Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



THEOSOPHIST, n. One who pretends to divine illumination; one who pretends to derive his knowledge from divine revelation.

THEOSOPHY, n. Divine wisdom; godliness.

1. Knowledge of God.

THERAPEUTIC, a. [Gr. to nurse, serve or cure.] Curative; that pertains to the healing art; that is concerned in discovering and applying remedies for diseases.

Medicine is justly distributed into prophylactic, or the art of preserving health, and therapeutic, or the art of restoring it.

THERAPEUTICS, n. That part of medicine which respects the discovery and application of remedies for diseases. Therapeutics teaches the use of diet and of medicines.

1. A religious sect described by Philo. They were devotees to religion.

THERE, adv.

1. In that place.

The Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden, and there he put the man whom he had formed. Genesis 2:8.

2. It is sometimes opposed to here; there denoting the place most distant.

Darkness there might well seem twilight here.

3. Here and there, in one place and another; as here a little and there a little.

4. It is sometimes used by way of exclamation; calling the attention to something distant; as there, there; see there; look there.

5. There is used to begin sentences or before a verb; sometimes pertinently, and sometimes without signification; but its use is to firmly established that it cannot be dispensed with.

Wherever there is sense or perception, there some idea is actually produced.

There have been that have delivered themselves from their ills by their good fortune or virtue.

And there came a voice from heaven, saying, thou art my beloved Son. Mark 1:11.

6. In composition, there has the sense of a pronoun, as in Saxon; as thereby, which signifies by that.

THEREABOUT, THEREABOUTS, adv. [there and about. The latter is less proper, but most commonly used.]

1. Near that place.

2. Nearly; near that number, degree or quantity; as ten men or thereabouts.

3. Concerning that. [Not much used.] Luke 24:4.

THEREAFTER, adv. [there and after.]

1. According to that; accordingly.

When you can draw the head indifferently well, proportion the body thereafter.

2. After that.

THEREAT, adv. [there and at.] At that place.

Wide is the gate, and broad is the way, that leadeth to destruction, and many there are who go in thereat. Matthew 7:13.

1. At that; at that thing or event; on that account.

Every error is a stain to the beauty of nature; for which cause it blusheth thereat.

THEREBY, adv. [there and by.] By that; by that means; in consequence of that.

Acquaint now thyself with him, and be at peace; thereby good shall come to thee. Job 22:21.

THEREFOR, adv. [there and for.] For that or this, or it.

THEREFORE, adv. ther’fore. [there and for.]

1. For that; for that or this reason, referring to something previously stated.

I have married a wife, and therefore I cannot come. Luke 14:20.

2. Consequently.

He blushes; therefore he is guilty.

3. In return or recompense for this or that.

What shall we have therefore? Matthew 19:27.

THEREFROM, adv. [there and from.] From this or that.

--Turn not aside therefrom to the right hand or to the left. Joshua 23:6.

THEREIN, adv. [there and in.] In that or this place, time or thing.

Bring forth abundantly in the earth and multiply therein. Genesis 9:7.

Ye shall keep the sabbath--whosoever doeth any work therein--that soul shall be cut off. Exodus 31:14.

Therein our letters do not well agree.

THEREINTO, adv. [there and into.] Into that.

THEREOF, adv. [there and of.] Of that or this.

In the day thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die. Genesis 2:17.

THEREON, adv. [there and on.] On that or this.

Then the king said, hang him thereon. Esther 7:9.

THEREOUT, adv. [there and out.] Out of that or this. Leviticus 2:2.

THERETO, THEREUNTO, adv. [there and to or unto.] To that or this.

Add the fifth part thereto. Leviticus 5:16.

THEREUNDER, adv. [there and under.] Under that or this.

THEREUPON, adv. [there and upon.] Upon that or this.

The remnant of the house of Judah, they shall feed thereupon. Zephaniah 2:7.

1. In consequence of that.

He hopes to find you forward,

And thereupon he sends you this good news.

2. Immediately.

THEREWHILE, adv. [there and while.] At the same time.

THEREWITH, adv. [there and with.] With that or this.

I have learned in whatever state I am, therewith to be content. Philippians 4:11.

