinism513
3. Continuing Struggle Over Eternal Torment Problems514
VII. Agnostic Ingersoll—Embittered by Eternal Torment Dogma514
26. Spokesmen of Various Faiths Augment Chorus516
I. Hendrickson—Truth of “Life in Christ” Unlocks “Hidden Mystery”516
1. Conditionalist Position Gives New Grandeur to Preaching516
2. The “Soul” Not a Separate Conscious Entity517
3. Like “Rosetta Stone.” Resolves Hidden Mysteries517
II. Professor Butler—Cloud Rolled Away From Face of God518
1. Disillusioned by Fiendish “Portrays” in Rome518
2. Found Elimination Only Enhanced Gospel System519
III. Professor Bacon—Immortality “Conditional Upon the Act of God”520
1. Immortality Is Conferred, Not Inherent521
2. Rejects Eternal Torment and Innate Immortality521
3. Indestructibility of Soul From Platonic Philosophy521
4. Immortality a Gift, and Conditional521
IV. Wilson—Eternal Life Only for Those “In Christ”522
1. The Unanswerable Question—Why?523
2. God Is Not a “Malignant Fiend”523
3. Desperate Involvements of the Dogma524
V. Hart—Goes to Very Heart of Provision of Immortality524
1. Immortality Centers in Person of Christ525
2. Theologians Start From Wrong Assumption Regarding Immortality525
3. Deity, Incarnation, and Resurrection Are Basic526
4. Paul’s Emphasis on Grace, Atonement, Life526
5. The Ultimate Destruction of All Evil527
6. Weigh the Two Systems—Choose the True527
VI. Independent Kramer—Immortality Only for Believers in Christ528
VII. Bishop Mann—Brilliant Midwest Champion of Conditionalism529
1. Continuous Line of Dissenters Against Eternal Torment529
2. Anglican Articles Contrasted With Other Catechisms530
3. Restoration Unsupported by Scripture530
4. If Soul Not Immortal, Eternal Torment Theory Collapses531
5. Cogent Reasons Against Eternal Torment532
6. Defends Position of Ultimate, Absolute “Destruction”533
7. Pagan Religions Did Not Teach Immortality of Personality533
8. Eternal Existence Only by God’s Permission534
9. Immortality of Soul Not Taught in Bible534
VIII. Baker—Man Not Inherently Immortal; Wicked Will Perish535
1. Man “Not Inherently Immortal”535
2. Eternal Life for Saints; Total Destruction for Sinners536
3. Destruction Involves Dissolution of Elements536
4. Three Conflicting Schools; One Is Right536
27. Prominent Names Added to Conditionalist Roster540
I. Time Due for Restudy and Settlement of Issues540
1. Reformers Left “Middle State” for Present Consideration540
II. Rector Huntington—Outspoken Champion of Conditional Immortality542
1. Huntington Influenced by White and Hudson544
2. Conditionalist Views Reaffirmed at Close of Life544
3. Immortality a Gift Bestowed on Seekers545
4. Ultimate and Utter Destruction of Wicked545
5. Conditionalism Implicit in Anglican Formularies546
6. Life Only in Christ in Prayer Book and Collects546
7. Christ Opened “Gate of Everlasting Life”547
III. Boardman—Innate Immortality Negates Resurrection547
1. Natural Immortality Not Taught in Bible548
2. Man Not Naturally or Inherently Immortal549
3. Immortality Tied In With Tree of Life550
4. Pagan Dualism Retained in Christian Theology550
5. Analogies From Nature Are Deceptive550
6. Innate Immortality a Denial of Life as Christ’s Gift550
7. The Touchstone of Christianity Itself551
8. Give Inspired Information About the Hereafter551
9. Obligation of the Christian Ministry552
10. Summarizing Excerpts on Conditionalism552
IV. Phelps—Sweeping Portrayal of “Immortal Soul” Issues552
1. Immortality of Soul “Has a Bad History”553
2. “Heathen Philosophy” Becomes Predominant554
3. “Jewish Belief” Corrupted by Association554
4. “Christian Compromise Effected Slowly554
5. “Papal Decree” Formally Officializes Dogma555
6. “At Variance” With “Scriptural Account of Man’s Creation”555
7. “Clashes” With “Bible Statement of Man’s Fall”555
8. “Opposed” to “Scriptural Doctrine of Death”555
9. “Equally Opposed” to “Physiological Facts”556
10. “Immortality Nowhere Ascribed to Man’s “Present State”556
11. “Blessing to Be Sought“: Not “Birthright Legacy”557
12. “Inherent Immortality” Opposed to “Scripture Doom of Wicked”557
13. “Supersedes Necessity for a Resurrection”557
14. “Reduces the Judgment” to “Solemn Farce”557
15. “Subverts” Bible Doctrine of Second Advent558
16. Theory Is “Prolific Source” of “Error”558
V. Gordon—Natural Immortality Substituted for Resurrection558
1. Death Injected as the Object of Hope560
2. Sexton’s Bell Has Supplanted Angel’s Trump560
3. Premillennialism Discredited Under Roman Apostasy561
4. Significant Address on “Recurrence of Doctrine562
5. Eschatology to Be Final Battleground563
6. Death Substituted for Second Advent563
7. Resurrection “Broken From Its Biblical Moorings”564
8. Forsaken Doctrines to Be Revived564
28. Various Facets of Conditionalist Gem Presented566
I. High Scholastic Caliber of Representative Conditionalists566
II. Oliphant—Publicly Professes Conditionalism at Installation567
1. Potentially, Not Innately, Immortal568
2. Death Means Dissolution and Destruction568
3. Probation Confined to This Life569
4. Christ’s Resurrection Is Seal of Immortality570
5. Rejects “Innate Immortality” and “Eternal Torment”570
6. Denies “Indestructibility of the Soul”570
7. Honors “Justice of God” and “Freedom of Man”571
8. Conclusion Involves Rejection of Eternal Torment571
9. Soul to Suffer, Then to Cease571
10. Protests Term “Annihilation” as Misleading571
11. After “Disorganization” Man Ceases572
III. Episcopal Bishop Hopkins—Denies Eternal Torment Contention572
IV. Parkhurst—Seeks Insurance Against Eventual Obliteration573
V. Moomaw—Life Only in Christ; Total Destruction Without574
1. Life of Soul Is Not Self-sustaining575
2. Second Death Annihilates Body and Soul575
VI. Edward Beecher—Scholarly Repudiator of Eternal Torment576
1. Restudy of Eschatology Essential and Due577
2. Penetration of Persian-Grecian Influence Into Jewry578
3. Penetration of Conditionalism Into Christian Church579
4. “Enoch’s” Theory of Culpability of Fallen Angels579
5. Jewish Centers: Babylon, Alexandria, Palestine580
6. Eternal Tormentism Becomes Authoritarian Under Justinian580
7. Justin, Irenaeus, Arnobius, Hold to “Annihilation”581
8. Origen’s Restorationism Condemned Under Justinian582
9. African Tertullian-Augustinian School of Endless Torment583
10. Repudiation of Eternal Torment Only Matter of Time583
VII. Conditionalism Makes Increasing Friends Among Clergy584
29. Transcends Language Lines and Overleaps National Boundaries586
I. Olshausen—Immortality of Soul Theory Unknown to Scripture586
1. Innate Immortality Utterly Foreign to Bible586
II. Nitzsch—Have Only Contingent Immortality; May Cease587
1. Perpetual Existence of Damned Not Biblical587
2. No “Perpetual Existence” of Damned588
III. Schultz—Immortality Contingent; Destruction to Be Total588
1. Everlasting Life Only in God588
2. Sinful Man Has Only “Transient” Life589
3. Immortal Life Gained Solely From Christ589
4. Total Destruction for the Reprobate589
5. Convinced of Soundness of View in Retrospect590
IV. High Lights of Dr. Schultz’s “Immortality” Treatise of 1861590
1. Absolute Immortality Is Possession of God Alone590
2. Innate Immortality Not Possessed by Any Creature591
3. Mere Creation Did Not Assure Indestructibility591
4. To Acquire Immortality Through Second Creation592
5. Immortality for Man Possible Through Christ592
6. “Second Death” Involves “Death Absolute”592
V. Rothe—Suffering Ends in Extinction of the Wicked593
1. Principal Conditionalist Advocate in Germany593
2. Immortality Acquired: Personality of Wicked Extinguished594
3. Sense of Aionios Is Restricted594
4. Idea of Annihilation Is Involved595
VI. Dorner—Destructionist Theory Gaining in Approval595
VII. Other German Scholars Support Conditionalist View596
VIII. Vinet—“I Do Not Believe in the Immortality of the Soul”597
IX. Secretan—Rejects Both Eternal Torment and Universalism598
1. No Infinite Punishment for a Finite Fault598
2. No Impassable Barrier for Divine Power599
3. Fatal Weakness of Universal Restoration599
4. Predestined Candidate for Conditionalism599
5. Annihilation Is Logical Consequence of Fall600
X. Sabatier—Not All Are Immortal; Some Head for Dissolution600
1. Denies Universal Innate Immortality600
2. Death Involves Loss of Personality600
XI. Philosopher De May—Soul Only Conditionally Immortal; Can Perish601
30. Masterful Swiss and Belgian Voices Speak602
I. Petavel—Greatest Conditionalist Treatise in French602
