Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



THOMIST, n. A follower of Thomas Aquinas, in opposition to the Scotists.

THOMSONITE, n. [from Thomson.] A mineral of the zeolite family, occurring generally in masses of a radiated structure.

THONG, n. A strap of leather, used for fastening any thing.

And nails for loosen’d spears, and thongs for shields provide.

THORACIC, a. [L. thorax, the breast.] Pertaining to the breast; as the thoracic arteries.

The thoracic duct, is the trunk of the absorbent vessels. It runs up along the spine from the receptacle of the chyle to the left subclavian vein, in which it terminates.

THORACICS, n. plu. In ichthyology, an order of bony fishes, respiring by means of gills only, the character of which is that the bronchia are ossiculated, and the ventral fins are placed underneath the thorax, or beneath the pectoral fins.

THORAL, a. [L. thorus, or rather torus.] Pertaining to a bed.

THORAX, n. [L.] In anatomy, that part of the human skeleton which consists of the bones of the chest; also, the cavity of the chest.

THORINA, n. A newly discovered earth, resembling zirconia, found in gadolinite by Berzelius.


1. A tree or shrub armed with spines or sharp ligneous shoots; as the black thorn; white thorn, etc. The word is sometimes applied to a bush with prickles; as a rose on a thorn.

2. A sharp ligneous or woody shoot from the stem of a tree or shrub; a sharp process from the woody part of a plant; a spine. Thorn differs from prickle; the latter being applied to the sharp points issuing from the bark of a plant and not attached to the wood, as in the rose and bramble. But in common usage, thorn is applied to the prickle of the rose, and in fact the two words are used promiscuously.

3. Any thing troublesome. St. Paul had a thorn in the flesh. 2 Corinthians 12:7; Numbers 33:55.

4. In Scripture, great difficulties and impediments.

I will hedge up thy way with thorns. Hosea 2:6.

5. Worldly cares; things which prevent the growth of good principles. Matthew 13:22.

THORN-APPLE, n. [thorn and apple.] A plant of the genus Datura; a popular name of the Datura Stramonium, or apple of Peru.

THORN-BACK, n. [thorn and back.] A fish of the ray kind, which has prickles on its back.

THORN-BUSH, n. A shrub that produces thorns.

THORN-BUT, n. A fish, a but or turbot.

THORN-HEDGE, n. [thorn and hedge.] A hedge or fence consisting of thorn.

THORNLESS, a. Destitute of thorns; as a thornless shrub or tree.

THORNY, a. Full of thorns or spines; rough with thorns; as a thorny wood; a thorny tree; a thorny diadem or crown.

1. Troublesome; vexatious; harassing; perplexing; as thorny care; the thorny path of vice.

2. Sharp; pricking; vexatious; as thorny points.


THORNY-TREFOIL, n. A plant of the genus Fagonia.

THOROUGH, a. thur’ro.

1. Literally, passing through or to the end; hence, complete; perfect; as a thorough reformation; thorough work; a thorough translator; a thorough poet.

2. Passing through; as thorough lights in a house.

THOROUGH, prep. thur’ro. From side to side, or from end to end.

1. By means of. [Not now used.] [See Through.]

THOROUGH, n. thur’ro. An inter-furrow between two ridges.

THOROUGH-BASE, n. thur’ro-base. [thorough and base.] In music, an accompaniment to a continued base by figures.

THOROUGH-BRED, a. thur’ro-bred. [thorough and bred.] Completely taught or accomplished.

THOROUGH-FARE, n. thur’ro-fare. [thorough and fare.]

1. A passage through; a passage from one street or opening to another; an unobstructed way.

2. Power of passing.

THOROUGHLY, adv. thur’roly. Fully; entirely; completely; as a room thoroughly swept; a business thoroughly performed. Let the matter be thoroughly sifted. Let every part of the work be thoroughly finished.

THOROUGH-PACED, a. thur’ro-paced. [thorough and paced.]

Perfect in what is undertaken; complete; going all lengths; as a thorough-paced tory or whig.

THOROUGH-SPED, a. thur’ro-sped. [thorough and sped.]

Fully accomplished; thorough-paced.

THOROUGH-STITCH, adv. thur’ro-stitch. [thorough and stitch.] completely; going the whole length of any business. [Not elegant.]

THOROUGH-WAX, n. thur’ro-wax. [thorough and wax.]

A plant of the genus Bupleurum.

THOROUGH-WORT, n. thur’ro-wort. The popular name of a plant, the Eupatorium perfoliatum, a native of N. America. It is valued in medicine.