THEREWITHAL, adv. [there and withal.]

1. Over and above.

2. At the same time.

3. With that. [This word is obsolete.]

[The foregoing compounds of there with the prepositions, are for the most part deemed inelegant and obsolete. Some of them however are in good use, and particularly in the law style.]

THERF-BREAD, a. therf’bred. Unleavened bread. [Not in use.]

THERIAC, THERIACA, n. [L. theriaca; Gr. treacle.] A name given by the ancients to various compositions esteemed efficacious against the effects of poison, but afterwards restrained chiefly to what has been called Theriaca Andromachi, or Venice-treacle, which is a compound of sixty four drugs, prepared, pulverized, and reduced by means of honey to an electuary.

THERIAC, THERIACAL, a. Pertaining to theriac; medicinal.

THERMAL, a. [L. thermoe, warm baths; Gr. to warm.]

Pertaining to heat; warm.

Thermal waters, are warm or tepid mineral waters, whose heat varies from 92 deg. to 112 deg.

THERMOLAMP, n. [Gr. warm, from heat, and lamp.]

An instrument for furnishing light by means of inflammable gas.

THERMOMETER, n. [Gr. warm, from heat, and measure.] An instrument for measuring heat; founded on the property which heat possesses of expanding all bodies, the rate or quantity of expansion being supposed proportional to the degree of heat applied, and hence indicating that degree. The thermometer indicates only the sensible heat of bodies, and gives us no information respecting the quantity of latent heat, or of combined heat, which those bodies may contain.

THERMOMETRICAL, a. Pertaining to a thermometer; as the thermometrical scale or tube.

1. Made by a thermometer; as thermometrical observations.

THERMOMETRICALLY, adv. By means of a thermometer.

THERMOSCOPE, n. [Gr. heat, and to see.] An instrument showing the temperature of the air, or the degree of heat and cold.

THESE, pron. plu. of this. pronounced theez, and used as an adjective or substitute. These is opposed to those, as this is to that, and when two persons or things or collections of things are named, these refers to the things or persons which are nearest in place or order, or which are last mentioned.

Some place the bliss in action, some in ease;

Those call it pleasure, and contentment these

Here these is a substitute for these persons, and for the persons last mentioned, who place their bliss in ease.

THESIS, n. [L. thesis; Gr. a position, to set.]

1. A position or proposition which a person advances and offers to maintain, or which is actually maintained by argument; a theme; a subject.

2. In logic, every proposition may be divided into thesis and hypothesis. Thesis contains the thing affirmed or denied, and hypothesis the conditions of the affirmation or negation.

THETICAL, a. [See Thesis.] Laid down.

THEURGIC, THEURGICAL, a. [from theurgy.] Pertaining to the power of performing supernatural things.

Theugic hymns, songs of incantation.

THEURGIST, n. One who pretends to or is addicted to theurgy.

THEURGY, n. [Gr. God, and work.] The art of doing things which it is the peculiar province of God to do; or the power or act of performing supernatural things by invoking the names of God or of subordinate agents; magic. This has been divided by some writers into three parts; theurgy, or the operation by divine or celestial means; natural magic, performed by the powers of nature; and necromancy, which proceeds by invoking demons.

THEW, n. Manner; custom; habit; form of behavior. [Not in use.]

1. Brawn. [Not in use.]

THEWED, a. Accustomed; educated. [Not in use.]

THEY, pron. plu.; objective case, them.

1. The men, the women, the animals, the things. It is never used adjectively, but always as a pronoun referring to persons, or as a substitute referring to things.

They and their fathers have transgressed against me. Ezekiel 2:3.

They of Italy salute you. Hebrews 13:24.

Blessed are they who hunger and thirst after righteousness. Matthew 5:6.

2. It is used indefinitely, as our ancestors used man, and as the French use on. They say, [on dit,] that is, it is said by persons, indefinitely.

THIBLE, n. A slice; a skimmer; a spatula. [Not in use or local.]


1. Dense; not thin; as thick vapors; a thick fog.

2. Inspissated; as, the paint is too thick.

3. Turbid; muddy; feculent; not clear; as, the water of a river is thick after a rain.

4. Noting the diameter of a body; as a piece of timber seven inches thick.

My little finger shall be thicker than my father’s loins. 1 Kings 12:10.

