Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



SURADDITION, n. Something added to the name. [Not used.]

SURAL, a. [L. sura.] Being in or pertaining to the calf of the leg; as the sural artery.

SURANCE, for assurance, not used.

SURBASE, n. [sur and base.] A border or molding above the base.

SURBASED, a. Having a surbase, or molding above the base.

SURBATE, v.t. [either L. sub and battere, or solea, sole, and battere, to beat the sole or hoof.]

1. To bruise or batter the feet by travel.

Chalky land surbates and spoils oxen’s feet.

2. To harass; to fatigue.

SURBATED, pp. Bruised in the feet; harassed; fatigued.

SURBATING, ppr. Bruising the feet of; fatiguing.

Surbeat or surbet, for surbate, not in use.

SURBED, v.t. [sur and bed.] To set edgewise, as a stone; that is in a position different from that which it had in the quarry.


1. To cease; to stop; to be at an end.

2. To leave off; to practice no longer; to refrain finally.

So pray’d he, whilst an angel’s voice from high,

Bade him surcease to importune the sky.

[This word is entirely useless, being precisely synonymous with cease, and it is nearly obsolete.]

SURCEASE, v.t. To stop; to cause to cease.
SURCEASE, n. Cessation; stop.


1. To overload; to overburden; as, to surcharge a beast or a ship; to surcharge a cannon.

Your head reclin’d, as hiding grief from view,

Droops like a rose surcharg’d with morning dew.

2. In law, to overstock; to put more cattle into a common than the person has a right to do, or more than the herbage will sustain.

SURCH`ARGE, n. An excessive load or burden; a load greater than can be well borne.

SURCHARGED, pp. Overloaded; overstocked.

SURCHARGER, n. One that overloads or overstocks.

SURCHARGING, ppr. Overloading; burdening to excess; overstocking with cattle or beasts.

SURCINGLE, n. [L. cingulum, a belt.]

1. A belt, band or girth which passes over a saddle, or over any thing laid on a horse’s back, to bind it fast.

2. The girdle of a cassoc.

SURCINGLED, a. Girt; bound with a surcingle.

SURCLE, n. [L. surculus.] A little shoot; a twig; a sucker.

SURCOAT, n. A short coat worn over the other clothes.

SURCREW, n. [sur and crew.] Additional crew or collection. [Not in use.]

SURCULATE, v.t. [L. surculo.] To prune. [Not in use.]

SURCULATION, n. The act of pruning. [Not in use.]

SURD, a. [L. surdus, deaf.] Deaf; not having the sense of hearing. [Not used.]

1. Upheard. [Not used.]

2. Designating a quantity whose root cannot be exactly expressed in numbers.

SURD, n. In algebra, a quantity whose root cannot be exactly expressed in numbers. Thus 2 is a surd number, because there is no number which multiplied into itself, will exactly produce 2.

SURDITY, n. Deafness. [Not used.]

SURE, a. shure. [L. assevero, and to be connected with swear, and perhaps with L. verus; s being the remains of a prefix.]

1. Certain; unfailing; infallible.

The testimony of the Lord is sure. Psalm 19:7.

We have also a more sure word of prophecy. 2 Peter 1:19.

2. Certainly knowing, or having full confidence.

We are sure that the judgment of God is according to truth-- Romans 2:2.

Now we are sure that thou knowest all things. John 16:30.

3. Certain; safe; firm; permanent.

Thy kingdom shall be sure to thee. Daniel 4:26.

4. Firm; stable; steady; not liable to failure, loss or change; as a sure covenant. 2 Samuel 23:5; Nehemiah 9:38; Isaiah 28:16.

The Lord will make my lord a sure house. 1 Samuel 25:28.

So we say, to stand sure, to be sure of foot.

5. Certain of obtaining or of retaining; as, to be sure of game; to be sure of success; to be sure of life or health.

6. Strong; secure; not liable to be broken or disturbed.

Go your way, make it as sure as ye can. Matthew 27:65.

