Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



WHITE, a. [G.]

1. Being in the color of pure snow; snowy; not dark; as white paper; a white skin.

2. Pale; destitute of color in the cheeks, or of the tinge of blood color; as white with fear.

3. Having the color of purity; pure; clean; free from spot; as white robed innocence.

4. Gray; as white hair; a venerable man, white with age.

5. Pure; unblemished.

No whiter page than Addisons remains.

6. In a scriptural sense, purified from sin; sanctified. Psalm 51:7.

WHITE-BAIT, n. [white and bait.] A very small delicate fish, of the genus Clupea.

WHITE-BEAM, n. The white-leaf tree, a species of Crataegus.

WHITE-BEAR, n. [white and bear.] The bear that inhabits the polar regions.

WHITE-BRANT, n. [white and brant.] A species of the duck kind, the Anas hyperborea.

WHITE-BUG, n. [white and bug.] An insect of the bug kind, which injures vines and some other species of fruit.

WHITE-CAMPION, n. [white and campion.] A pernicious perennial weed, growing in corn land, pastures and hedges.

WHITE-CATERPILLAR, n. An insect of a small size, called sometimes the borer, that injures the gooseberry bush.

WHITE-CENTAURY, n. AN annual weed in woods and other places. It is said to form the basis of the famous Portland powder for the gout.

WHITE-CLOVER, n. A small species of perennial clover, bearing white flowers. It furnishes excellent food for cattle and horses, as well as for the honey bee.

WHITE-CROP, n. White crops, in agriculture, are such as lose their green color or become white in ripening, as wheat, rye, barley and oats.

WHITE-DARNEL, n. A prolific and troublesome weed, growing among corm.

WHITE-EAR, WHITE-TAIL, n. A bird, the fallow finch.

WHITE-FACE, WHITE-BLAZE, n. A white mark in the forehead of a horse, descending almost to the nose.

WHITE-FILM, n. A white film growing over the eyes of sheep and causing blindness.

WHITE-FOOT, n. A white mark on the foot of a horse, between the fetlock and the coffin.

WHITE-HONEYSUCKLE, n. A name sometimes given to the white clover.

WHITE-HORSE-FISH, n. In ichthyology, the Raia aspera nostras of Willoughby, and the Raia fullonica of Linne. It has a rough spiny back, and on the tail are three rows of strong spines. It grows to the size of the skate.

WHITE-LAND, n. A name which the English give to a tough clayey soil, of a whitish hue when dry, but blackish after rain.

WHITE-LEAD, n. A carbonate of lead, much used in painting. It is prepared by exposing sheets of lead to the fumes of an acid, usually vinegar, and suspending them in the air until the surface becomes incrusted with a white coat, which is the substance in question.

WHITE-LIMED, a. Whitewashed, or plastered with lime.

WHITE-LINE, n. Among printers, a void space, broader than usual, left between lines.

WHITE-LIVERED, a. [white and liver.]

1. Having a pale look; feeble; cowardly.

2. Envious; malicious.

WHITE-MANGANESE, n. An ore of manganese; carbonated oxydized manganese.

WHITE-MEAT, n. [white and meat.] Meats made of milk, butter, cheese, eggs and the like.

WHITE-POPLAR, n. A tree of the poplar kind, sometimes called the abele tree.

WHITE-POPPY, n. A species of poppy, sometimes cultivated for the opium which is obtained from its juice by evaporation.

WHITE-POT, n. [white and pot.] A kind of food made of milk, cream, eggs, sugar, etc. baked in a pot.

WHITE-PRECIPITATE, n. Carbonate of mercury.

WHITE-PYRITE, WHITE-PYRITES, n. [white and pyrite.] An ore of a tin-white color, passing into a brass-yellow and steel-gray, occurring in octahedral crystals, sometimes stalactitical and botryoidal. It contains 46 parts of iron, and 54 of sulphur.

WHITE-RENT, n. [white and rent.] In Devon and Cornwall, a rent or duty of eight pence, payable yearly by every tinner to the duke of Cornwall, as lord of the soil.

WHITE-SALT, n. Salt dried and calcined; decrepitated salt.

WHITESTER, n. A bleacher. [Local.]