5. Having more depth or extent from one surface to its opposite than usual; as a thick plank; thick cloth; thick paper.

6. Close; crowded with trees or other objects; as a thick forest or wood; thick grass; thick corn.

The people were gathered thick together.

7. Frequent; following each other in quick succession. The shot flew thick as hail.

Favors came thick upon him.

Not thicker billows beat the Libyan main.

8. Set with things close to each other; not easily pervious.

Black was the forest, thick with beech it stood.

9. Not having due distinction of syllables or good articulation; as a thick utterance.

He speaks too thick.

10. Dull; somewhat deaf; as thick of hearing.

THICK, n. The thickest part, or the time when anything is thickest.

In the thick of the dust and smoke he presently entered his men.

1. A thicket. [Not in use.]

Thick and thin, whatever is in the way.

Through thick and thin she follow’d him.

THICK, adv. Frequently; fast.

I hear the trampling of thick beating feet.

1. Closely; as a plat of ground thick sown.

2. To a great depth, or to a thicker depth than usual; as a bed covered thick with tan; land covered thick with manure.

Thick and threefold, in quick succession, or in great numbers. [Not in use.]

THICK, v.i. To become thick or dense. [Not used.]

THICKEN, v.t. thik’n. To make thick or dense.

1. To make close; to fill up interstices; as, to thicken cloth.

2. To make concrete; to inspissate; as, to thicken paint, mortar or a liquid.

3. To strengthen; to confirm.

And this may help to thicken other proofs. [Not used.]

4. To make frequent, or more frequent; as, to thicken blows.

5. To make close, or more close; to make more numerous; as, to thicken the ranks.

THICKEN, v.i. thik’n. To become thick or more thick; to become dense; as, the fog thickens.

1. To become dark or obscure.

Thy luster thickens

When he shines by.

2. To concrete; to be consolidated; as, the juices of plants thicken into wood.

3. To be inspissated; as, vegetable juices thicken, as the more volatile parts are evaporated.

4. To become close, or more close or numerous.

The press of people thickens to the court.

5. To become quick and animated.

The combat thickens.

6. To become more numerous; to press; to be crowded. Proofs of the fact thicken upon us at every step.

THICKENED, pp. Made dense, or more dense; made more close or compact; made more frequent; inspissated.

THICKENING, ppr. Making dense or more dense, more close, or more frequent; inspissating.

THICKENING, n. Something put into a liquid or mass to make it more thick.

THICKET, n. A wood or collection of trees or shrubs closely set; as a ram caught in a thicket. Genesis 22:13.

THICKHEADED, a. Having a thick skull; dull; stupid.

THICKISH, a. Somewhat thick.

THICKLY, adv. Deeply; to great depth.

1. Closely; compactly.

2. In quick succession.

THICKNESS, n. The state of being thick; denseness; density; as the thickness of fog, vapor or clouds.

1. The state of being concrete or inspissated; consistence; spissitude; as the thickness of paint or mortar; the thickness of honey; the thickness of the blood.

2. The extent of a body from side to side, or from surface to surface; as the thickness of a tree; the thickness of a board; the thickness of the hand; the thickness of a layer of earth.

3. Closeness of the parts; the state of being crowded or near; as the thickness of trees in a forest; the thickness of a wood.

4. The state of being close, dense or impervious; as the thickness of shades.

5. Dullness of the sense of hearing; want of quickness or acuteness; as thickness of hearing.

THICKSET, a. [thick and set.] Close planted; as a thickset wood.

1. Having a short thick body.

THICKSKULL, n. [thick and skull.] Dullness; or a dull person; a blockhead.

THICKSKULLED, a. Dull; heavy; stupid; slow to learn.

THICKSKIN, n. [thick and skin.] A coarse gross person; a blockhead.

THICKSPRUNG, a. [thick and sprung.] Sprung up close together.

THIEF, n. plu. thieves.

1. One who secretly, unlawfully and feloniously takes the goods or personal property of another. The thief takes the property of another privately; the robber by open force.

