Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



STROKED, pp. Rubbed gently with the hand.

STROKER, n. One who strokes; one who pretends to cure by stroking.

STROKESMAN, n. In rowing, the man who rows the aftmost oar, and whose stroke is to be followed by the rest.

STROKING, ppr. Rubbing gently with the hand.

STROLL, v.i. [formed probably on troll, roll.] To rove; to wander on foot; to ramble idly or leisurely.

These mothers stroll to beg sustenance for their helpless infants.

STROLL, n. A wandering on foot; a walking idly and leisurely.

STROLLER, n. One who strolls; a vagabond; a vagrant.

STROLLING, ppr. Roving idly; rambling on foot.

STROMBITE, n. A petrified shell of the genus Strombus.

STROND, n. The beach. [Not much used. See Strand.]

STRONG, a. [G., L. The sense of the radical word is to stretch, strain, draw, and probably from the root of stretch and reach.]

1. Having physical active power, or great physical power; having the power of exerting great bodily force; vigorous. A patient is recovering from sickness, but is not yet strong enough to walk. A strong man will lift twice his own weight.

That our oxen may be strong to labor. Psalm 144:14.

Orses the strong to greater strength must yield.

2. Having physical passive power; having ability to bear or endure; firm; solid; as a constitution strong enough to bear the fatigues of a campaign.

3. Well fortified; able to sustain attacks; not easily subdued or taken; as a strong fortress or town.

4. Having great military or naval force; powerful; as a strong army or fleet; a strong nation; a nation strong at sea.

5. Having great wealth, means or resources; as a strong house or company of merchants.

6. Moving with rapidity; violent; forcible; impetuous; as a strong current of water or wind; the wind was strong from the northeast; we had a strong tide against us.

7. Hale; sound; robust; as a strong constitution.

8. Powerful; forcible; cogent; adapted to make a deep or effectual impression on the mind or imagination; as a strong argument; strong reasons; strong evidence; a strong example or instance. He used strong language.

9. Ardent; eager; zealous; earnestly engaged; as a strong partisan; a strong whig or tory.

Her mother, ever strong against that match--

10. Having virtues of great efficacy; or having a particular quality in a great degree; as a strong powder or tincture; a strong decoction; strong tea; strong coffee.

11. Full of spirit; intoxicating; as strong liquors.

12. Affecting the sight forcibly; as strong colors.

13. Affecting the taste forcibly; as the strong flavor of onions.

14. Affecting the smell powerfully; as a strong scent.

15. Not of easy digestion; solid; as strong meat. Hebrews 5:12, 14.

16. Well established; firm; not easily overthrown or altered; as a custom grown strong by time.

17. Violent; vehement; earnest.

Who in the day of his flesh, when he offered up prayers with strong crying and tears-- Hebrews 5:7.

18. Able; furnished with abilities.

I was stronger in prophecy than in criticism.

19. Having great force of mind, of intellect or of any faculty; as a man of strong powers of mind; a man of a strong mind or intellect; a man of strong memory, judgment or imagination.

20. Having great force; comprising much in few words.

Like her sweet voice is thy harmonious song, as high, as sweet, as easy and as strong.

21. Bright; glaring; vivid; as a strong light.

22. Powerful to the extent of force named; as an army ten thousand strong.

STRONGER, a. comp. of strong. Having more strength.

STRONGEST, a. superl. of strong. Having most strength.

STRONG-FISTED, a. [strong and fist.] Having a strong hand; muscular.

STRONG-HAND, n. [strong and hand.] Violence; force; power.

It was their meaning to take what they needed by strong-hand. [Not properly a compound word.]

STRONG-HOLD, n. [strong and hold.] A fastness; a fort; a fortified place; a place of security.


1. With strength; with great force or power; forcibly; a word of extensive application.

2. Firmly; in a manner to resist attack; as a town strongly fortified.

3. Vehemently; forcibly; eagerly. The evils of this measure were strongly represented to the government.

STRONG-SET, a. [strong and set.] Firmly set or compacted.

STRONG-WATER, n. [strong and water.] Distilled or ardent spirit. [Not in use.]

STRONTIAN, n. [from Strontian, in Argyleshire, where it was first found.] An earth which, when pure and dry, is perfectly white, and resembles baryte in many of its properties. It is a compound of oxygen and a base to which is given the name strontium, in the proportion of 16 per cent. of the former, to 84 per cent. of the latter.