1. Unique Introduction to Fellow Conditionalist White603
2. Impelled to Declare Conditionalist Belief Publicly604
3. University Lectures Stress Positive Side of Conditionalism604
4. Constitutes Unifying Harmonious System605
II. Five General Observations on Petavel’s Work606
1. Masterful Knowledge of Conditionalist Literature606
2. Masterful Grasp of Biblical Evidence606
3. Clarification of Moral and Philosophical Issues607
4. Remarkable Grasp of Philosophical and Historical Evidence607
5. Consummation of Conditionalist Investigation608
III. Petavel’s Masterful Presentation of Case for Conditionalism609
1. Purpose: To Defend Doctrine of “Attainable Immortality”609
2. “Conspiracy of Silence” Now Broken610
3. Conditionalists Not “Innovators” but Continuators610
4. Experimental Science Yields No Support for Innatism611
5. In Death the Individual Ceases to Exist611
6. Challenges Contention of “Universal Consent”612
7. Platonism Contained Principle of Pantheism612
8. Individualist Immortality Involves Godship612
9. Platonism Only a “Hope,” Not “Demonstrated Truth”613
10. Fundamental Intent of “Life” and “Death”613
11. Creator Provided Conditional Not Inalienable Immortality614
12. Innatism Penetrates Jewry Through Alexandria614
13. Kabbalah Introduces “‘Emanation” and “Dualism”615
14. Eternity of Life and of Nonexistence615
15. Immortality Only Through Christ616
16. Symbols of Immortality Perverted by Apostasy617
17. Death: Final Extinction of All Faculties617
18. Conditionalism Among Apostolic and Apologist Fathers618
19. Compulsory Immortality in Eternal Hell618
20. Revival of Conditionalism in Nineteenth Century619
21. Universalism’s Fundamental Fallacy Revealed619
22. Advantages and Superiority of Conditionalism620
23. Multiple Excellencies of Bible Conditionalism620
24. Fighting for Great but Still-misunderstood Truth621
IV. Frederick Ash Freer—Stalwart Supporter of White and Petavel621
1. Makes Major Contributions to Conditionalist Cause622
2. A Synthesis of the Freer Contribution623
V. Byse—First Advocate of Conditionalism in French Journals625
31. Famous Premier, Pastor, and Scientist Testify627
I. Gladstone—Immortal-Soulism Entered Church Through “Back Door”627
Writings Include Question of Future Life629
1. Variant Views Held in Early Christian Era630
2. “Inherent” Immortality Not Ascendant Till Origen631
3. “Wholesale” Acceptance by Time of Middle Ages632
4. Immortal-Soulism Springs From Plato632
5. Led Inevitably to “Eternal Torment” of Damned .,633
6. Eternal Torment Dogma Established Through Augustine633
7. Crept Into Church by “Back Door”634
8. Immortal-Soulism “Wholly Unknown” to Scripture635
9. “Philosophical Speculations” Disguised as Divine Revelation635
10. Gladstone’s Definitive Description of “Conditionalism”635
11. Gladstone’s Considered Conclusions in Summation636
II. Joseph Parker—Outspoken “Conditionalist” and “Destructionist”638
1. Optional: Receive Immortality or Choose Destruction639
2. Evil Ends in “Utter, Final, Everlasting Extinction”640
3. Indefeasible Immortality Is Palpably Absurd640
4. Sodom an Example of “Everlasting Destruction”640
III. Stokes—Man Not Innately Immortal; Only Through Redemption641
1. Public Denial of Innate Immortality641
2. Source of Immortality and the Intermediate State642
3. Man Not Immortal Merely by Creation642
4. Unfitted for Immortality, Christ Provides Remedy643
5. Endowment With Immortality Only Through Redemption644
6. Any “Natural Immortality” Forfeited Through Transgression644
7. No Consciousness of Time in Intermediate State644
8. Popular Theology Sets Aside Biblical Declarations645
9. Assurance of Immortality Only in Christ645
32. Paralleling Second Advent and Conditionalist Movements Merge646
I. Two World Movements—Neither Complete in Itself646
1. Advent Movement Omits Man’s Nature and Destiny646
2. Movements Parallel but Do Not Merge647
II. Relationships of the Two Major Adventist Bodies647
1. Conditionalism Established in Advent Christian Church647
2. Advent Christian Church Established in 1861648
3. Main Adventist Groups Both Champion Conditionalism649
III. World in Ferment in Mid-century Decades651
1. Revolutionary World Developments Form Setting651
2. Developments in Realm of Religion and Science651
3. Mystical Studies Led to Subtle Speculation651
4. Diversionary Perils Beset Basic Christian Faith652
5. Eschatology Receives Setback From Evolution Theory652
6. Theology Trilemma Again Ascendant in Nineteenth Century653
7. Conditionalism’s Role in Theological Discussion654
IV. Hastings—Virile American Exponent of Conditionalism654
V. Grant—Conditionalist Debator, Editor, and Evangelist655
1. Remarkable Assemblance of Documented Key Statements656
VI. Taylor—Thumbnail History of Rejecters of Innate Immortality657
1. First the Early Church, Then the Medieval Witness657
2. Reformation and Post-Reformation Champions658
3. The Great Nineteenth-Century Expansion658
VII. Whitmore—Writes in Standard Conditionalist Pattern659
1. Outline Follows Now-Standard Pattern659
VIII. Wellcome—Publisher of Conditionalist Literature660
IX. Piper—Popular Historical Sketch of Conditionalism’s Vicissitudes661
X. Himes—In Later Life Espouses Conditionalism662
XI. Nonevangelical “Jehovah’s Witnesses” Also Adopt Conditionalism663
1. Rise and Organized Activities of the “Russellites”664
2. Astonishing Publishing and Distribution Achievements665
3. Beliefs as to Nature and Destiny of Man666
33. Emergence of Seventh-day Adventists as Conditionalists668
I. Underlying Reasons for Adventist Conditionalist Belief668
1. Repudiation of Papal Perversions Imperative668
2. Historical Setting and Motivation for Their Beliefs669
II. Progressive Development of Fundamental Beliefs669
1. Conferences Result in Unified Movement669
2. Eschatology’s Part in the Development670
3. Fundamental Beliefs Crystallized in “Manual”670
III. James White—Organizational Leader Committed to Conditionalism671
1. Word to the “Little Flock” Clearly Conditionalist673
IV. Bates—With Conditionalist Background Supports Position675
1. Clear Concepts in Earliest Adventist Tracts675
2. Conditionalist Understanding Safeguards Against Spiritualism676
V. Ellen Harmon—Accepts Conditionalist View in 1843676
1. Mother Persuaded Soul Not Immortal677
2. Soundness of Conditionalist View Apparent678
VI. Andrews—Scholarly Writings Include Conditionalism679
1. Eight Guiding Principles in Establishing Doctrinal Platform679
VII. Canright—Able Compiler of Scholarly Findings680
1. Gist of the Argument at a Glance681
2. Two Popular Misconceptions Countered681
3. Majority Never Accepted Platonism Contemporarily682
4. A Summing Up of the Evidence682
5. Earliest Hope Through Reliving of Body683
6. Plato First Distinctly Taught Immortal-Soulism684
7. Received Into Church Through Alexandrian School684
8. Immortal-Soulism Not Held by “Apostolic Fathers”684
9. Line of Ante-Nicene Fathers Held “Sleep” of Dead685
10. Conditionalists From Luther to 1800686
11. Modern Revolt Against the Traditional Positions687
12. Canright Never Repudiated Scholarly Positions of Centuries687
VIII. Smith—Presents Case for Conditionalism for Seventh-day Adventists688
1. Not an Originator but a Perpetuator689
IX. Examines Biblical Evidence for Conditionalism690
1. Increasing Strength of Conditionalist Adherents690
2. Bible Silent on Possession of “Undying Nature”690
3. “Image of God” Does Not Involve Immortal Soul690
4. “Soul” Not Immortal; “Spirit” Not Deathless691
5. “Spirit” Not a Separate Conscious Entity692
6. “Spirit” Is the “Principle of Life”693
7. Extensive Draft on Conditionalist Authorities693
8. Death: Cessation of Life of Whole Man694
9. Paramount Place of the Resurrection695
10. Relation of Judgment and Resurrection695
11. Judgment Precludes Immediate Reward at Death696
12. Special Word Zoe Designates Eternal Life697
13. Origin of Conflicting Schools on Destiny698
14. Punishment Is “Cutting Off” From Life699
15. Fire Consumes; Does Not Infinitely Prolong699
16. Final Doom Is Oblivion of Sinners700
17. Smith a Perpetuator, Not a Pioneer700
34. 1,500,000 Seventh-day Adventists Champion Conditionalism702
I. Adventists—Largest Christian Body Holding to Conditionalism702
1. Involvements of Conditionalism Listed702
2. Fundamental Plank in Adventist Platform703
3. Constituent Part of Uniform Baptismal Certificate704
4. Line of Conditionalists Spans Christian Era704
5. Standing in End Section of Impressive Line705