THORP, [L. tribus.] The primary sense is probably a house, a habitation, from fixedness; hence a hamlet, a village, a tribe; as in rude ages the dwelling of the head of a family was soon surrounded by the houses of his children and descendants. In our language, it occurs now only in names of places and persons.

THOS, n. An animal of the wolf kind, but larger than the common wolf. It is common Surinam. It preys on poultry and water fowls.

THOSE, pron. s as z. plu. of that; as those men; those temples. When those and these are used in reference to two things or collections of things, those refers to the first mentioned, as these does to the last mentioned. [See These, and the example there given.]

THOU, pron. in the obj. thee. The second personal pronoun, in the singular number; the pronoun which is used in addressing persons in the solemn style.

Art thou he that should come? Matthew 11:3.

I will fear no evil, for thou art with me. Psalm 23:4.

Thou is used only in the solemn style, unless in very familiar language, and by the Quakers.

THOU, v.t. To treat with familiarity.

If thou thouest him some thrice, it shall not be amiss.

THOU, v.i. To use thou and thee in discourse.

THOUGH, v.i. tho.

1. Grant; admit; allow. “If thy brother be waxen poor--thou shalt relieve him; yea, though he be a stranger.” Grant or admit the fact that he is stranger, yet thou shalt relieve him. Leviticus 25:35.

Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him. Job 13:15.

That is, grant or admit that he shall slay me, yet will I trust in him.

Though hand join in hand, the wicked shall not be unpunished. Proverbs 11:21.

That is, admit the fact that the wicked unite their strength, yet this will not save them from punishment.

Not that I so affirm, though so it seem.

That is, grant that it seems so, yet I do not so affirm.

2. Used with as.

In the vine were three branches, and it was as though it budded. Genesis 40:10.

So we use as if; it was as if it budded; and if is gif, give. The appearance was like the real fact, if admitted or true.

3. It is used in familiar language, at the end of a sentence.

A good cause would do well though.

This is generally or always elliptical, referring to some expression preceding or understood.

4. It is compounded with all, in although, which see.

THOUGHT, pret. and pp. of think; pronounced thaut.

THOUGHT, a. thaut. [primarily the passive participle of think, supra.]

1. Properly, that which the mind thinks. Thought is either the act or operation of the mind, when attending to a particular subject or thing or it is the idea consequent on that operation.

We say, a man’s thoughts are employed on government, on religion, on trade or arts, or his thoughts are employed on his dress or his means of living. By this we mean that the mind is directed to that particular subject or object; that is, according to the literal import of the verb think, the mind, the intellectual part of man, is set upon such an object, it holds it in view or contemplation, or it extends to it, it stretches to it.

Thought cannot be superadded to matter, so as in any sense to render it true that matter can become cogitative.

2. Idea; conception. I wish to convey my thoughts to another person. I employ words that express my thoughts, so that he may have the same ideas; in this case, our thoughts will be alike.

3. Fancy; conceit; something framed by the imagination.

Thoughts come crowding in so fast upon me, that my only difficulty is to choose or reject.

4. Reflection; particular consideration.

Why do you keep alone?

Using those thoughts which should have died

With them they think on.

5. Opinion; judgment.

Thus Bethel spoke, who always speaks his thoughts.

6. Meditation; serious consideration.

Pride, of all others the most dangerous fault,

Proceeds from want of sense or want of thought.

7. Design; purpose.

All their thoughts are against me for evil. Psalms 56:5; Psalms 33:11; Jeremiah 29:11.

8. Silent contemplation.

9. Solicitude; care; concern.

Hawis was put in trouble, and died with thought and anguish before his business came to an end.

10. Inward reasoning; the workings of conscience.

Their thoughts the meanwhile accusing or else excusing one another. Romans 2:15.

11. A small degree or quantity; as a thought longer; a thought better. [Not in use.]

To take thought, to be solicitous or anxious. Matthew 6:34.

THOUGHTFUL, a. Full of thought; contemplative; employed in meditation; as a man of thoughtful mind.

1. Attentive; careful; having the mind directed to an object; as thoughtful of gain.

2. Promoting serious thought; favorable to musing or meditation.

War, horrid war, your thoughtful walks invades.

3. Anxious; solicitous.

Around her crowd distrust and doubt and fear,

And thoughtful foresight, and tormenting care.

THOUGHTFULLY, adv. With thought or consideration; with solicitude.

THOUGHTFULNESS, n. Deep meditation.

1. Serious attention to spiritual concerns.

2. Anxiety; solicitude.

THOUGHTLESS, a. Heedless; careless; negligent.

Thoughtless of the future.