7. Certain; not liable to failure. The income is sure.

To be sure, or be sure, certainly. Shall you go? be sure I shall.

To make sure, to make certain; to secure so that there can be no failure of the purpose or object.

Make sure of Cato.

A peace cannot fail, provided we make sure of Spain.

Give all diligence to make your calling and election sure. 2 Peter 1:10.

SURE, adv. Certainly; without doubt; doubtless.

Sure the queen would wish him still unknown.

[But in this sense, surely is more generally used.]

SUREFOOTED, a. [sure and foot.] Not liable to stumble or fall; as a surefooted horse.

SURELY, adv. Certainly; infallibly; undoubtedly.

In the day thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die. Genesis 2:17.

He that created something out of nothing, surely can raise great things out of small.

1. Firmly; without danger of falling.

He that walketh uprightly, walketh surely. Proverbs 10:9.

SURENESS, n. Certainty.

For more sureness he repeats it. [Little used.]

SURETISHIP, n. [from surety.] The state of being surety; the obligation of a person to answer for another, and make good any debt or loss which may occur from another’s delinquency.

He that hateth suretiship is sure. Proverbs 11:15.

SURETY, n. Certainty; indubitableness.

Know of a surety, that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs-- Genesis 15:13.

1. Security; safety.

Yet for the more surety they looked round about.

2. Foundation of stability; support.

We our state

Hold, as you yours, while our obedience holds;

On other surety none.

3. Evidence; ratification; confirmation.

She call’d the saints to surety.

That she would never put it from her finger,

Unless she gave it to yourself.

4. Security against loss or damage; security for payment.

There remains unpaid

A hundred thousand more, in surety of the which

One part of Aquitain is bound to us.

5. In law, one that is bound with and for another; one who enters into a bond or recognizance to answer for another’s appearance in court, or for his payment of a debt or for the performance of some act, and who, in case of the principal debtor’s failure, is compellable to pay the debt or damages; a bondsman; a bail.

He that is surety for a stranger, shall smart for it. Proverbs 11:15.

Thy servant became surety for the lad to my father. Genesis 44:32.

6. In Scripture, Christ is called “the surety of a better testament.” Hebrews 7:22. He undertook to make atonement for the sins of men, and thus prepare the way to deliver them from the punishment to which they had rendered themselves liable.

7. A hostage.

SURF, n. The swell of the sea which breaks upon the shore, or upon sand banks or rocks.

1. In agriculture, the bottom or conduit of a drain. [Local.]

SURFACE, n. The exterior part of any thing that has length and breadth; one of the limits that terminates a solid; the superficies; outside; as the surface of the earth; the surface of the sea; the surface of a diamond; the surface of the body; the surface of a cylinder; an even or an uneven surface; a smooth or rough surface; a spherical surface.

SURFEIT, v.t. sur’fit. [L. facio.]

1. To feed with meat or drink, so as to oppress the stomach and derange the functions of the system; to overfeed and produce sickness or uneasiness.

2. To cloy; to fill to satiety and disgust. He surfeits us with his eulogies.

SURFEIT, v.i. To be fed till the system is oppressed and sickness or uneasiness ensues.

They are as sick that surfeit with too much, as they that starve with nothing.

SURFEIT, n. Fullness and oppression of the system, occasioned by excessive eating and drinking. He has not recovered from a surfeit.

1. Excess in eating and drinking.

Now comes the sick hour that his surfeit made.

SURFEITED, pp. Surcharges and oppressed with eating and drinking to excess; cloyed.

SURFEITER, n. One who riots; a glutton.

SURFEITING, ppr. Oppressing the system by excessive eating and drinking; cloying; loading or filling to disgust.

SURFEITING, n. The act of feeding to excess; gluttony. Luke 21:34.

SURFEIT-WATER, n. [surfeit and water.] Water for the cure of surfeits.

SURGE, n. [L. surgo, to rise.]