6. Adventism’s Most Representative Conditionalist Spokesman705
II. Unique Life and Writings of Ellen G. White706
1. Her Early Life and Environs706
2. Adult Life Tied in With Adventist Church707
3. Establishes Remarkable Writing Record708
4. Extraordinary Tribute by George Wharton James708
5. Ten Basic Principles Characterize E. G. White Writings709
III. Amazing Time Span, Sheer Output, and Range of Subjects710
1. Mere Pagination of Principal Works Impressive710
2. Tremendous Circulation of Leading Books711
3. Wide Diversity of Subject Matter711
4. Greatest Works Written After Sixty-five712
IV. Scholars Laud Special Writings of E. G. White712
1. Columbia University Professor Praises Education Principles712
2. Nutritional Counsels Verified by Scientific Advances713
3. Better Health Would Result From Teachings713
4. Uttered in Advance of Scientific Discoveries714
35. Presenting the Adventist Case for Conditionalism715
I. “Conflict of Ages” Series Sets Forth Conditionalist Position715
1. Man’s Free Choice and Moral Accountability715
2. Obedience Indispensable Condition of Existence717
3. “Doomed to Death” on Day of Transgression717
4. Man’s Plight Necessitated Plan of Redemption718
5. Divine Sentence Involves “Utter Extinction” of Sinner719
6. Immortality Regained “Only Through Christ”719
II. Innate Immortality Concept Rests on “Authority of Satan”719
1. Paralleling Eternal Torment Corollary720
2. Eternal Torment for Brief Earthly Life Revolting720
3. Shocking Involvements of Universalist Alternative720
4. Eternal Misery and Universalism Equally Erroneous721
5. Unchanging Conditionalist Tenor of Her Teaching722
III. Immortality Received at Resurrection After Sleep of Death722
1. Wholly Dependent Upon Christ for Immortality722
2. Dead Sleep Unconsciously Until Resurrection723
IV. Basic Fallacy of Immortal-Soul Presumption723
1. Innatism and “Eternal Torment” Both Unscriptural723
2. Testimony of Old Testament Adduced724
3. Witness of Peter and Paul Marshaled724
4. Nullifies Need of Previous Judgment725
5. Fallacy of Innatism Attacked by Luther725
6. Awake From Sleep to Glorious Immortality726
V. Full Justification for Sinner’s Ultimate Extinction726
1. Retributive Justice Accords With God’s Character727
2. Retribution for Good Both of Universe and Transgressors727
3. No Forced Universalism in Divine Plan727
4. Contrasting Principles of Life and Death728
5. Justice Requires Degrees of Punishment728
6. Ultimate Obliteration of Sin and Sinners729
VI. Three Problem Passages Clearly Expounded729
1. Primary Lesson of the Transfiguration729
2. Parable Refutes a Second Probation730
3. Christ’s Assurance to Dying Thief731
VII. Spiritualism the Consummation of the Lie of Eden732
1. Built on Concept of “Consciousness in Death”732
2. Spiritualism Constitutes the Perfect “Counterfeit”733
3. Exalts Wicked to Honored Places in Heaven733
4. Mysterious Phenomena Not All Trickery733
5. Miraculous Events Wrought by Satan’s Agents734
6. Now Employs More Appealing Approaches734
VIII. Inner Philosophy Based on Principle of Desire for Deification734
1. Grave Perils Lurk Behind Pleasing Front735
2. Is Merely Revival of Ancient Witchcraft735
3. Character Unchanged Despite Modern Camouflages736
4. Consummation of the Lie of Eden736
5. Spiritualism Makes “Path to Hell” Attractive736
6. Among First to Expose Spiritualism’s Sinister Character737
IX. Materialization of “Spirits” Is Deceptive Device738
1. Demonic Spirit Impersonated Prophet Samuel738
2. Popular Claims Flout Divine Stipulations738
3. “Communion With Dead” Is Foundation of Heathenism738
4. Evil Angels Simulate “Spirits of Dead”739
5. Fraudulent Because Dead Are Incommunicado739
6. Apostle Forbids “Fellowship” With Devils740
7. Vicious Purpose of Demonic Message740
36. Twentieth Century—Epoch of Far-reaching Expansion747
I. Comprehensive Over-all View of Current Living Witnesses747
1. Revolt Now Worldwide in Extent748
2. Witnesses Presented Chronologically by Decades748
II. Archbishop Temple Presents the Case for Conditionalism749
1. Annihilation—Not Eternal Torment of Sinners749
2. Catholicism’s Fourfold Destination of the Soul751
3. Purgatory Eliminated From Reformation Categories751
4. Heaven and Hell Left as Terrible Alternatives752
5. Modern Revulsion Against Eternal Torment752
6. Future Life Based on Resurrection753
7. The Platonic Concept of Immortality753
8. Immortality Offered to Man Conditionally754
9. Everlasting Punishment Not Unending Torment754
10. Rejecters of God’s Offer Are to Be Destroyed755
11. Immortality Offered Through Resurrection755
12. Man Not Innately but Conditionally Immortal756
13. Temple Presents Consistent View of Anglican Church756
III. Danish Beck and Teisen—Champions of Conditionalism757
1. Beck: Dead Sleep Unconsciously Till Resurrection757
2. Teisen: Wicked to Be “Utterly Consumed”758
IV. Swedish Cleric Ekman—“Unquenchable Fire” Totally Consumes759
1. Fires Go Out After Consuming759
2. Victims Finally Cease to Be760
V. Dean Bennett—Willfully Wicked to Be Completely Destroyed760
1. Innatism No Rightful Part of Christianity760
2. No Created Being Can Be More Than “Immortable”761
3. Fundamental Fallacy of Innate Immortality761
4. “Sleep” for Death762
5. “Everlasting Fire” Not Endless Duration but “Destruction”762
VI. Cambridge’s Dodd—No Innate Immortality in Bible763
VII. St. Paul’s Dean Matthews—Favors Conditional Immortality763
1. Sin Brings Its Own Destruction764
2. Self-determination Involves Risk of Disaster764
3. Wrong Choice Leads to Destruction765
VIII. Translator Moffatt—Challenges Eternal Torment; Commends Conditionalism765
37. Lutheran Bishop, Catholic Cardinal, and Anglican Rector Speak Out767
I. Sweden’s Bishop Personne—Sweeping Denial of “Eternal Torment”757
1. Man’s Destiny—“Weakest Point” in Confessional Writings767
2. “Intermediate State” Is “Kingdom of Death”769
3. Dogma of “Eternal Suffering” Is Wholly “Unbiblical”769
4. Augsburg Confession Dictum Not Founded on Bible769
5. Anguish of Damned Precludes Joy for Saved770
6. Frightful Interpretation Invoked to Sustain Fallacy771
II. Cardinal Billot—Dead “Sleep” Until Appointed Awakening772
1. Man’s Fate Fixed Immovably at Death772
2. Sleeps in Death Until General Awakening773
III. Anglican Waller—Valuable Handbook for Conditionalists774
IV. Remarkable Scope of Ground Covered775
1. All Faculties and Powers Cease at Death775
2. Total Unconsciousness in “Gravedom”776
3. Fires of “Gehenna” Only After Resurrection776
4. As AH Powers Cease, So All Powers Restored777
5. Innate Immortality of “Heathen Origin”777
6. Death and Mortality From Disobedience777
7. No Disembodied “Spirits” Survive Death778
8. “Sleep” Implies Unconsciousness and Later Awakening778
9. No Resurrection of Lower Animals778
10. Man’s Pre-eminence Over the Beasts779
11. No Immortality Until Resurrection779
12. Resurrection Reconstitutes Complete Organism779
13. No Consciousness During Intermediate State779
14. Samplers From Ten Summarizing Points780
38. Swedish, English, Scottish, and American Voices Attest782
I. Bishop Nygren—Scholarly Portrayal of “Innatism” v. Conditionalism782
1. Platonism and Christianity in Battle and Compromise783
2. Orphic “Soul,” Body-Prison, and “Liberation”783
3. “Eros”—Innate Immortality; “Agape”—Resurrection784
4. Innate Immortality Concept Held “Not Christian”785
5. Origen: Body Is Spirit’s “Prison-House”786
6. Irenaeus Rejects “Natural Immortality” Concept787
II. Bristol’s Findlay—Conditionalism Both “Reasonable and Consistent”788
“Conditional Immortality” and “Destructive Fire”788
III. Boston’s Knudson—Growing Rejection of Eternal Torment Theory789
IV. Swedish Bishop Andrae—Resurrection Life, Not Discarnate Existence789
1. Death Means Destruction of Consciousness790
2. Resurrection of Body and Soul as “Entity”790
V. Edinburgh’s Baillie—Admits “Conditionalism May Be Right”791
1. Platonism Traced Back to Animistic Sources791
2. Conditionalist Position May Be “Right”792
3. The Hope of Christian Expectation792
VI. Scotland’s Stewart—Pauline Truth v. Greek and Jewish Errors792
1. Antecedents and Consequents of Salvation793
2. Fallacy of Surviving Disembodied Spirits794
3. “Crass Materialism” of Jewish Concepts794
4. Twin Blessings of the Second Advent794
VII. Bible College Forbes—No “Infinite Torture for Finite Sin”795
1. Did Christ Suffer “Infinite” Punishment?795
2. Testimony of Twelve Conditionalists Cited796
3. Christ’s “Full Penalty” Precludes Eternal Torment797