1. Gay; dissipated.

2. Stupid; dull.

Thoughtless as monarch oaks that shade the plain.

THOUGHTLESSLY, adv. Without thought; carelessly; stupidly.

THOUGHTLESSNESS, n. Want of thought; heedlessness; carelessness; inattention.

THOUGHTSICK, a. [thought and sick.] Uneasy with reflection.

THOUSAND, a. s as z.

1. Denoting the number of ten hundred.

2. Proverbially, denoting a great number indefinitely. It is a thousand chances to one that you succeed.

THOUSAND, n. The number of ten hundred.

A thousand shall fall at thy side, and ten thousand at thy right hand. Psalm 91:7.

Thousand is sometimes used plurally without the plural termination, as in the passage above, ten thousand; but it often takes the plural termination. In former times, how many thousands perished by famine!

THOUSANDTH, a. The ordinal of thousand; as the thousandth part of a thing; also proverbially, very numerous.

THOUSANDTH, n. The thousandth part of any thing; as two thousandths of a tax.

THOWL. [See Thole.]

THRACK, v.t. To load or burden. [Not in use.]


1. A slave.

2. Slavery.

THRALL, v.t. To enslave. [Enthrall is in use.]

THRALLDOM, n. Slavery; bondage; a state of servitude. The Greeks lived in thralldom under the Turks, nearly four hundred years.

He shall rule, and she in thralldom live.

[This word is in good use.]

THRAPPLE, n. The windpipe of an animal. [Not an English word.]

THRASH, v.t.

1. To beat out grain from the husk or pericarp with a flail; as, to thrash wheat, rye or oats.

2. To beat corn off from the cob or spike; as, to thrash maiz.

3. To beat soundly with a stick or whip; to drub.

THRASH, v.i. To practice thrashing; to perform the business of thrashing; as a man who thrashes well.

1. To labor; to drudge.

I rather would be Mevius, thrash for rhymes,

Like his, the scorn and scandal of the times--

THRASHED, pp. Beaten out of the husk or off the ear.

1. Freed from the grain by beating.

THRASHER, n. One who thrashes grain.

THRASHING, ppr. Beating out of the husk or off the ear; beating soundly with a stick or whip.

THRASHING, n. The act of beating out grain with a flail; a sound drubbing.

THRASHING-FLOOR, n. [thrash and floor.] A floor or area on which grain is beaten out.

THRASONICAL, a. [from Thraso, a boaster in old comedy.]

1. Boasting; given to bragging.

2. Boastful; implying ostentatious display.

THRAVE, n. A drove; a herd. [Not in use.]

THRAVE, n. The number of two dozen. [Not in use.]


1. A very small twist of flax, wool, cotton, silk or other fibrous substance, drawn out to considerable length.

2. The filament of a flower.

3. The filament of any fibrous substance, as of bark.

4. A fine filament or line of gold or silver.

5. Air-threads, the fine white filaments which are seen floating in the air in summer, the production of spiders.

6. Something continued in a long course or tenor; as the thread of a discourse.

7. The prominent spiral part of a screw.

THREAD, THRED, v.t. To pass a thread through the eye; as, to thread a needle.

1. To pass or pierce through, as a narrow way or channel.

They would not thread the gates,

Heavy trading ships--threading the Bosporus.

THREADBARE, THREDBARE, a. [thread and bare.] Worn to the naked thread; having the nap worn off; as a threadbare coat; threadbare clothes.

1. Worn out; trite; hackneyed; used till it has lost its novelty or interest; as a threadbare subject; state topics and threadbare quotations.

THREADBARENESS, THREDBARENESS, n. The state of being threadbare or trite.

THREADEN, THREDEN, a. Made of thread; as threaden sails. [Little used.]

THREAD-SHAPED, THRED-SHAPED, a. In botany, filiform.

THREADY, THREDY, a. Like thread or filaments; slender.

1. Containing thread.

THREAP, v.t. To chide, contend or argue. [Local.]

THREAT, n. thret. A menace; denunciation of ill; declaration of an intention or determination to inflict punishment, loss or pain on another.

There is no terror, Cassius, in your threats.

THREAT, v.t. thret. To threaten, which see. Threat is used only in poetry.

THREATEN, v.t. thret’n.

1. To declare the purpose of inflicting punishment, pain or other evil on another, for some sin or offense; to menace. God threatens the finally impenitent with everlasting banishment from his presence.

2. To menace; to terrify or attempt to terrify by menaces; as for extorting money.

To send threatening letters is a punishable offense.

3. To charge or enjoin with menace, or with implied rebuke; or to charge strictly.

Let us straitly threaten them, that they speak henceforth to no man in his name. Acts 4:17.