1. A large wave or billow; great rolling swell of water. [It is not applied to small waves, and is chiefly used in poetry and eloquence.]

He flies aloft, and with impetuous roar,

Pursues the foaming surges to the shore.

2. In ship-building, the tapered part in front of the whelps, between the chocks of a capstan, on which the messenger may surge.

SURGE, v.i. To swell; to rise high and roll; as waves.

The surging waters like a mountain rise.

1. To slip back, as, the cable surges.

SURGELESS, a. surj’less. Free from surges; smooth; calm.

SURGEON, n. sur’jen. [contracted from chirurgeon.] One whose profession or occupation is to cure diseases or injuries of the body by manual operation. In a more general sense, one whose occupation is to cure external diseases, whether by manual operation, or by medicines externally or internally.

SURGERY, n. Properly, the act of healing by manual operation; or that branch of medical science which treats of manual operations for the healing of diseases or injuries of the body. In a more general sense, the act of healing external diseases by manual operation or by medicines; or that branch of medical science which has for its principal object the cure of external injuries.

SURGICAL, a. Pertaining to surgeons or surgery; done by means of surgery.

SURGING, ppr. Swelling and rolling, as billows.

Surging waves against a solid rock.

SURGY, a. Rising in surges or billows; full of surges; as the surgy main.

SURICATE, n. An animal like the ichneumon; the four toed weasel.

SURLILY, adv. [from surly.] In a surly, morose manner.

SURLINESS, n. Gloomy moroseness; crabbed ill nature; as the surliness of a dog.

SURLING, n. A sour morose fellow. [Not in use.]


1. Gloomily morose; crabbed; snarling; sternly sour; rough; cross and rude; as a surly groom; a surly dog.

That surly spirit, melancholy.

2. Rough; dark; tempestuous.

Now soften’d into joy the surly storm.

SURMISAL, n. Surmise. [Not in use.]

SURMISE, v.t. surmi’ze. To suspect; to imagine without certain knowledge; to entertain thoughts that something does or will exist, but upon slight evidence.

It wafted nearer yet, and then she knew

That what before she but surmis’d, was true.

This change was not wrought by altering the form or position of the earth, as was surmised by a very learned man, but by dissolving it.

SURMISE, n. Suspicion; the thought or imagination that something may be, of which however there is no certain or strong evidence; as the surmises of jealousy or of envy.

We double honor gain

From his surmise prov’d false.

No man ought to be charged with principles he disowns, unless his practices contradict his professions; not upon small surmises.

SURMISED, pp. Suspected; imagined upon slight evidence.

SURMISER, n. One who surmises.

SURMISING, ppr. Suspecting; imagining upon slight evidence.

SURMISING, n. The act of suspecting; surmise; as evil surmisings. 1 Timothy 6:4.


1. To rise above.

The mountains of Olympus, Atho and Atlas, surmount all winds and clouds.

2. To conquer; to overcome; as, to surmount difficulties or obstacles.

3. To surpass; to exceed.

What surmounts the reach

Of human sense--

SURMOUNTABLE, a. That may be overcome; superable.

SURMOUNTED, pp. Overcome; conquered; surpassed.

SURMOUNTER, n. One that surmounts.

SURMOUNTING, ppr. Rising above; overcoming; surpassing.

SURMULLET, n. A fish of the genus Mullus, (M. barbatus,) remarkable for the brilliancy of its colors, and for the changes which they undergo as the fish expires. The name is also applied to other species of the genus.

SURMULOT, n. A name given by Buffon to the brown or Norway rat.

SURNAME, n. [L. super and nomen.]

1. An additional name; a name or appellation added to the baptismal or christian name, and which becomes a family name. Surnames, with us, originally designated occupation, estate, place of residence, or some particular thing or event that related to the person. Thus William Rufus or red; Edmund Ironsides; Robert Smith, or the smith; William Turner.

2. An appellation added to the original name.

My surname Coriolanus.

SURNAME, v.t. To name or call by an appellation added to the original name.