VIII. Bowman American Tract—Arrays Plato Against Paul797
1. Paul’s “Revelation” v. Plato’s “Speculation”797
2. “Revival” of Dead v. “Survival” of Soul798
3. Paul Accords With Scripture; Plato Contradicts It798
4. Paul Honors Body; Plato Depreciates It798
5. Stock Phrases of “Platonized Theology” Listed799
IX. Oxford’s Quick—Man Wholly Dies Before Totally Living800
1. Immortality Is Gift of Death-conquering Christ800
2. “Heavenly Life” Not Through “Liberation of Soul”801
X. Swedish Bishop Cullberg—Soul Is “as Mortal” as Body802
39. Group Statements and Individual Utterances Concur803
I. Archdeacon Guillebaud—Ultimate Extinction for Wicked803
1. How “The Righteous Judge” Came to Be Written804
2. Outline and Scope of the Manuscript805
3. Innate Immortality Not Declared in Scripture806
4. “Image of God” Does Not Denote Immortality806
5. Hostile Hell “Corner” to All Eternity “Unthinkable”807
6. Eternal Punishment May End “Existence” Forever807
7. Penal Suffering Not to Continue Forever807
8. Ultimate Extinction of Existence for Wicked807
9. Memorial of God’s “Righteous Judgment”808
10. Satan’s Existence Shall “Come to an End”808
11. Not All “Suffer Equally” in “Second Death”808
12. Judgment “Irreversible and Final” in Issues809
13. Bowing of “Every Knee” Not Universal Salvation809
II. Guillebaud’s Summary of Conclusions810
1. No Eternal Consciousness of Existence for Wicked810
2. Penal Punishment Does Not Involve. “Everlasting Torment”811
3. A Destruction With No Return811
4. God Cannot Tolerate Eternal Rebellion812
5. Separate From Sin or Perish With Sin812
6. Twofold Basis for Guillebaud’s Conclusions813
7. Inconsistency of Evolutionists’ Objections to Conditionalism—813
III. Mansfield’s Micklem—Innate Immortality Is Greek, Not Biblical814
IV. Anglican Commission—“Eternal Life” Only for “Believers in Christ”815
1. Formal Report of Commission of Fifty815
2. Content and Scope of the “Eternal Gospel”817
3. Future Life Is of the “Whole Man”817
4. Judgment Involves Separation and Destruction of Evil817
5. Universal Innate Immortality a “Greek” Concept818
6. The Gospel Escape From Everlasting Death818
V. Sweden’s Kahnlund—Creative Resurrection Bestows Immortality819
VI. Schoolmaster Cundy—Resurrection. Not. Survival of Separated Souls820
1. Life Spark Must Come From Outside820
2. Bodiless Survival of Soul a “Pagan Notion”821
3. Eternal Hell Not Foregone Conclusion821
4. Second Death Extinguishes Personality821
VII. Wesley’s Snaith—Innate Immortality Not “Biblical Idea”822
1. No Independent Survival Disclosed in Bible822
2. All Who Cling to Sin to Be Destroyed822
3. No “Immortal Soul” That “Survives Death”825
VIII. Birmingham’s Major—Fire Unextinguishable Consumes Its Victims823
40. Dutch, Scotch, Welsh, English, Swedish, American, Swiss. Testify825
I. Gronigen’s Leeuw—Soul Ceases to Exist Until Resurrection825
1. Even the Soul Dies in Death826
2. Will Receive Immortality at Resurrection826
II. Edinburgh’s Taylor—Second Death Is “Suicide” Death827
1. Rebellious Can Refuse to Respond827
III. Beasley-Murray—Survival of Soul Only Would Be Fragmentary828
1. Resurrection Is Reintegration of Whole Man828
IV. Welsh Dean North—Body Necessary for Resurrected Personality829
1. Survival Not an Inalienable Right829
V. Free Church’s Vine—Man Not Immortal, but “Immortizable”830
1. Man an “Integrated Unit,” Not. a Dualism830
2. God Only Has “Natural Immortality”831
3. “Natural Immortality” of Man a “Greek Concept”831
4. Man “Not a Spirit inhabiting a Body”831
5. Disintegration Ends “Human Biotic Unit”832
VI. Swedish Bishop Aulen—Immortality Divine “Gift,” Not “Human Prerogative”833
1. Greek Dualism vs. Christian Concept of Salvation833
2. “Eternal Life” Not Natural “Prerogative” but Resurrection “Gift”834
3. Body-Soul Distinction Foreign to “Resurrection Faith”834
4. Innate Immortality “Foreign to Faith”834
5. Unequivocally Opposed to Spiritualism’s Fantasies835
VII. Lutheran’s Heinecken—Man Has No Inherent Immortality836
1. Dualistic Concept False; Man a “Unity”836
2. Vital Relationship of Creator and Creature837
3. Misconceptions Lead to Depreciating the Resurrection837
4. Unconscious of Passing Time Till Resurrection837
5. “Separable Soul” Unknown to Bible838
6. The Way to Eternal Life Set Forth838
7. No One Has Life in and of Himself838
VIII. Union’s Niebuhr—Sole Hope of Survival Lies in Resurrection839
1. Classical Pagan Concept Supplants “Biblical” View839
2. Resurrection Teaching Supplanted by Immortal-Soulism840
3. Contrast Between “Resurrection” and “Immortality”840
IX. Harvard’s Dean Sperry—Sinners Vanish Into Eternal “Nothingness”840
1. Destiny of the “Undeviating Sinner”841
41. Rectors, Deans, Bishops, Professors, and Editors84?
I. Rector Simcox—Not a “Guess” About the “Grand Perhaps”842
1. Innate Immortality Only a Theory843
2. Innatism Not Biblical, Merely Greek Philosophy843
3. Man a Unit, Not a Duality844
4. Transfers Hope From Man to God845
II. Princeton’s Ramsey—Immortality Derivative, Not Inherent845
1. Platonic Error v. Christian Truth846
III. Dean Vidler—“Inherent” Immortality Not Biblical Doctrine846
1. Term Not in Bible or Early Creeds847
2. Resurrected Men Not “Disembodied Spirits”847
3. “Whole Man” Dies, “Every Part of Him”848
IV. Caird of McGill—Resurrection Restores “Whole Personality”848
V. Woolwich’s Bishop Robinson—Fundamental Fallacies of Immortal-Soulism849
1. Involves Ultimate Loss of Personality849
2. Whole Man Dies; Whole Man Raised850
3. Resurrection Does Not Take Place at Death850
VI. Augustana’s Wahlstrom—“Resurrection” Only Hope of Future Life851
VII. Hartford’s Spinka---Rejects “Damned to Eternal Torments”851
VIII. Pike and Pittenger—Not “Indestructible” Nature, but Resurrection852
1. “Indestructible” Soul v. Re-created “Body-Soul”853
2. “Plausible Theory” v. Resurrection Fact853
3. Innatism Defective; Resurrection Complete853
IX. Temple’s Taylor—Denies Presumptive “Deathlessness” of the Soul854
X. Rector Davies—Immortal-Soulism Not Biblical but Greek855
1. “Created for Immortality” but Became “Mortal”855
2. Immortal-Soulism Derived From Greek Philosophy856
3. Man a “Unity,” Not “Two Separate Entities”857
4. Not “Truncated Creature”—Resurrection of Whole Person858
5. Sin Involves “Final Destruction” of Soul858
XI. Edinburgh’s Manson—Resurrection Transforms “Mortal Nature”859
XII. Stockholm’s Bolander—Deliverance Not Through Death, but Resurrection860
XIII. Manchester’s Manson—Man Sleeps in Death860
1. “Falling Asleep and Waking Up”861
2. Continuity of Personality Through Resurrection861
XIV. Tubingen’s Heim—No Continuance in “Disembodied State”862
XV. Canadian Commentator Short—Not “Inherently Immortal”862
42. New and Old World Spokesmen Probe Heart of Problem866
I. Queen’s Shaw—Favors Conditionalism; Rejects Eternal Torment866
1. “Embodied Existence,” Not “Disembodied Spirit”867
2. “Eternal Fire” Suggests “Ultimate Destruction”868
3. Not Immortal by “Nature” or “Constitution”869
4. Historical Lineage of Conditional Immortality869
5. “Ultimate Extinction” for Incorrigibles870
II. Drew’s Craig—Immortality Not Inherent but “Put On”870
1. Platonic Immortality Involved “Divination”871
III. Boston’s De Wolf—No Inescapable “Everlasting Torture”872
IV. Archeologist Wright—Eternity Entered by “Resurrection of Body”872
V. Theological Debate in Scandinavia Over “Hell” and “Heaven”873
1. Bishop Schjelderup Challenges Professor Hallesby873
2. Similar Debate Projected by Lindhardt in Denmark874
VI. Lutheran Kantonen—No Inherent Capacity to Overleap Tomb875
1. Historical Vicissitudes of the “Hope”875
2. Three Schools Develop as to Eschatology876
3. Paganism Penetrates Church in Formative Period876
4. Greek View “Entirely Foreign” to “Bible” Position877
5. Existence After Death Only by Resurrection877
6. “Soul” Is “Destructible” as Well as “Body”878
7. Luther’s Emphasis on Scriptural “Sleep”879
8. Unconscious of Passage of Time in Slumber879
9. Fate of Wicked Simply Destruction880
VII. Richmond’s Roberts—Immortality a Gift, Not a Possession880
VIII. Atkinson of Cambridge—Man Not Immortal; Punishing Not Eternal881
1. Man Not “Immortal Soul” Imprisoned in a “Body”882
2. Old Eden and New Paradise on New Earth883
3. God Gave the Ultimate Criterion of Right and Wrong884
4. Sinner Subject to Irremediable Second Death884
5. Not “Eternal ... Torment” but “Everlasting Destruction”885
6. Tempting “Serpent” Was Satan Himself885
7. Scope of the Serpent’s Temptation885