STRONTIAN, STRONTITIC, a. Pertaining to strontian.

STRONTIANITE, n. Carbonate of strontian, a mineral that occurs massive, fibrous, stellated, and crystalized in the form of a hexahedral prism, modified on the edges, or terminated by a pyramid.

Prismatic baryte, a species of heavy spar.

STRONTIUM, n. The base of strontian.

STROOK, for struck. [Not in use.]


1. A strap. [See Strap.] This orthography is particularly used for a strip of lether used for sharpening razors and giving them a fine smooth edge; a razor-strop. But strap is preferable.

2. A piece of rope spliced into a circular wreath, and put round a block for hanging it.

STROPHE, STROPHY, n. [Gr., a turn; to turn.] In Greek poetry, a stanza; the first member of a poem. This is succeeded by a similar stanza called antistrophy.

STROUT, v.i. [for strut.] To swell; to puff out. [Not in use.]

STROVE, pret. of strive.

STROW, is only a different orthography of strew. [Not in use.]

STROWL, for stroll, is not in use. [See Stroll.]

STROY, for destroy, is not in use. [See Stroll.]

STRUCK, pret. and pp. of strike. [See Strike.]

STRUCKEN, the old pp. of strike, is obsolete.

STRUCTURE, n. [L., to set or lay.]

1. Act of building; practice of erecting buildings.

His son builds on and never is content, till the last farthing is in structure spent.

2. Manner of building; form; make; construction; as the want of insight into the structure and constitution of the terraqueous globe.

3. Manner of organization of animals and vegetables, etc.

4. A building of any kind, but chiefly a building of some size or of magnificence; an edifice. The iron bridge over the Seine in Paris, is a beautiful structure.

There stands a structure of majestic frame.

5. In mineralogy, the particular arrangement of the integrant particles or molecules of a mineral.

STRUDE, STRODE, n. A stock of breeding mares.

STRUGGLE, v.i. [This word may be formed on the root of stretch, right, etc. which signifies to strain; or more directly on the same elements in L., to wrinkle.]

1. Properly, to strive, or to make efforts with a twisting or with contortions of the body. Hence,

2. To use great efforts; to labor hard; to strive; to contend; as, to struggle to save life; to struggle with the waves; to struggle against the stream; to struggle with adversity.

3. To labor in pain or anguish; to be in agony; to labor in any kind of difficulty or distress.

Tis wisdom to beware, and better shun the bait than struggle in the snare.


1. Great labor; forcible effort to obtain an object, or to avoid an evil; properly, a violent effort with contortions of the body.

2. Contest; contention; strife.

An honest man might look upon the struggle with indifference.

3. Agony; contortions of extreme distress.

STRUGGLER, n. One who struggles, strives or contends.

STRUGGLING, ppr. Making great efforts; using violent exertions; affected with contortions.

STRUGGLING, n. The act of striving; vehement or earnest effort.

STRUMA, n. [L.] A glandular swelling; scrofula; the kings evil; a wen.

STRUMOUS, a. Having swelling sin the glands; scrofulous.

STRUMPET, n. A prostitute.

STRUMPET, a. Like a strumpet; false; inconstant.
STRUMPET, v.t. To debauch.

STRUNG, pret. of string.

STRUT, v.i.

1. To walk with a lofty proud gait and erect head; to walk with affected dignity.

Does he not hold up his head and strut in his gait?

2. To swell; to protuberate.

The bellying canvas strutted with the gale. [Not used.]

STRUT, n. A lofty proud step or walk with the head erect; affectation of dignity in walking.

STRUTHIOUS, a. [L.] Pertaining to or like the ostrich.

STRUTTER, n. One who struts.

STRUTTING, ppr. Walking with a lofty gait and erect head.

STRUTTING, n. The act of walking with a proud gait.

STRUTTINGLY, adv. With a proud lofty step; boastingly.

STRYCHNIA, n. An alkaline substance obtained from the fruit of the Strychnos nux vomica, and Strychnos ignatia. It is a white substance, crystalized in very small four sided prisms, and intolerably bitter. It acts upon the stomach with violent energy, inducing locked jaw and destroying life.

STUB, n. [L., setting, fixing. See Stop.]

1. The stump of a tree; that part of the stem of a tree which remains fixed int he earth when the tree is cut down. [Stub, in the United States, I believe is never used for the stump of an herbaceous plant.]