WHITESTONE, n. IN geology, the weiss stein of Werner, and the eurite of some geologists; a species of rocks, composed essentially of feldspar, but containing mica and other minerals.

WHITE-SWELLING, n. [white and swelling.] A swelling or chronic enlargement of the joints, circumscribed, without any alteration in the color of the skin, sometimes hard, sometimes yielding to pressure, sometimes indolent, but usually painful.

WHITE-TAIL, n. A bird, the wheat-ear, a species of Motacilla.

WHITE-THORN, n. A species of thorn, called also haw-thorn, of the genus Crataegus.

WHITE-THROAT, n. A small bird that frequents gardens and hedges, the Motacila sylvia.

WHITE-VITRIOL, n. In mineralogy, sulphate of zink, a natural salt.

WHITEWASH, n. [white and wash.]

1. A wash or liquid composition for whitening something; a wash for making the skin fair.

2. A composition of lime and water, used for whitening the plaster of walls, etc.


1. To cover with a white liquid composition, as with lime and water, etc.

2. To make white; to give a fair external appearance.

WHITEWASHED, pp. Covered or overspread with a white liquid composition.

WHITE-WASHER, n. One who whitewashes the walls or plastering of apartments.

WHITEWASHING, ppr. Overspreading or washing with a white liquid composition.

WHITE-WATER, n. A disease of sheep, of the dangerous stomachic kind.

WHITE-WAX, n. Bleached wax.

WHITE-WINE, n. Any wine of a clear transparent color, bordering on white, as Madeira, Sherry, Lisbon, etc.; opposed to wine of a deep red color, as Port and Burgundy.

WHITEWOOD, n. A species of timber tree growing in North America, the Liriodendron, or tulip tree. The name of certain species of Bignonia.


1. One of the natural colors of bodies, but not strictly a color, for it is said to be a composition of all the colors; destitution of all stain or obscurity on the surface; whiteness. WE say, bleached cloth is of a good white; attired in a robe of white.

2. A white spot or thing; the mark at which an arrow is shot.

White of the eye, that part of the ball of the eye surrounding the iris or colored part. It owes its whiteness to the lunica albuginea or adnata, a partial covering of the forepart of the eye, formed by the expansion of the tendons of the muscles which move the eye-ball.

White of an egg, the albumen, or pellucid viscous fluid, which surrounds the vitellus or yelk.

An analogous part, in the seeds of plants, is called the albumen or white. It is a farinaceous fleshy or horny substance, which makes up the chief bulk of some seeds, as in grasses, corn, palms and lilies, never rising out of the ground nor performing the office of leaves, but destined solely to nourish the germinating embryo, till its roots can perform their office. It is the perispermum of Jussieu.

Spanish white, a substance used in painting, prepared from chalk, by separating from the latter its silicious impurities.

WHITE, v.t. To make white; to whiten; to whitewash; as whited sepulchers. Mark 9:3; Matthew 23:27.

WHITED, pp. Made white; whitened.

WHITELY, adv. Coming near to white. [Not used.]

WHITEN, v.t. hwitn. To make white; to bleach; to blanch; as, to whiten cloth.

WHITEN, v.i. To grow white; to turn or become white. The hair whitens with age; the sea whitens with foam; the trees in spring whiten with blossoms.

WHITENED, pp. Made white; bleached.

WHITENER, n. One who bleaches or makes white.


1. The state of being white; white color, or freedom from any darkness or obscurity on the surface.

2. Paleness; want of a sanguineous tinge in the face.

3. Purity; cleanness; freedom from stain or blemish.

WHITES, n. The fluor albus, a disease of females.


1. To what place, interrogatively. Whither goest thou?

Whither away so fast?

2. To what place, absolutely.

I strayd, I knew not whither.

3. To which place, relatively.

Whither when as they came, they fell at words.

4. To what point or degree.

5. Whithersoever.

WHITHERSOEVER, adv. [whither and soever.] To whatever place. I will go whithersoever you lead.

WHITING, n. [from white.]

1. A small sea fish, the Asellus mollis or albus, a species of Gadus.

2. The same as Spanish white, which see.

WHITISH, a. [from white.] Somewhat white; white in a moderate degree.