8. Death Not Continuing Discarnate Living886
9. Divine Provision for Redemption887
10. No Eternal Life in Sin and Torment887
43. Various Accusing Fingers Incriminate Platonism889
I. Toronto’s Owen—“Greek Dualism” Perverted Christian Theology889
1. No “Independent” Soul in a “Corruptible Body”890
2. Philosophy of “Dualism” From Greeks891
3. “Dualism” Is Integral Part of Platonism891
4. Biblical “Resurrection” Opposed to “Orphic Eschatology”891
5. “Intermediate State” Leads to Purgatory Concept892
6. “Death Knell” of Dualism Sounded892
7. “Biblical View” Totally Different From Traditional893
II. Zurich’s Brunner—Sinner Brings “Eternal Destruction” Upon Himself894
1. Platonic Innatism. Is Not “biblical”894
2. Sinner Deprives Himself of Eternal Life894
3. Pagan Origin of Soul-Survival Concept895
4. Platonic Innatism Assimilated by Catholicism895
5. Sinister Implications of “Platonic Dualism”896
6. Fantasies of Platonism v. Revelation of God896
7. Death Springs From Human “Rebellion”897
8. Greek Philosophy Irreconcilable With Divine Revelation897
9. Created and Destined for Eternal Life897
III. Aberdeen’s Hunter—Pauline Truth Exposes Platonic Error898
1. Revival of Eschatology Unmasks Greek Influences898
2. Immortality “Gift of God,” Not Innately Ours899
3. Not “Disembodied” Spirits but “Whole Men”899
IV. India’s Bishop Newbigin—Resurrection Not Immortality899
V. Disciples’ Robinson—“Bodiless Existence” of Greek Innatism Invalid900
1. No Warrant for a “Bodiless Existence”901
VI. Erlangen’s Stauffer—Dead “Sleep” Under God’s Protective Eye901
1. Christian’s Resurrection Opposed to Greek Innatism901
VII. Wesleyan’s Spurrier—Rejects Platonic Soul Separation902
VIII. Union’s Brown—Not Greek Innate Immortality but Resurrection903
1. Greek and Biblical Concepts in Total Conflict903
2. Paul’s Emphasis on Resurrection, Not Soul Survival904
3. “Total Personality” Restored by Resurrection904
IX. Switzerland’s Kraemer—Innatism Not Biblical but Greek905
X. Presbyterian Bible Lesson Presents “Immortality Through Christ”906
1. Resurrection Is Guarantee of Life to Come906
2. Immortality Is From God, Not Man906
3. Redemption of the Whole Man907
4. Life Because of God, Not of Man907
XI. Hooke of London Greek Inherent Immortality Not in Bible908
XII. Oral Declaration of Late Keswick Teacher, W. Graham Scroggie908
44. Conservatives, Liberals, Even Catholics Speak Out912
I. Switzerland’s Cullmann—Eminent Champion of Conditionalism913
1. Creative Resurrection Restores Whole Man913
2. Body Not Soul’s “Prison” but “Temple”914
3. Resurrection Not at Death but at “End”915
4. Whole Creation to Be Formed Anew915
5. Resurrection Does Not Occur at Death916
II. Manchester’s Rowley—Greek Immortal-Soulism a Deception917
III. Edinburgh’s Read—Not Something “Released at Death”918
IV. Catholic Tresmontant—Not Part but “Whole Man” Saved918
1. Paul’s Frontal Attack on Greek Philosophy919
2. The Offense of “Creation” to the Hellenic Mind919
3. Mystery Religion “Immortality” v. Judaeo-Christian “Resurrection”920
4. Orphic Concept of Souls v. Biblican Resurrection920
5. Irreversibility of God and Eternal Returning of Paganism920
V. Dominican Tremel—Not “Natural Immortality“: “Resurrection” After “Sleep”921
1. Innate “Immortality” Is Relic of Pagan Philosophy921
VI. Earlham’s Trueblood—Disavows an “Eternal Hell”922
1. Scientifico-Philosophic Evidence Worthless923
VII. Harvard’s Tillich—“Natural” Immortality Not “Christian Doctrine”924
VIII. Harvard’s Hocking—Not “Immortality” but “Immortability”925
1. Not “Immortality” but “Immortability”925
2. Wicked Not “Doomed” to Everlasting Continuance925
3. No “Personal Living” Without “Bodiliness”926
IX. Princeton’s Homrighausen—Questions Independent Persistence of Spirit926
X. Methodist Perry—No “Disembodied Existence” Beyond Death926
XI. Adventists Reiterate Conditionalism in 1957 Statement927
XII. Colgate-Rochester’s Hamilton—Platonic Assurance a “Lie”929
XIII. Drew’s Anderson—Mortality of Man v. Greek Immortal-Soulism929
XIV. Chaplain Irion—“Philosophical” Immortality Contradicts Biblical “Resurrection”930
XV. Marburg’s Bultmann—Man a Unified Organism, Not Dualistic931
XVI. Ceylon’s Niles—Not “Natural Immortality” but “Resurrection”931
45. Sixth Decade Closes With Significant Presentation936
I. Moravian’s Heller—Immortality Not of Man, but From God936
1. Recent Scholarship Challenges Traditional “Dualism”937
2. Man Not “Half Mortal” and “Half Immortal”938
3. Life After Death “Rests” on “Immortality of God”938
4. Life Not “Inalienable” Possession but “Loan” From God939
II. San Francisco’s Gill—“Discarnate” Spirit Idea Not Sanctioned by Bible940
1. Challenges Contention of “Discarnate Souls”940
2. Whole Men Die; Whole Men Are Re-created940
3. “Discarnates” Not in “Biblical Picture”941
III. Canadian “United Church” Committee Report on “Life and Death”941
1. Committee “Suspect” “Eternal Punishment”942
2. Immortality “Put On” at Resurrection943
3. Hope in “Resurrection,” Not in “Natural Immortality”943
4. Separable Soul and Body Not Biblical but Platonic943
5. Only God “Possesses Immortality” by “Nature”944
6. Immortality Not an Inherent Possession944
7. Eternal Lite Brought to “Perfection” at Second Advent945
8. Two Views—“Death-Sleep” v. Resurrection at Death945
9. Afterlife Depends on Resurrection945
10. Purgatory and Spiritualism Not Biblical946
11. Leans Toward Universalism on Destiny of Wicked946
IV. Von Allmen and Associates—Conditionalist Terms Defined947
1. “Second Death” and Thief on Cross947
2. Death a “Sleep”; No Innate Immortality948
3. Eternal Destruction Not Eternal Torment948
4. Eternal Life “Wholly New Life”949
5. Man Mortal; God Immortal949
6. Human Life Is Derived Life950
7. Does Not Possess Independent Existence950
8. Man “Not Created Immortal”951
9. “Gehenna” Connotes the “Second Death”951
V. St. Aldate’s De Berry—Not Eternal Torment, but “Annihilation”952
1. Catholic Position: Eternal Consciousness in Hell952
2. Not “Everlasting Torment” but “Annihilation”953
VI. Handsworth’s Strawson—Eternal Life a Gift, Not Inherent953
1. Gift of Life and Destruction of Lost954
2. Fate at Death “Unchangeable and Final”954
3. Sinner Perishes Because Without Innate Life954
4. Future Life Not Inevitable Possession955
46. Augmented Influences Radiate to Ends of Earth956
I. New College’s Simpson—Man “Immort-able” Not Innately Immortal957
1. “Immortal Soul” Neither Biblical Phrase nor Concept957
2. Universalism Belittles Fatefulness of Life958
II. Amsterdam’s Korff and Van Niftrik—Innatism Alien to Bible959
1. Van Niftrik Concurs in Denial of Platonism960
III. St. Paul’s Holden—Dead All “Sleep” Till Second Advent961
1. Dead Are in “Place of Waiting”961
2. All the Dead in State of Sleep962
3. Sleeper Awaits Sound of Angel’s Trump962
IV. Baptist Andrews—Hellenic Inroads Neutralize Early “Hopee”963
1. Blanketing Hellenic “Fog” Envelopes Early Faith963
2. Greek Emphasis on “Path of Escape”964
3. If Soul in Heaven or Hell No Need of Advent964
4. Calvin’s Immortal-Soulism Neutralizes “Consummation”965
V. Drew’s Michalson—No Immortality Apart From Resurrection966
1. Souls Do Not Exist Independent of Bodies966
2. Not Innate Immortality But Resurrection967
VI. Swedish-American Princell—Sinner’s Punishment Comes to an End968
1. Sinner’s Punishment Lasts Forever968
2. No Eternal Suffering in God’s New Universe968
VII. British Conditionalist Sceats—Veteran Champion of Conditionalism969
VIII. Three Afrikaans Theologians Voice Conditionalist Positions970
1. Seminary Professor Keet—No Innate Immortality in Bible970
2. Pretoria’s Professor Marais—Soul Rests in “Realm of Death”970
3. Cape Town Pastor Heyns—Whole Man Is “Prey of Death”971
47. Mass Communications Media Present Conditionalism972
I. Richards—Worldwide Broadcasts Witness to Conditionalism972
1. Divine Revelation Instead of Human Speculation974
2. Three Views Concerning “Immortality”975
3. If Man Is Immortal, Warning Concerning Death Is Invalid976
4. Immortal Sinners and Moral Apostasy976
5. God, Not Man, Inherently Immortal977
6. Immortality Obtained Solely as Gift to Be Sought977
7. Gospel Is Good News of Immortality Through Christ978
8. Immortality Bestowed by Christ at Second Advent978
9. Sole Hope Through the Resurrection978
10. Divine Revelation Answers Universal Question979
II. Fagal—210-Station Telecasts Include Conditionalism979
1. Waiting in Hope for the Resurrection980
2. Man Totally Unconscious During Death-Sleep981