2. One who takes the property of another wrongfully, either secretly or by violence. Job 30:5.

3. One who seduces by false doctrine. John 10:1.

4. One who makes it his business to cheat and defraud; as a den of thieves. Matthew 21:13.

5. An excrescence in the snuff of a candle.

THIEF-CATCHER, n. [thief and catch.] One who catches thieves, or whose business is to detect thieves and bring them to justice.

THIEF-LEADER, n. [thief and lead.] One who leads or takes a thief. [Not much used.]

THIEF-TAKER, n. [thief and taker.] One whose business is to find and take thieves and bring them to justice.

THIEVE, v.i. [from thief.] To steal; to practice theft.

THIEVERY, n. The practice of stealing; theft. [See Theft.]

Among the Spartans, thievery was a practice morally good and honest.

1. That which is stolen.

THIEVISH, a. Given to stealing; addicted to the practice of theft; as a thievish boy.

Or with a base and boist’rous sword enforce

A thievish living on the common road.

1. Secret; sly; acting by stealth; as thievish minutes.

2. Partaking of the nature of theft; as a thievish practice.

THIEVISHLY, adv. In a thievish manner; by theft.

THIEVISHNESS, n. The disposition to steal.

1. The practice or habit of stealing.

THIGH, n. That part of men, quadrupeds and fowls, which is between the leg and the trunk.

As the word signifies, it is the thick part of the lower limbs.

THILK, pron. The same.

THILL, n. The shaft of a cart, gig or other carriage. The thills are the two pieces of timber extending from the body of the carriage on each side of the last horse, by which the carriage is supported in a horizontal position.

THILLER, THILL-HORSE, n. The horse which goes between the thills or shafts, and supports them. In a team, the last horse.

THIMBLE, n. [I know not the origin or primary sense of this word. Possibly it may be from thumb.]

1. A kind of cap or cover for the finger, usually made of metal, used by tailors and seamstresses for driving the needle through cloth.

2. In sea language, an iron ring with a hollow or groove round its whole circumference, to receive the rope which is spliced about it.

THIME. [See Thyme.]

THIN, a. [L. tenuis; Gr. narrow.]

1. Having little thickness or extent from one surface to the opposite; as a thin plate of metal; thin paper; a thin board; a thin covering.

2. Rare; not dense; applied to fluids or to soft mixtures; as thin blood; thin milk; thin air.

In the day, when the air is more thin.

3. Not close; not crowded; not filling the space; not having the individuals that compose the thing in a close or compact state; as, the trees of a forest are thin; the corn or grass is thin. A thin audience in church is not uncommon. Important legislative business should not be transacted in a thin house.

4. Not full or well grown.

Seven thin ears. Genesis 41:6.

5. Slim; small; slender; lean. A person becomes thin by disease. Some animals are naturally thin.

6. Exile; small; fine; not full.

Thin hollow sounds, and lamentable screams.

7. Not thick or close; of a loose texture; not impervious to the sight; as a thin vail.

8. Not crowded or well stocked; not abounding.

Ferrara is very large, but extremely thin of people.

9. Slight; not sufficient for a covering; as a thin disguise.

THIN, adv. Not thickly or closely; in a scattered state; as seed sown thin.

Spain is thin sown as people.

THIN, v.t. [L. tenuo. See Attenuate.]

1. To make thin; to make rare or less thick; to attenuate; as, to thin the blood.

2. To make less close, crowded or numerous; as, to thin the ranks of an enemy; to thin the trees or shrubs of a thicket.

3. To attenuate; to rarefy; to make less dense; as, to thin the air; to thin the vapors.

THINE, pronominal adj. Thy; belonging to thee; relating to thee; being the property of thee. It was formerly used for thy, before a vowel.

Then thou mightest eat grapes thy fill, at thine own pleasure. Deuteronomy 23:24.

But in common usage, thy is now used before a vowel in all cases.

The principal use of thine now is when a verb is interposed between this word and the noun to which it refers. I will not take any thing that is thine. Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory.

In the following passage, thine is used as a substitute for thy righteousness.

I will make mention of thy righteousness, even of thine only. Psalm 71:16.