Another shall subscribe with his hand unto the Lord, and surname himself by the name of Israel. Isaiah 44:5.

And Simon he surnamed Peter. Mark 3:16.

SURNAMED, pp. Called by a name added to the christian or original name.

SURNAMING, ppr. Naming by an appellation added to the original name.

SUROXYD, n. [sur and oxyd.] That which contains an addition of oxyd. [Little used.]

SUROXYDATE, v.t. To form a suroxyd. [Little used.]

SURPASS, v.t. To exceed; to excel; to go beyond in any thing good or bad. Homer surpasses modern poets in sublimity. Pope surpasses most other poets in smoothness of versification. Achilles surpassed the other Greeks in strength and courage. Clodius surpassed all men in the profligacy of his life. Perhaps no man ever surpassed Washington in genuine patriotism and integrity of life.

SURPASSABLE, a. That may be exceeded.

SURPASSED, pp. Exceeded; excelled.

SURPASSING, ppr. Exceeding; going beyond.

1. a. Excellent in an eminent degree; exceeding others.

O thou, that with surpassing glory crown’d--

SURPASSINGLY, adv. In a very excellent manner; or in a degree surpassing others.

SURPLICE, n. sur’plis. [L. super pellicium, above the robe of fur.]

A white garment worn by clergymen of some denominations over their other dress, in their ministrations. It is particularly the habit of the clergy of the church of England.

SURPLICED, a. Wearing a surplice.

SURPLICE-FEES, n. [surplice and fees.] Fees paid to the clergy for occasional duties.

SURPLUS, n. [L. id., more.]

1. Overplus; that which remains when use is satisfied; excess beyond what is prescribed or wanted. In the United States, the surplus of wheat and rye not required for consumption or exportation, is distilled.

2. In law, the residuum of an estate, after the debts and legacies are paid.

SURPLUSAGE, n. Surplus; as surplusage of grain or goods beyond what is wanted.

1. In law, something in the pleadings or proceedings not necessary or relevant to the case, and which may be rejected.

2. In accounts, a greater disbursement than the charge of the accountant amounteth to.

SURPRISAL, n. surpri’zal. [See Surprise.] The act of surprising or coming upon suddenly and unexpectedly; or the state of being taken unawares.

SURPRISE, v.t. surpri’ze. [L. super, supra, and prendo, to take.]

1. To come or fall upon suddenly and unexpectedly; to take unawares.

The castle of Macduff I will surprise.

Who can speak

The mingled passions that surpris’d his heart?

2. To strike with wonder or astonishment by something sudden, unexpected or remarkable, either in conduct, words or story, or by the appearance of something unusual. Thus we are surprised at desperate acts of heroism, or at the narration of wonderful events, or at the sight of things of uncommon magnitude or curious structure.

3. To confuse; to throw the mind into disorder by something suddenly presented to the view or to the mind.

Up he starts, discover’d and surpris’d.

SURPRISE, n. The act of coming upon unawares, or of taking suddenly and without preparation. The fort was taken by surprise.

1. The state of being taken unexpectedly.

2. An emotion excited by something happening suddenly and unexpectedly, as something novel told or presented to view. Nothing could exceed his surprise at the narration of these adventures. It expresses less than wonder and astonishment.

3. A dish with nothing in it. [Not in use.]

SURPRISED, pp. Come upon or taken unawares; struck with something novel or unexpected.

SURPRISING, ppr. Falling on or taking suddenly or unawares; striking with something novel; taking by a sudden or unexpected attack.

1. a. Exciting surprise; extraordinary; of a nature to excite wonder and astonishment; as surprising bravery; surprising patience; a surprising escape from danger.

SURPRISINGLY, adv. In a manner or degree that excites surprise. He exerted himself surprisingly to save the life of his companion.

SURQUEDRY, n. [See Heed.] Overweening pride; arrogance. [Not in use.]