3. Christian Hope Is in Pledge of Resurrection982
4. Spirit Not Entity Capable of Separate Existence982
5. Spirit Is Spark or Principle of Life983
6. Fires of Hell Not Burning at Present983
7. Punished With Destruction at End of World984
8. After Punishment Wicked Cease to Exist984
9. Mercifully Destroys Spurners of Proffered Life985
III. Vandeman—Covering Whole Regions, Stresses Conditionalism986
1. Unmasking the Psychic Masqueraders986
2. Gospel Provision of Immortality987
3. Hoax Perpetrated by Fallen Angels987
4. The Other Side of Death988
5. What Happens to Man at Death?989
6. Resurrection Promise Rocked Pagan World989
IV. Remarkable Total Testimony of Entire Denomination990
1. Huge Literature Distribution Supports Conditionalism990
2. Avowal of Conditionalism Prerequisite to Baptism991
3. Educational System Committed to Conditionalism991
48. Important Contributions Conclude Current Survey992
I. Unique and Valuable Collation by Moses Crouse993
1. Growing Group Denies Bible Basis for Innatism994
2. Bible Does Not Teach Inherent Immortality994
3. Wide Denominational and Geographical Spread995
4. Galaxy of Illustrious Names Cited9%
5. Remarkable Range of Scholarship Represented997
6. Greek Origin of Innatism Widely Perceived997
7. Ground Swell of Revolt Under Way997
8. Resurgence of Bible Study Brings Corrective Swing998
II. National Council’s Swaim—Immortality a “Gift,” Not “Inherent” Endowment999
1. “Notion” of Immortal Soul Not Biblical, but Greek999
2. Man Only “Immort-able”; God Alone Immortal1000
3. Not Native Endowment but Gift of God1000
III. McCormick’s Knight—Innatism Based on Apocrypha Not Bible1001
1. Resurrection Proffered Hope of “Life After Death”1001
2. Reformers “Shaken” Away From Medieval Innatism1002
3. Soul Not Self-existing “Separable” Entity1003
IV. Western’s Cocks—Man Lives Again Only by Resurrection1004
V. Catholic Professor-Editor Davis—Innatism “Alien to Christianity”1004
VI. Princeton’s Hendry—Reinterprets “Westminster’s” Statements1005
1. Anglican Origin of Presbyterian Confession1006
2. Present-Day Reservations Re the Confession1007
3. Propriety of Taking “Exception” Explained1008
4. Present-Day “Journey” May Require Revision of “Map”1008
5. Dogmatism in “Shadowy Region Beyond Death”1009
6. Not New Confession, hut Adjustments of Old1010
7. Immortality of Soul Derived From Plato1010
8. Reasons for Questioning Innate Immortal-Soulism1011
9. “Immediate” Reward at Death Would Nullify Judgment1011
VII. Anglican Rector Bateson—Arraigns Traditionalist Fallacies1013
1. Five Basic Planks in “Traditional Scheme”1013
2. Divergent “Interpretation” Added to Bible Truth1014
3. Supporting Citation From Archdeacon Guillebaud1015
VIII. Scientist Schweitzer—Innate Immortality a Greek Derivation1016
IX. Conditionalist Kearney—Assembles Brilliant Quota of French Writers1017
1. De Pury—Deliverance at Advent, Not Death1018
2. Mehl—Christianity Teaches Mortality of Soul1019
3. De Coppet—Punishment Eternal in Results?1020
4. Crespy—Not Soul Imprisoned in Body1020
5. La Morte—Immortality Is Reward of Faith1021
6. Berdiaeff—Immortality Only in Christ1021
X. Barth Over Radio Affirms Man Mortal, Not Immortal1022
1. Position on Immortality Set Forth in Radio Discussion1023
2. Bible Affirms Immortality Only of God1023
3. Innate Immortality Not Possessed by Man1023
4. “Life Beyond” Wholly Dependent Upon God1024
5. Biblical View Perverted by Platonic Philosophy1024
6. Man a Unit, Not a Separable Soul1024
7. Our Only Hope of Life to Come1025
8. Eternal Life Only Through Christ1026
9. The Message of the Word of God1026
XI. Professor Vaucher—Handbook of Continental Conditionalism1027
XII. Japan’s Hatano—Resurrection Is From “Nothingness”1028
1. Death Is Complete “Destruction of Life”1029
XIII. Baptist Pastor Hatch Becomes Ardent Conditionalist1029
1. Two Incidents Start Train of Thought1030
2. Charges Lead to Revolution of Life1030
3. Hatch’s Views Epitomized in Subheads1031
4. Not in Spirit-World After Death1031
5. Death Is Complete Absence of Life1032
6. “Perish” Is Utter Loss of All Life1032
7. Eternal Torment Involves Incongruities1033
8. Eternal Torment Opens Door to Chain of Errors1033
9. Immortality at Advent the Glorious Prospect1033
49. Recapitulating the Evidence for Individual Conclusions1039
I. Unfolding Panorama of the Centuries Epitomized1039
1. Platonic Inroads Produce Three-Way Split1039
2. Dominant Immortal-Soulism Suppresses Opposing Voices1040
3. Reformation First Restored Fundamentals of Salvation1041
4. Different Doctrines but Slowly Restored1041
5. Intense Conflict Over Sleep of Soul in Death1042
6. Small Groups Retained Conditionalism From Early Times1042
II. Eighteenth Century Marks Turn in Tide1043
1. Slowly Gathering Momentum of Eighteenth Century1043
2. Conspicuous Conditionalist Advances in Nineteenth Century1043
3. Powerful Conditionalist Literature Makes Appearance1044
4. Conflict Intensifies in Twentieth Century1044
III. The Strength of the Case for Conditionalism1045
1. Value of Testimony of the Witnesses1045
2. Determining Light of the Centuries1046
3. Individual Verdict Cannot Be Avoided1047
IV. Perspective Provided for Individual Conclusions1048
50. Spiritualism Invades Our Times1051
I. The Consummation of the Original Lie of Eden1052
1. Bolstering Satan’s Original Contention1052
2. Candor and Faithfulness Called For1053
II. Fox Cottage in Hydesville—Cradle of Modern Spiritualism1053
1. Raps Develop Into “Code of Communication”1053
2. European Activities Antedate American Manifestations1055
3. From Hostile Reception to Phenomenal Spread1056
4. Sixty Million Adherents Claimed by 18941057
5. Conan Doyle Envisions Phenomenal Developments1058
III. Three Stages in Historical Development of Spiritualism1058
1. Shifts From Churchly to Scientific Stage1058
2. Old World Scientists Espouse Spiritualism1059
IV. Organized as World-embracing Religion in 18931060
1. Operates Through Sundry Organizations1060
2. Declaration of Principles a Gradual Development1061
3. To Give Pre-eminence to Women1062
V. “Definitions” of Spiritualism as “Science, Philosophy and Religion”1062
VI. Essence of Spiritualism—Survival and Communication1063
1. Maintain “So-called Dead” Are “Living”1063
2. Official “Year Book” Confirms Individual Declarations1064
3. Universal Salvation Fundamental Spiritualist Plank1064
4. Progressive Passage Through the “Spheres”1064
5. Spiritualism Consigns Open Rebels to Heavenly Bliss1065
VII. World Triumph of Spiritualism Claimed Under Way1065
1. Spiritualism’s World-conquering Mission1066
2. Doyle—Spirit’s Guidance to Inaugurate Universal Creed1066
3. Coming Unifier of All Religions1067
4. One “Scientific Religion” for “Modern Man”1067
VIII. Fundamental Place Accorded Andrew Jackson Davis1067
1. Antedates Fox Sisters’ Episode of 18481068
2. Memorialized Jointly With Katie Fox1069
3. Books Written Under “Spirit Control”1069
4. Rejects Great Verities of Christian Faith1070
51. Professes to Be Coming World Religion1072
I. “World Federation of Christendom” on Spiritualistic Platform1072
1. Spirit Messages Call for “Radical Reconstruction”1072
2. Audacious Claims for Spiritism as Humanity’s Savior1073
3. Scientific “Spirit Contact” Through Electronic Communications1073
II. Claims 1848 Ushered in New Era for Human Race1074
1. Claims Christianity Based on Spiritistic Phenomena1074
2. March 31 (1848) Is Birth Day of Modern Spiritualism1075
3. Spiritualism the “Coming Universal Religion”1075
4. New Dispensation Born in 18481076
5. Battery of Periodicals Spans First Century1076
III. Typical Service in a Spiritualist “Church”1077
1. Roberts Outlines Features of Typical Service1077
2. Early Spiritualist Hymnals Stress “Spirit” Concepts1077
3. Official Hymnal Maintains Spiritualist Concepts1078
IV. Occult Episodes in Booth Tarkington Household1078
1. Heavy Mahogany Table Moves Mysteriously1079
2. Code of Communication With “Spirits”1079
3. Grandfather Tarkington Affirms It Is “From the Devil”1080
4. Remains the Great Unsettled Question1080
V. Current “Spiritualist Camp” Inducements1081
1. Cathedral of the Woods1083
2. Chesterfield Spiritualist Art Gallery1084
3. Bangs Sisters’ “Precipitation” Paintings Collection1985
VI. Strange Life and Tragic End of Fox Sisters1087
1. Margaretta’s Oscillating Career as Spiritualist1067
2. Warning Admonition From Dr. Kane to Margaretta1087
3. Margaretta Purposes to Expose Spiritualism in 18881088