In some cases, it is preceded by the sign of the possessive case, like nouns, and is then also to be considered as a substitute.

If any of thine be driven out to the utmost parts of heaven-- Deuteronomy 30:4.

It is to be observed that thine, like thou, is used only in the solemn style. In familiar and common language, your and yours are always used in the singular number as well as the plural.

THING, n. [The primary sense of thing is that which comes, falls or happens, like event, from L. evenio.]

1. An event or action; that which happens or falls out, or that which is done, told or proposed. This is the general signification of the word in the Scriptures; as after these things, that is, events.

And the thing was very grievous in Abraham’s sight, because of his son. Genesis 21:11.

Then Laban and Bethuel answered and said, the thing proceedeth from the Lord. Genesis 24:50.

And Jacob said, all these things are against me. Genesis 42:36.

I will tell you by what authority I do these things. Matthew 21:24.

These things said Esaias when he saw his glory. John 12:41.

In learning French, choose such books as will teach you things as well as language.

2. Any substance; that which is created; any particular article or commodity.

He sent after this manner; ten asses laden with the good things of Egypt-- Genesis 45:23.

They took the things which Micah had made. Judges 18:27.

3. An animal; as every living thing; every creeping thing. Genesis 1:24.

[This application of the word is improper, but common in popular and vulgar language.]

4. A portion or part; something.

Wicked men who understand any thing of wisdom--

5. In contempt.

I have a thing in prose.

6. Used of persons in contempt.

See, sons, what things you are,

The poor thing sigh’d.

I’ll be this abject thing no more.

7. Used in a sense of honor.

I see thee here,

Thou noble thing!

THINK, v.i. pret. and pp. thought, pron. thaut. [L. duco.]

1. To have the mind occupied on some subject; to have ideas, or to revolve ideas in the mind.

--For that I am

I know, because I think.

These are not matters to be slightly thought on.

2. To judge; to conclude; to hold as a settled opinion. I think it will rain tomorrow. I think it not best to proceed on our journey.

Let them marry to whom they think best. Numbers 36:6.

3. To intend.

Thou thought’st to help me.

I thought to promote thee to great honor. Numbers 24:11.

4. To imagine; to suppose; to fancy.

Edmund, I think, is gone

In pity of his misery, to dispatch

His ‘nighted life.

Let him that thinketh he standeth, take heed lest he fall. 1 Corinthians 10:12.

5. To muse; to meditate.

While Peter thought on the vision-- Acts 10:19.

Think much, speak little.

6. To reflect; to recollect or call to mind.

And when Peter thought thereon, he wept. Mark 14:72.

7. To consider; to deliberate. Think how this thing could happen.

He thought within himself, saying, what shall I do? Luke 12:17.

8. To presume.

Think not to say within yourselves, we have Abraham to our father-- Matthew 3:9.

9. To believe; to esteem.

To think on or upon, to muse on; to meditate on.

If there by any virtue, and if there by any praise, think on these things. Philippians 4:8.

1. To light on by meditation. He has just thought on an expedient that will answer the purpose.

2. To remember with favor.

Think upon me, my God, for good. Nehemiah 5:19.

To think of, to have ideas come into the mind. He thought of what you told him. I would have sent the books, but I did not think of it.

To think well of, to hold in esteem; to esteem.

THINK, v.t. To conceive; to imagine.

Charity--thinketh no evil. 1 Corinthians 13:5.

1. To believe; to consider; to esteem.

Nor think superfluous others’ aid.

2. To seem or appear, as in the phrases, me thinketh or methinks, and methought. These are genuine Saxon phrases, equivalent to it seems to me, it seemed to me. In these expressions, me is actually in the dative case; almost the only instance remaining in the language. Sax “genoh thuht,” satis visum est, it appeared enough or sufficient; “me thineth,” mihi videtur, it seems to me; I perceive.

To think much, to grudge.

He thought not much to clothe his enemies.

To think much of, to hold in high esteem.

To think scorn, to disdain. Esther 3:6.

THINKER, n. One who thinks; but chiefly, one who thinks in a particular manner; as a close thinker; a deep thinker; a coherent thinker.