4. To menace by action; to present the appearance of coming evil; as, rolling billows threaten to overwhelm us.

5. To exhibit the appearance of something evil or unpleasant approaching; as, the clouds threaten us with rain or a storm.

THREATENED, pp. thret’nd. Menaced with evil.

THREATENER, n. thret’ner. One that threatens.

THREATENING, ppr. thret’ning. Menacing; denouncing evil.

1. a. Indicating a threat or menace; as a threatening look.

2. Indicating something impending; as, the weather is threatening; the clouds have a threatening aspect.

THREATENING, n. thret’ning. The act of menacing; a menace; a denunciation of evil, or declaration of a purpose to inflict evil on a person or country, usually for sins and offenses. The prophets are filled with God’s threatenings against the rebellious Jews. Acts 4:29.

THREATENINGLY, adv. thret’ningly. With a threat or menace; in a threatening manner.

THREATFUL, a. thret’ful. Full of threats; having a menacing appearance; minacious.

THREE, a. [L. tres.]

1. Two and one.

I offer thee three things. 2 Samuel 24:12.

2. It is often used like other adjectives, without the noun to which it refers.

Abishai--attained not to the first three. 2 Samuel 23:18-19.

3. Proverbially, a small number.

Away, thou three-inched fool. [I believe obsolete.]

THREE-CAPSULED, a. Tricapsular.

THREE-CELLED, a. Trilocular.

THREE-CLEFT, a. Trifid.

THREE-CORNERED, a. [three and corner.]

1. Having three corners or angles; as a three-cornered hat.

2. In botany, having three sides, or three prominent longitudinal angles, as a stem.

THREE-FLOWERED, a. [three and flower.]

Bearing three flowers together.

THREEFOLD, a. [three and fold.] Three-double; consisting of three; or thrice repeated, as threefold justice.

A threefold cord is not quickly broken. Ecclesiastes 4:12.

THREE-GRAINED, a. Tricoccous.

THREE-LEAVED, a. [three and leaf.] Consisting of three distinct leaflets; as a three-leaved calyx.

THREE-LOBED, a. [three and lobe.] A three-lobed leaf, is one that is divided to the middle into three parts, standing wide from each other and having convex margins.

THREE-NERVED, a. [three and nerve.] A three-nerved leaf, has three distinct vessels or nerves running longitudinally without branching.

THREE-PARTED, a. [three and parted.] Tripartite. A three-parted leaf, is divided into three parts down to the base, but not entirely separate.

THREE-PENCE, n. thrip’ence. [three and pence.]

A small silver coin of three times the value of a penny.

THREE-PENNY, a. thrip’enny. Worth three pence only; mean.

THREE-PETALED, a. [three and petal.] Tripetalous; consisting of three distinct petals; as a corol.

THREE-PILE, n. [three and pile.] An old name for good velvet.

THREE-PILED, a. Set with a thick pile.

THREE-POINTED, a. Tricuspidate.

THREESCORE, a. [three and score.] Thrice twenty; sixty; as threescore years.

THREE-SEEDED, a. [three and seed.] Containing three seeds; as a three-seeded capsule.

THREE-SIDED, a. [three and side.] Having three plane sides; as a three-sided stem, leaf, petiole, peduncle, scape, or pericarp.

THREE-VALVED, a. [three and valve.] Trivalvular; consisting of three valves; opening with three valves; as a three-valved pericarp.

THRENE, n. [Gr.] Lamentation. [Not used.]

THRENODY, n. [Gr. lamentation, and ode.] A song of lamentation.

THRESH, v.t. To thrash. [See Thrash.] The latter is the popular pronunciation, but the word is written thrash or thresh, indifferently. [See the derivation and definitions under Thrash.]

THRESHER, n. The sea fox.


1. The door-sill; the plank, stone or piece of timber which lies at the bottom or under a door, particularly of a dwelling house, church, temple or the like; hence, entrance; gate; door.

2. Entrance; the place or point of entering or beginning. He is now at the threshhold of his argument.

Many men that stumble at the threshhold.

THREW, pret. of throw.

THRICE, adv. [from three; perhaps three, and L. vice.]

1. Three times.

Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. Matthew 26:34.

2. Sometimes used by way of amplification; very.

Thrice noble Lord, let me entreat of you

To pardon me.

THRID, v.t. To slide through a narrow passage; to slip, shoot or run through, as a needle, bodkin, or the like.

Some thrid the mazy ringlets of her hair.

THRIDDED, pp. Slid through.

THRIDDING, ppr. Sliding through; causing to pass through.