WHITISHNESS, n. [supra.] The quality of being somewhat white.

WHITLEATHER, WHITLETHER, n. [white and leather.] Lether dressed with alum, remarkable for its toughness.

In common use, the ligaments of animals, when in food.


1. In surgery, paronychia, a swelling or inflammation about the nails or ends of the fingers, or affecting one or more of the phalanges of the fingers, generally terminating in an abscess. There are four or five varieties of this swelling. 1. The cutaneous paronychia, which raises the cuticle, forming a kind of vesicle filled with a limpid serum, or bloody fluid. 2. The subcutaneous paronychia, a tumor attended with acute pain. It is seated in the cellular membrane under the skin. 3. The subungual paronychia, which occurs under the nail. It commences with inflammatory symptoms, but is less painful than the former. 4. There is also the paronychia of the periosteum, and the paronychia of the tendons or theca.

2. In sheep, the whitlow is a disease of the feet, of an inflammatory kind. It occurs round the hoof, where an acrid matter is collected, which ought to be discharged.


1. Mountain knotgrass, a species of Illecebrium.

2. A name given to certain species of Draba.

The rue-leaved whitlow-grass is a species of Saxifraga.

WHITSOUR, n. A sort of apple.

WHITSTER, n. A whitener; a bleacher.

WHITSUL, n. A provincial name of milk, sour milk, cheese curds and butter.

WHITSUNTIDE, n. [white, Sunday, and tide.] The feast or season of Pentecost; so called it is said, because, in the primitive church, those who had been newly baptized appeared at church between Easter and Pentecost in white garments.

WHITTEN-TREE, n. A sort of tree.


1. A small pocket knife. [In this sense, I believe the word is not used in America.]

2. A white dress for a woman; a double blanket worn by west countrywomen in England, over the shoulders, like a cloke. [Not used in the United States.]


1. To pare or cut off the surface of a thing with a small knife. Some persons have a habit of whittling, and are rarely seen without a penknife in their hands for that purpose. [This is, I believe, the only use of this word in New England.]

2. To edge; to sharpen. [Not in use.]

WHITY-BROWN, a. Of a color between white and brown. [Local in England.]

WHIZ, v.t. [It seems to be allied to hiss.] To make a humming or hissing sound, like an arrow or ball flying through the air.

It flew, and whizzing cut the liquid way.

WHIZ, n. A hissing sound.

WHIZZING, ppr. Making a humming or hissing sound.

WHO, pron. relative. pron. hoo. [L. Who is undoubtedly a contracted word in English as in Latin. See What and Wight.]

1. Who is a pronoun relative, always referring to persons. It forms whose in the genitive or possessive case, answering to the L. Cujus, and whom in the objective or accusative case. Who, whose and whom, are in both numbers. Thus we say, the man or woman who was with us; the men or women who were with us; the men or women whom we saw.

2. Which of many. Are you satisfied who did the mischief?

3. It is much used in asking questions; as, who am I? Who art thou? Who is this? Who are these? In this case, the purpose is to obtain the name or designation of the person or character.

4. It has sometimes a disjunctive sense.

There thou tellst of kings, and who aspire; who fall, who rise, who triumph, who do moan.

5. Whose is of all genders. Whose book is this?

This question whose solution I require--

As who should say, elliptically for as one who should say.

WHOEVER, pron. [who and ever.] Any on without exception; any person whatever. The person who trespasses shall be punished, whoever he may be.

WHOLE, a. Hole. [G., Gr. This seems to be connected with heal, hale. Of this the derivative wholesome, is evidence.]

1. All; total; containing the total amount or number, or the entire thing; as the whole earth; the whole world; the whole solar system; the whole army; the whole nation.

2. Complete; entire; not defective or imperfect; as a whole orange; the egg is whole; the vessel is whole.

3. Unimpaired; unbroken; uninjured.

My life is yet whole in me. 2 Samuel 1:9.

4. Sound; not hurt or sick.

They that are whole need not a physician. Matthew 9:12.

5. Restored to health and soundness; sound; well.

Thy faith hath made thee whole. Mark 5:34.

His hand was restored whole. Mark 3:5.


1. The entire thing; the entire or total assemblage of parts. The whole of religion is contained in the short precept, Love God with all your heart, and your neighbor as yourself.