THINKING, ppr. Having ideas; supposing; judging; imagining; intending; meditating.

1. a. Having the faculty of thought; cogitative; capable of a regular train of ideas.

Man is a thinking being.

THINKING, n. Imagination; cogitation; judgment.

I heard a bird so sing,

Whose music, to my thinking, pleas’d the king.

THINLY, adv. [from thin.] In a loose scattered manner; not thickly; as ground thinly planted with trees; a country thinly inhabited.

THINNESS, n. The state of being thin; smallness of extent from one side or surface to the opposite; as the thinness of ice; the thinness of a plate; the thinness of the skin.

1. Tenuity; rareness; as the thinness of air or other fluid.

2. A state approaching to fluidity, or even fluidity; opposed to spissitude; as the thinness of honey, of white wash or of paint.

3. Exility; as the thinness of a point.

4. Rareness; a scattered state; paucity; as the thinness of trees in a forest; the thinness of inhabitants.

THIRD, a. thurd. [L. tertius.] The first after the second; the ordinal of three. The third hour in the day among the ancients, was nine o’clock in the morning.

Third estate, in the British nation, is the commons; or in the legislature, the house of commons.

Third order, among the Catholics, is a sort of religious order that observes the same rule and the same manner of life in proportion as some other two orders previously instituted; as the third order of Franciscans, instituted by St. Francis in 1221.

Third point or tierce point, in architecture, the point of section in the vertex of an equilateral triangle.

Third rate, in navies. A third rate ship carries from 64 to 80 guns.

Third sound, in music. See the noun Third.

THIRD, n. thurd. The third part of any thing. A man takes land and tills it for one third of the produce; the owner taking two thirds.

1. The sixtieth part of a second of time.

2. In music, an interval containing three diatonic sounds; the major composed to two tones, called by the Greeks ditone, and the minor called hemiditone, consisting of a tone and a half.

THIRDBOROUGH, n. thurd’burro. [third and borough.]

An under constable.

THIRDINGS, n. The third year of the corn or grain growing on the ground at the tenant’s death, due to the lord for a heriot, within the manor of Turfat in Herefordshire.

THIRDLY, adv. In the third place.

THIRDS, n. plu. The third part of the estate of a deceased husband, which by law the widow is entitled to enjoy during her life.

THIRL, v.t. thurl. To bore; to perforate. It is now written drill and thrill. [See these words, and see Nostril.]

THIRLAGE, n. thurl’age. In English customs, the right which the owner of a mill possesses by contract or law, to compel the tenants of a certain district to bring all their grain to his mill for grinding.

THIRST, n. thurst. [L. torreo.]

1. A painful sensation of the throat or fauces, occasioned by the want of drink.

Wherefore is it that thou hast brought us out of Egypt, to kill us and our children and our cattle with thirst? Exodus 17:3.

2. A vehement desire of drink. Psalm 104:11.

3. A want and eager desire after any thing.

Thirst of worldly good.

Thirst of knowledge.

Thirst of praise.

Thirst after happiness.

But for is now more generally used after thirst; as a thirst for worldly honors; a thirst for praise.

4. Dryness; drouth.

The rapid current, through veins

Of porous earth with kindly thirst updrawn,

Rose a fresh fountain--

THIRST, v.i. thurst.

1. To experience a painful sensation of the throat or fauces for want of drink.

The people thirsted there for water. Exodus 17:3.

2. To have a vehement desire for any thing.

My soul thirsteth for the living God. Psalm 42:2.

THIRST, v.t. To want to drink; as, to thirst blood. [Not English.]

THIRSTINESS, n. [form thirsty.]

The state of being thirsty; thirst.

THIRSTING, ppr. Feeling pain for want of drink; having eager desire.

THIRSTY, a. [from thirst.] Feeling a painful sensation of the throat or fauces for want of drink.

Give me a little water, for I am thirsty. Judges 4:19.

I was thirsty, and ye gave me no drink. Matthew 25:42.

1. Very dry; having no moisture; parched.

The thirsty land shall become springs of water. Isaiah 35:7.