SURREBUT, v.i. [sur and rebut.] In legal pleadings, to reply, as a plaintif, to a defendant’s rebutter.

SURREBUTTER, n. The plaintif’s reply in pleading to a defendant’s rebutter.

SURREJOIN, v.i. [sur and rejoin.] In legal pleadings, to reply, as a plaintif to a defendant’s rejoinder.

SURREJOINDER, n. The answer of a plaintif to a defendant’s rejoinder.

SURRENDER, v.t. [L. sursum, and rendre, to render.]

1. To yield to the power of another; to give or deliver up possession upon compulsion or demand; as, to surrender one’s person to an enemy, or to commissioners of bankrupt; to surrender a fort or a ship. [To surrender up is not elegant.]

2. To yield; to give up; to resign in favor of another; as, to surrender a right or privilege; to surrender a place or an office.

3. To give up; to resign; as, to surrender the breath.

4. In law, to yield an estate, as a tenant, into the hands of the lord for such purposes as are expressed in the act.

5. To yield to any influence, passion or power; as, to surrender one’s self to grief, to despair, to indolence or to sleep.

SURRENDER, v.i. To yield; to give up one’s self into the power of another. The enemy seeing no way of escape, surrendered at the first summons.
SURRENDER, n. The act of yielding or resigning one’s person or the possession of something, into the power of another; as the surrender of a castle to an enemy; the surrender of a right or of claims.

1. A yielding or giving up.

2. In law, the yielding of an estate by a tenant to the lord, for such purposes as are expressed by the tenant in the act.

SURRENDERED, pp. Yielded or delivered to the power of another; given up; resigned.

SURRENDEREE, n. In law, a person to whom the lord grants surrendered land; the cestuy que use.

SURRENDERING, ppr. Yielding or giving up to the power of another; resigning.

SURRENDEROR, n. The tenant who surrenders an estate into the hands of his lord.

Till the admittance of cestuy que use, the lord takes notice of the surrenderor as his tenant.

SURRENDRY, n. A surrender. [Surrender is the most elegant and best authorized.]

SURREPTION, n. [L. surreptus, surrepo; sub and repo, to creep.]

A coming unperceived; a stealing upon insensibly. [Little used.]

SURREPTITIOUS, a. [L. surreptitius, supra.] Done by stealth or without proper authority; made or introduced fraudulently; as a surreptitious passage in a manuscript.

A correct copy of the Dunciad, the many surreptitious ones have rendered necessary.

SURREPTITIOUSLY, adv. By stealth; without authority; fraudulently.

SURROGATE, n. [L. surrogatus, surrogo, subrogo; sub and rogo, to propose. Rogo, to ask or propose, signifies primarily to reach, put or thrust forward; and subrogo is to put or set in the place of another.] In a general sense, a deputy; a delegate; a substitute; particularly, the deputy of an ecclesiastical judge, most commonly of a bishop or his chancellor. In some of the United States, the judge of probate, of wills and testaments.

SURROGATE, v.t. To put in the place of another. [Little used.]

SURROGATION, n. The act of substituting one person in the place of another. [Little used.]

SURROUND, v.t. [sur and round.]

1. To encompass; to environ; to inclose on all sides; as, to surround a city. They surrounded a body of the enemy.

2. To lie or be on all sides of; as, a wall or ditch surrounds the city.

SURROUNDED, pp. Encompassed; inclosed; beset.

SURROUNDING, ppr. Encompassing; inclosing; lying on all sides of.

SURSOLID, n. [sur and solid, or surdesolid.] In mathematics, the fifth power of a number; or the product of the fourth multiplication of a number considered as the root. Thus 3x3=9, the square of 3, and 9x3=27, the third power or cube, and 27x3=81, the fourth power, and 81x3=243, which is the sursolid of 3.

SURSOLID, a. Denoting the fifth power.

Sursolid problem, is that which cannot be resolved but by curves of a higher kind than the conic sections.

SURTOUT, n. A man’s coat to be worn over his other garments.