4. Joined by Katie in Dramatic Exposure1088
5. Recants Former Denunciation in 18891089
6. Both Sisters Die as Alcoholics1090
7. Not Troubled Over “Respectability of Origins”1090
52. Spiritualism in Basic Conflict With Christianity1092
I. Repudiates All Fundamentals of the Christian Faith1092
1. Based on Internal, Not “External,” Revelation1092
2. Doyle Denies Sin, Fall, Atonement, Redemption1092
3. Claims That Salvation Comes From Within, Not Without1093
4. Thompson Repudiates Atonement, Grace, Forgiveness1093
5. Manual—Fundamentals of Christian Faith Optional1094
II. Perverts Basic Facts and Fundamentals of Christianity1094
1. Claims “Upper Room” Was “Seance” Chamber1096
2. Such Seances Now Only Outside Christian Church1096
3. “General Resurrection” Repudiated by Spiritualism1097
4. “New Heaven and Earth” Simply “Spirit World”1097
5. Biblical Support Sought From Paul’s “Spiritual Gifts”1097
6. Pauline “Spiritual Gifts” Claimed by Spiritualists1098
III. Total Departure From “Christian Faith” Platform1098
1. Spiritualism Not Based on Bible1098
2. Jesus Held Not Uniquely Divine1098
3. No Atoning Value in Death of Jesus1099
4. Jesus Brazenly Declared “Great Medium”1099
5. Asserts Christianity “Born in a Seance”1100
6. Substitutes Spiritualism for Holy Spirit as “Comforter”1100
IV. Disdains Bible Support, Yet Craftily Claims It1100
1. Invokes Both Antiquity and Modern Scientific Support1101
2. Claims Bible Permeated With Spiritualism Phenomena1101
3. President Whitwell Lays Ground for Claim1102
4. Makes Astonishing Claims for Mediumship1102
5. MacDonald Proclaims Independence of Dogmatic Creeds1103
6. Berry—Spiritualism “Entirely Independent” of Bible1103
7. Rejects Pauline Theology and Creeds1103
8. Maneuvered Into Ally for “True Christianity”1104
9. Maintains Jesus Communicated With Spirit World1104
10. Asserts Christ Became Medium at Twelve1105
11. Jesus’ “Communication” Cited as Warrant for Spiritualism1105
12. Grave Involvements of Inescapable Alternatives1106
V. Spiritualist Manual Presents Official Positions of Spiritualism1106
1. Mission of Spiritualism to “Revolutionize World”1107
2. Burial Service: Prayers to Spirits of Dead1107
3. Quotes Pagan Precursors as Supporters of Spiritism1107
4. Asserts Bible Honeycombed With Spiritistic Phenomena1108
5. Fox Sisters’ “Raps’ Like Telegraph Taps1108
6. “Evil” Spirits Explained as Merely Ignorant and Undeveloped1109
7. Emphatic Denial of “Vicarious Atonement”1109
8. Medieval and Modern Precursors of Spiritualism1109
9. Claims Regarding Christian Science and New Thought1109
53. Peebles’ Amazing Assumptions for Spiritualism1111
I. Rehearses Distinctive Principles of Spiritualism1112
1. Blends Innate Immortality With Godship of Man1112
2. “Death” Held as Merely Entrance Upon Higher Existence1113
3. Soul, Spirit, and Angels Differentiated1113
4. “Man” Considered Part of Evolutionary Pantheistic God1114
5. “Annihilation” of Wicked Held Impossible1114
II. Continuing Consciousness and Communication1115
1. Communication Between “Spirits” and Men Held Basic1115
2. Continuing Consciousness Supreme Message of Spiritualism1115
3. New Heavens and Earth to Come Through Spiritualism1115
III. Modern Spiritualism Central in New World Cycle1116
1. Predicts Spiritualism World Religion by Close of Century1116
2. Old “Cycle” Ending; New “Dispensation” Beginning1116
IV. Spiritualism Has Eastern Occult Connotations1117
1. Spiritualism Lifts “Eastern Curtains”1117
2. Masters of Past Said to Be Still Preaching to “Spirits in Prison”1118
V. Spiritualism Equated With Christianity Till Constantine1118
1. Asserts Early Christianity Was Spiritualist1118
2. Modern Spiritualism Alleged Revival of “Apostolic” Christianity1119
3. Christ’s Predicted “Signs” Applied to Spiritualist Phenomena1119
VI. Consummating Contention Based on “Revelation 14:61120
1. Asserts Angel of Revelation 14:6 Is “Spiritualism”1120
2. Concealed “Majesty of Immortality”1122
54. Parapsychology—Spiritualisms “New Frontier”1124
I. Spiritualism’s Scientific Front Making Significant Advances1124
1. Dr. S. G. Soal—British Pioneer in Psychic Research1125
II. Parapsychology Projects “New Frontiers” in Spirit World1126
1. Societies for Studying Psychic Sixth Sense1126
2. Laboratories Converting Scientists Into Spiritualists1127
3. Man’s Mind Said to Be Part of Universal God-Mind1128
4. Involves Question of Innate Immortality1128
5. Parapsychology to Help Reunite Christendom1128
6. New Ally in Spiritual World1129
7. Used to Diagnose and Heal Disease1129
III. Parapsychology Concerned With “Life After Death”1130
1. Indications of Man’s “Living Spirit”1130
2. Testing “Discarnate Spirit Personalities”1131
3. Mediumship Reaches Peak, Then Declines1131
4. Testing Validity of “Spirit” Claims1131
5. Quest for Proof Not Yet Conclusive1132
6. “Burden of Proof” Rests With “Spirits”1133
7. Some Fresh “Break-through” Still Needed1133
55. Involvements of “Spirit Healing,” Mesmerism, and Hypnotism1134
I. Spiritualism and the Question of Metaphysical Healing1134
1. “Healing Medium” Relays Energy From Spirit Doctors1134
2. Spiritualism the Mother of Metaphysical Healing1134
3. Spiritual Healing” by “Excarnate Spiritual Beings”1135
4. “Spiritualist Healer” Cures Through “Inherent Powers”1136
II. Historical Relationships of Mesmerism, Hypnotism, and Spiritualism1136
1. Theory of “Animal Magnetism” Goes Back to Eighteenth Century1136
2. “Magnetic Sleep” Developed by Mesmer in 17751137
3. Early Nineteenth-Century Revival of Magnetism1138
4. Mesmerism Revived by Braid, and Called “Hypnotism”1138
5. Hypnotism Falls Into Disrepute Around 18481138
6. Hypnosis Having Current Spectacular Renaissance”1139
III. Dr. Davis Writes Under Magnetic-Mesmeric Control1139
1. Alleged Crest of “Cosmic Tide” in 1830-18481139
2. Unique Place Accorded Dr. Davis1140
3. Book Dictated Under “Magnetic-Mesmeric” Control1140
4. Davis’ “Medical Revelations” Alleged New Discovery1141
5. Davis Had Previously Submitted to Mesmeric Control1142
6. “Mesmerism” at Lily Dale (N.Y.) in 1846-18471142
IV. “Spirit Healings” Flaunt Explicit Biblical Provisos1143
1. Modern Counterpart of Occult Healings of Past Centuries1143
2. Wrought by Power of Unnumbered Spirits1144
3. Not Wrought in Name or Power of Jesus1145
4. Modern Counterpart of Pagan Priestcraft Healings1145
5. True Healing Never Channeled Through Bible-forbidden Mediums1146
6. Angels in Existence Before First Human Death1146
V. Invading Citadel of God-given Sacred Individuality1147
1. Road to Mind Opened to Invading Spirits1147
2. The Perils of Surrendering the Will1147
3. Beware of Manipulation by Scheming Men and Devils1148
4. Hypnosis Not Favored by Majority of Dentists1149
VI. Hypnosis May Lead to Disastrous Results1149
1. Insidious Breaching of the Will1150
2. Inherent Perils of Hypnosis1150
VII. Satan Seeking to Control the Minds of Men1151
56. Warnings of the Word Against the Machinations of Spiritism1152
I. Bible Testimony Regarding Satan, Demons, and Occultism1152
1. Score of Designations Identifying Satan1152
2. Reality, Personality, and Influence of Demons1154
3. Evil Activities of the Demons1155
4. Occult Activities Forbidden Under Punishment1155
5. Practitioners Become Slaves of Satan1156
II. Multiple Terms for Variants of Spiritualism1156
1. “Necromancy”—An Abomination Visited With Death1156
2. “Witch”—Sorcerer Having “Familiar Spirit”1157
3. “Wizard”—Alleged Consulter With “Spirits” of Dead1158
4. Having “Familiar Spirits” Involved Death Penalty1158
5. “Magic”—Secret Art of the Occult Sciences1159
6. “Sorcerer”—Ultimate Destruction in Lake of Fire1159
III. Impersonating Demon Deceived King Saul at Endor1160
1. Inquired of Woman Haping “Familiar Spirit”1160
2. Impersonating Spirit Answers Illicit Inquiry1160
3. A Whole Series of Inconsistencies1162
4. Clearly a Deception Put On by the Devil1163
IV. Fathers Held Samuel Was Impersonated by Demon1163
1. Tertullian: Samuel Simulated by “Demon”1163
2. Minucius: Spirits Are Deceiving Demons1164
V. Warnings Parallel the Claims and Actualities of Spiritualism1164
1. Ramsey—Spiritualism Is Satanic Delusion1164
2. A Series of Incriminating Charges1165
3. Smith—Devastating Exposure of Fallacies and Dangers1166
4. Biederwolf—Spirits of the “Cloven Hoof”1166
5. “Diabolical Possession” More Plausible Explanation1167
VI. Investigators Doubt Claimed Identity of “Spirits”1167
1. Garland Questions Reported Identity of Spirits1167