2. Having a vehement desire of any thing; as in blood-thirsty. Isaiah 44:3; Isaiah 65:13.

THIRTEEN, a. thur’teen. Ten and three; as thirteen times.

THIRTEENTH, a. thur’teenth. [supra.] The third after the tenth; the ordinal of thirteen; as the thirteenth day of the month.

THIRTEENTH, n. thur’teenth. In music, an interval forming the octave of the sixth, or sixth of the octave.

THIRTIETH, a. thur’tieth. [from thirty.] The tenth threefold; the ordinal of thirty; as the thirtieth day of the month.

THIRTY, a. thur’ty. Thrice ten; ten three times repeated; or twenty and ten. The month of June consists of thirty days. Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh.

THIS, definitive adjective or substitute. plu. these.

1. This is a definitive, or definitive adjective, denoting something that is present or near in place or time, or something just mentioned. Is this your younger brother? What trespass is this which ye have committed?

Who did sin, this man or his parents, that he was born blind? John 9:2.

When they heard this, they were pricked to the heart. Acts 2:37.

In the latter passage, this is a substitute for what had preceded, the discourse of Peter just delivered. In like manner, this often represents a word, a sentence or clause, or a series of sentences of events.

In some cases, it refers to what is future, or to be immediately related.

But know this, that if the good man of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would have watched, and would not have suffered his house to be broken up. Matthew 24:43.

Here this refers to the whole subsequent member of the sentence.

2. By this, is used elliptically for by this time; as, by this the mail has arrived.

3. This is used with words denoting time past; as, I have taken no snuff for this month; and often with plural words. I have not wept this forty years.

In this case, this, in the singular, refers to the whole term of time, or period; this period of forty years.

4. This is opposed to that.

This way and that the wav’ring sails they bend.

A body of this or that denomination is produced.

This and that, in this use, denote difference indefinitely.

5. When this and that refer to different things before expressed, this refers to the thing last mentioned, and that to the thing first mentioned. [See These.]

Their judgment in this we may not, and in that we need not, follow.

6. It is sometimes opposed to other.

Consider the arguments which the author had to write this, or to design the other, before you arraign him.

THISTLE, n. this’l. The common name of numerous prickly plants of the class Syngenesia, and several genera; as the common corn thistle, or Canada thistle, of the genus Serratula or Cnicus; the spear thistle of the genus Cnicus; the milk thistle of the genus Carduus; the blessed thistle of the genus Centaurea; the globe thistle of the genus Echinops; the cotton thistle of the genus Onopordon; and the sow thistle of the genus Sonchus. The name is also given to other prickly plants not of the class Syngenesia; as the fuller’s thistle or teasel of the genus Dipsacus, and the melon thistle and torch thistle of the genus Cactus.

One species of thistle, (Cnicus arvensis,) grows in fields among grain, and is extremely troublesome to farmers. It is called in America the Canada thistle, as it first appeared in Canada, where it was probably introduced from France, as it abounds in Normandy, and also in England. A larger species in America (Cnicus lanceolatus,) is indigenous, but it spreads slowly and gives no trouble.

Thorns also and thistles shall it bring froth to thee. Genesis 3:18.

THISTLY, a. this’ly. Overgrown with thistles; as thistly ground.

THITHER, adv. To that place; opposed to hither.

This city is near, O let me escape thither. Genesis 19:20.

Where I am, thither ye cannot come. John 7:34, 36.

1. To that end or point.

Hither and thither, to this place and to that; one way and another.

THITHERWARD, adv. [thither and ward.] Toward that place.

They shall ask the way to Zion, with their faces thitherward. Jeremiah 50:5.

THO, a contraction of though. [See Though.]

1. Tho, for sax. thonne, then. [Not in use.]


1. A pin inserted into the gunwale of a boat, to keep the oar in the row-lock, when used in rowing.

2. The pin or handle of a sythe-snath.

THOLE, v.t. [L. tollo, tolero.]

To bear; to endure; to undergo.

THOLE, v.i. [supra.] To wait. [Local.]
THOLE, n. [L. tholus.] The roof of a temple. [Not used or local.]

THOMAISM, THOMISM, n. The doctrine of St. Thomas Aquinas with respect to predestination and grace.