2. A log; a block. [Not in use.]

STUB, v.t.

1. To grub up by the roots; to extirpate; as, to stub up edible roots.

2. To strike the toes against a stump, stone or other fixed object.


1. Short and thick like something truncated; blunt; obtuse.

2. Hardy; not nice or delicate.

STUBBEDNESS, n. Bluntness; obtuseness.

STUBBLE, n. [L.] The stumps of wheat, rye, barley, oats or buckwheat, left in the ground; the part of the stalk left by the sythe or sickle.

After the first crop is off, they plow in the stubble.

STUBBLE-GOOSE, n. [stubble and goose.] A goose fed among stubble.

STUBBLE-RAKE, n. A rake with long teeth for raking together stubble.

STUBBORN, a. [This word is doubtless formed on the root of stub or stiff, and denotes fixed, firm. But the origin of the latter syllable is not obvious.]

1. Unreasonably obstinate; inflexibly fixed in opinion; not to be moved or persuaded by reasons; inflexible; as a stubborn son; a stubborn mind or soul.

The queen is obstinate--stubborn to justice.

2. Persevering; persisting; steady; constant; as stubborn attention.

3. Stiff; not flexible; as a stubborn bow.

Take a plant of stubborn oak.

4. Hardy; firm; enduring without complaint; as stubborn Stoics.

5. Harsh; rough; rugged. [Little used.]

6. Refractory; not easily melted or worked; as a stubborn ore or metal.

7. Refractory; obstinately resisting command, the goad or the whip; as a stubborn ass or horse.

STUBBORNLY, adv. Obstinately; inflexibly; contumaciously.


1. Perverse and unreasonable obstinacy; inflexibility; contumacy.

Stubbornness and obstinate disobedience must be mastered with blows.

2. Stiffness; want of pliancy.

3. Refractoriness, as of ores.

STUBBY, a. [from stub.]

1. Abounding with stubs.

2. Short and thick; short and strong; as stubby bristles.

STUB-NAIL, n. [stub and nail.] A nail broken off; a short thick nail.


1. A fine plaster composed of lime, sand, whiting and pounded marble; used for covering walls, etc.

2. Work made of stucco.

STUCCO, v.t. To plaster; to overlay with fine plaster.

STUCCOED, pp. Overlaid with stucco.

STUCCOING, ppr. Plastering with stucco.

STUCK, pret. and pp. of stick.

Stuck oer with titles, and hung round with strings.

STUCK, n. A thrust. [Not in use.]

STUCKLE, n. [from stook.] A number of sheaves set together in the field. [Not in use in the United States.]

STUD, n. [G., a stay or prop; to butt at, to gore. The sense of the root is to set, to thrust. G. It coincides with stead, place.]

1. In building, a small piece of timber or joist inserted in the sills and beams, between the posts, to support he beams or other main timbers. The boards on the outside and the laths on the inside of a building, are also nailed to the studs.

2. A nail with a large head, inserted in work chiefly for ornament; an ornamental knob.

A belt of straw, and ivy buds, with coral clasps and amber studs.

Crystal and myrrhine cups, embossd with gems and studs of pearl.

3. A collection of breeding horses and mares; or the place where they are kept.

In the studs of Ireland, where care is taken, we see horses bred of excellent shape, vigor and fire.

4. A button for a shirt sleeve.

STUD, v.t.

1. To adorn with shining studs or knobs.

Their horses shall be trappd, their harness studded all with gold and pearl.

2. To set with detached ornaments or prominent objects.


1. Adorned with studs.

2. Set with detached ornaments.

The sloping sides and summits of our hills, and the extensive plains that stretch before our view, are studded with substantial, neat and commodious dwelling of freemen.

STUDDING, ppr. Setting or adorning with studs or shining knobs.

STUDDING-SAIL, n. In navigation, a sail that is set beyond the skirts of the principal sails. The studding-sails are set only when the wind is light. They appear like wings upon the yard-arms.

STUDENT, n. [L. See Study.]

1. A person engaged in study; one who is devoted to learning, either in a seminary or in private; a scholar; as the students of an academy, of a college or university; a medical student; a law student.

2. A man devoted to books; a bookish man; as a hard student; a close student.

Keep a gamester from dice, and a good student from his books.

3. One who studies or examines; as a student of natures works.

STUD-HORSE, n. [L.] A breeding horse; a horse kept for propagating his kind.