2. Evidences of Senses May Mislead1167
3. Personal Survival Not Demonstrated1168
VII. Various Catholics Hold Phenomena of Satanic Origin1168
1. Gearon Finds “Diabolic Origin” Theory Persuasive1168
2. Vaughan—Visitants May Be “Satanic Spirits”1168
3. Hole—Messages From Personating Evil Spirit1169
VIII. Isaiah’s Futile Appeal to Disobedient Israel1169
1. Turned From Author of Life to Author of Death1170
2. From Subtlety of Demons to Wisdom of God1170
3. Warned Against Replenishing “From the East”1171
IX. “Covenant With Death” and “Agreement With Hell”1171
1. Made “Lies” Their “Refuge”1171
2. Divine Retribution Is Certain1172
3. Bold and Unholy Alliances Made for Centuries1172
4. Not “New Revelation”; Simply “Ancient Falsehood”1173
5. Satan’s Device Constitutes Perfect Counterfeit1174
6. Spiritualism Identical With Ancient Witchcraft1174
57. Fundamental Fallacies of Spiritualism’s Fellow Travelers1176
I. Christian Science Built on Dual Errors Enunciated in Eden1176
1. Traces of Ancient Heresies Appear1177
2. Every Cardinal Doctrine of Christianity Denied1178
3. Bible Authoritative Only with “Spiritual” Interpretation1178
4. Translation Errors “Corrected” by Christian Science1178
5. Value and Validity of “Literal” Rendering Challenged1179
6. Sin Disposed of by Denial of Reality1179
7. Bible Remade Through New “Definitions”1180
8. God Declared Not “Person,” but “Principle”1181
9. Duality Concept of “Father-Mother” God1181
10. Further “Duality”—Jesus Was Not Christ1183
11. Mary’s Conception of Jesus Only “Spiritual”1183
II. Innate Godship of Man and Immortality of Soul1184
1. Main Attack on “Literalism” of Genesis 1 to 31184
2. The Supreme Denial—Jesus Did Not “Die”1186
3. Vicarious “Atonement” Rejected as “Unnatural”1187
4. Jesus’ Resurrection Only “Reproduction” or “Reappearance”1187
5. “Second Appearing” Is Continuance in Christian Science1187
6. “Emanations” of Immortal Wisdom”1188
7. Man Not Made of “Dust” nor Subject to “Death”1188
8. No Personal Devil or Actual Angels1189
9. No Final Judgment or Resurrection1189
10. Man Said to Be “Coexistent,” “Coeternal,” “Indestructible”1190
11. Man’s Eternal Pre-existence Stressed1190
12. Common Denominator of Most Deviation Groups1191
III. Mormonism—“Spirits” Eternally Pre-existent Prior to Earthly Embodiment1192
1. Authoritative Writings Teach Eternal Pre-existence1192
2. Claim That All Spirits Pre-existed Before Living on Earth1193
3. All Spirits Existed Before Creation of World1194
4. Veil of Forgetfulness to Be Lifted1195
5. At Death All Allegedly Return to “World of Spirits”1195
6. Claim That All Lived as Spirits in God’s Presence1195
7. Declared Spirit Sons and Daughters of God1196
8. Unchanged Emphasis in Latest Publication1196
58. Occult Forces of East Join Those of West1198
I. “East’s” Crucial Part in Earth’s Final Deception1198
1. Coming Impersonation of Second Advent1198
2. Twin Lies of Eden Constantly Repeated1199
3. Pertinence of This Survey1200
4. Pantheism Is Boldly Taught1201
5. Reincarnation Likewise Openly Taught1202
6. India the Spawning Ground of Reincarnationism1202
7. Immortality Sensed in “Seventh Heaven”1203
8. Jesus Derogated to “Avatar” Status1203
9. Biblical Portrayal of Inimitable Advent1204
II. Eastern Occultism’s Penetrations and Footholds in the West1205
1. Spiritistic Origin of Plausible Fantasies1205
2. Tied in With the Occult and the East1206
3. Personations Through Reincarnated “Agasha” Priest1207
4. New Discoveries to Augment Christ’s Teachings1208
5. New Thought Stresses “Divinity of Man”1209
III. Amazing Conglomerate of Theosophy-related Groups1210
IV. Primitive Animism—Universe Vast Battleground of Spirits1212
1. Demons Under Master Spirit—Satan1213
2. Variant Forms Widespread Over the Centuries1213
3. Medieval Satanism—Compacts With the Devil1214
4. Demon Possession in New Testament Times1214
V. Current Pagan Counterpart of Western Occult1214
1. Animism Based on Immortal“Inner Selves”1215
2. Communication Between Visible and Invisible1215
3. Role of Trance-Mediums and Soothsayers1216
59. Medley of Eastern Deviations Penetrates West1217
I. Grave Involvements of Variant Eastern Subtleties1217
1. Nectar of Immortality and Unoin With God1218
2. Tie-in With Ancient Masters” and Theosophy1218
3. Theosophy—Immortality by Evolution Through Incarnation1219
4. The “I AM” Derivative Movement1221
5. Avowed Purpose Is to Prove Spiritualism1221
6. Astara—Blending of All Religions1222
7. Unity—Reincarnation Results in Immortality1223
8. Significance of “Great Light” From the “East”1225
II. Baha’ism Bears Telltale Spiritualist Marks1225
1. Wilmette Temple Symbolizes Oneness of Religions1226
2. Communion of Living With the Dead1227
3. Constant Intercommunication With Other World1228
60. Utilizing New Techniques—Operating Within the Churches1230
I. Spiritualist Inroads Through “Spiritual Frontiers Fellowship”1230
1. Reincarnation Naively Taught at Frontiers Conference1232
2. In Touch With Loved Ones in Spiritual Realm1232
3. Frontiers Editor on “Methods of Psychic Research”1233
4. Medium Ford’s Adroitly Frank “Talk”1233
5. “Book Review” and “Notes” on the Psychic1234
6. “Book Service” Specializes in the Psychic1234
7. Continuing Emphasis on Psychic and Spiritistic1235
8. Spiritualist Books Interspersed in List1236
9. “Third Birth” and “Next Dimension”1237
II. Fellowship’s “Psychic Knock at Church’s Door”1237
1. From Psychic Societies to Church Penetrations1238
2. Contacts Between Two Worlds Established1239
3. Persuaded Personally Through Ford “Sittings”1240
III. African Newspaper Symposium Champions Spiritualism1241
1. Preponderant View for Spirit Survival and Spiritualism1241
61. Spiritualism’s Role in Earth’s Closing Conflict1243
I. Latter-Day Eruption of Renegade “Spirit” Activities1243
1. Depraved Spirits Ever Seduce to Destruction1245
2. Promises Life by Denying Death1246
II. Spirits of Devils Ascendant in Earth’s Final Deception1246
1. Hitler, Mussolini, and Kaiser Entangled in Toils1247
2. God of This World Blinds Minds of Men1247
3. Two Supernatural Forces Bidding for Control1248
4. Final Conflict Involves Every Individual1248
III. World to Be Swept Into Final Conflict by Demonic Forces1249
1. Leagued Into Confederacy by “Spirits of Devils”1249
2. Final Holocaust Just Before Second Advent1250
3. Deluded Because Without Protection of Word1250
4. Two Opposing Forces Face to Face1251
5. Underlying Cause of the Great Deception1251
6. Impelled by Forces Beyond Human Control1252
IV. Vindication of God’s Truth; Overthrow of Satan’s Lie1252
1. Spiritistic Seances Date Back to Gates of Eden1252
2. Inevitable Outcome of Conflict of the Ages1253
3. Destruction for Believers of Satan’s Original Lie1254
62. Summing Up the Evidence of the Centuries1257
I. Build-up and Penetration of Immortal-Soul Concept1258
1. Triple Origin of Immortal Soul Innovation1258
2. Becomes Potent Philosophy Under Plato1259
3. Jewry Split Into Two Schools on Immortality1259
4. Motley Situation When Christ Appeared1260
5. Apostolic and Ante-Nicene Conditionalists1261
6. Eternal Tormentism Established by Tertullian1261
7. Universal Restorationism Projected by Origen1262
II. Reformation Sparks Resurgence of Conditionalism1263
1. Bleak and Largely Silent Centuries1263
2. Waldensian Adherents and Rabbinical Revolters1263
3. Ethiopian and Malabar Rejecters of Immortal-Soulism1264
4. Pomponatius Forces Declaration of Catholic Dogma1264
5. Conditionalism Sparks Split in Protestant Ranks1264
6. Notable Recruits to Conditionalist Cause1265
7. New World Voices Add Their Testimony1265
8. Fresh Revolts Add New Impetus1266
9. Notable Champions Arise in Britain and Continent1266
10. America Keeps Pace With Old World1267
III. Brilliant Array of Witnesses Marks Twentieth Century1268
1. Ground Swell of Revolt Against Traditional Positions1268
IV. Injection of the Culminating Factor1269
1. Supreme Factor in Last Great Struggle1269
2. Circumventing the Sentence of God1270
V. Time to Unmask Satan’s Masterpiece1271
1. Adapted to All Ages and Conditions1272
2. From Universal Penetration to Crowning Deception1272
3. Spiritualism a Cruel Travesty1273
4. Adapts Itself to Scientific Age1273
5. Sweeping World Into Threefold Alliance1274
6. Built Upon Reiteration of Unchanging Lie1274
7. Occult Augmentations From the East1275
8. High Time to Sound the Alarm1275

[CD-ROM Editor’s Note: In the original, the “Index of Personal Names” is located on pages 1336-1344]