Fear God and keep his commandments, for this is the whole duty of man. Ecclesiastes 12:13.

2. A system; a regular combination of parts.

WHOLESALE, n. [whole and sale.]

1. Sale of goods by the piece or large quantity; as distinguished from retail. Some traders sell either by wholesale or retail.

2. The whole mass.

Some from vanity or envy, despise a valuable book, and throw contempt upon it by wholesale.

WHOLESALE, a. [supra.]

1. Buying and selling by the piece or quantity; as a wholesale merchant or dealer.

2. Pertaining to the trade by the piece or quantity; as the wholesale price.


1. Tending to promote health; favoring health; salubrious; as wholesome air or diet; a wholesome climate.

2. Sound; contributing to the health of the mind; favorable to morals, religion or prosperity; as wholesome advice; wholesome doctrines; wholesome truths.

3. Useful; salutary; conducive to public happiness, virtue or peace; as a wholesome law.

4. That utters sound words.

A wholesome tongue is a tree of life. Proverbs 15:4.

5. Kindly; pleasing; as a wholesome answer.

Wholesome ship, a ship that will try, hull and ride well.

WHOLESOMELY, adv. In a wholesome or salutary manner; salubriously.


1. The quality of contributing to health; salubrith; as the wholesomeness of air or diet.

2. Salutariness; conduciveness to the health of the mind or of the body politic; as the wholesomeness of doctrines or laws.

WHOLLY, adv.

1. Entirely; completely; perfectly.

Nor wholly overcome, nor wholly yield.

2. Totally; in all the parts or kinds.

They employed themselves wholly in domestic life.

WHOM, pron. hoom. The objective of who, coinciding with the L. quem and quam.

Whom have I in heaven but thee? Psalm 73:25.

WHOMSOEVER, pron. [whom and soever.] Any person without exception.

With whomsoever thou findest thy goods, let him not live. Genesis 31:32.

WHOOBUB, for hubbub. [Not in use.]

WHOOP, n. Hoop. [This is the same as hoop, but aspirated. The sense is to drive out the voice.]

1. A shout of pursuit.

2. A shout of war; a particular cry of troops when they rush to the attack. The Indians of America are remarkable for their war whoop.

3. The bird called hoopoe or upupa.

WHOOP, v.i. To shout with a particular voice.
WHOOP, v.t. To insult with shouts.

WHOOT, v.i. hoot. [See Hoot.]

WHOP, n. [the vulgar pronunciation of whap, or awhap.] A sudden fall, or the suddenness of striking in a fall.

WHORE, n. Hore. [G. The correct orthography is hore.] A harlot; a courtesan; a concubine; a prostitute.

WHORE, v.i. [supra.] To have unlawful sexual commerce; to practice lewdness.
WHORE, v.t. To corrupt by lewd intercourse. [Little used.]

WHOREDOM, n. Horedom.

1. Lewdness; fornication; practice of unlawful commerce with the other sex. It is applied to either sex, and to any kind of illicit commerce.

2. In Scripture, idolatry; the desertion of the worship of the true God, for the worship of idols.

WHOREMASTER, n. [supra.] One who practices lewdness.

WHOREMONGER, n. The same as whoremaster.

WHORESON, n. A bastard; a word used generally in contempt.

WHORISH, a. Lewd; unchaste; addicted to unlawful sexual pleasures; incontinent.

WHORISHLY, adv. In a lewd manner.

WHORISHNESS, n. The practice of lewdness; the character of a lewd woman.

WHORL, WHORLE. [See Whirl.]

WHORT, n. The fruit of the whortleberry; or the shrub.

WHORTLEBERRY, n. A plant or shrub and its fruit, of the genus Vaccinium.

WHOSE, hooz. The possessive or genitive case of who or which; applied to persons or things. We say, the person whose merits are known; the garment whose color is admired.

WHOSESOEVER, pron. [whose and soever.] Of any person whatever. John 20:23.

WHOSO, pron. Hooso. Any person whatever.

WHOSOEVER, pron. [who, so, and ever.] Any one; any person whatever.

Whosoever will, let him take of the water of life freely. Revelation 22:17.