STUDIED, pp. [from study.]

1. Read; closely examined; read with diligence and attention; well considered. The book has been studied. The subject has been well studied.

2. a. Learned; well versed in any branch of learning; qualified by study; as a man well studied in geometry, or in law or medical science.

3. Having a particular inclination. [Not in use.]

STUDIER, n. [from study.] One who studies; a student.

Lipsius was a great studier in the stoical philosophy.


1. Given to books or to learning; devoted to the acquisition of knowledge from books; as a studious scholar.

2. Contemplative; given to thought, or to the examination of subjects by contemplation.

3. Diligent; eager to discover something, or to effect some object; as, be studious to please; studious to find new friends and allies.

4. Attentive to; careful; with of.

Divines must become studious of pious and venerable antiquity.

5. Planned with study; deliberate.

For the frigid villany of studious lewdness, for the calm malignity of labored impiety, what apology can be invented?

6. Favorable to study; suitable for thought and contemplation; as the studious shade.

But let my due feet never fail, To walk the studious cloister pale. [The latter signification is forced and not much used.]


1. With study; with close attention to books.

2. With diligent contemplation.

3. Diligently; with zeal and earnestness.

4. Carefully; attentively.

STUDIOUSNESS, n. The habit or practice of study; addictedness to books. Men of sprightly imagination are not generally the most remarkable for studiousness.

STUDY, n. [L., to study, that is, to set the thought or mind. See Assiduous.]

1. Literally, a setting of the mind or thoughts upon a subject; hence, application of mind of books, to arts or science, or to any subject, for the purpose of learning what is not before known.

Hammond generally spent thirteen hours of the day in study.

Study gives strength to the mind; conversation, grace.

2. Attention; meditation; contrivance.

Just men they seemd, and all their study bent to worship God aright and know his works.

3. Any particular branch of learning that is studied. Let your studies be directed by some learned and judicious friend.

4. Subject of attention.

The Holy Scriptures, especially the New Testament, are her daily study.

5. A building or an apartment devoted to study or to literary employment.

6. Deep cogitation; perplexity. [Little used.]

STUDY, v.i. [L.]

1. To fix the mind closely upon a subject; to muse; to dwell upon in thought.

I found a moral first, and then studied for a fable.

2. To apply the mind to books. He studies eight hours in the day.

3. To endeavor diligently.

That ye study to be quiet and do your own business. 1 Thessalonians 4:11.

STUDY, v.t.

1. To apply the mind to; to read and examine for the purpose of learning and understanding; as, to study law or theology; to study languages.

2. To consider attentively; to examine closely. Study the works of nature.

Study, thyself; what rank or what degree thy wise Creator has ordaind for thee.

3. To form or arrange by previous thought; to con over; or to commit to memory; as, to study a speech.

STUFF, n. [G., See Stove and Stew.]

1. A mass of matter, indefinitely; or a collection of substances; as a heap of dust, of chips or of dross.

2. The matter of which any thing is formed; materials. The carpenter and joiner speak of the stuff with which they build; mechanics pride themselves on having their wares made of good stuff.

Time is the stuff which life is made of.

Degrading prose explains his meaning ill, and shows the stuff, and not the workmans skill.

Cesar hath wept; ambition should be made of sterner stuff.

3. Furniture; goods; domestic vessels in general.

He took away locks, and gave away the kings stuff. [Nearly obsolete.]

4. That which fills any thing.

Cleanse the suffd bosom of that perilous stuff that weighs upon the heart.

5. Essence; elemental part; as the stuff of the conscience.

6. A medicine. [Vulgar.]

7. Cloth; fabrics of the loom; as silk stuffs; woolen stuffs. In this sense the word has a plural. Stuff comprehends all cloths, but it signifies particularly woolen cloth of slight texture for linings.

8. Matter or thing; particularly, that which is trifling or worthless; a very extensive use of the word. Flattery is fulsome stuff; poor poetry is miserable stuff.

Anger would indite such woful stuff as I or Shadwell write.

9. Among seamen, a melted mass of turpentine, tallow, etc. With which the masts, sides and bottom of a ship are smeared.

STUFF, v.t.

1. To fill; as, to stuff a bedtick.

2. To fill very full; to crowd.

This crook drew hazel boughs adown, and stuffd her apron wide with nuts so brown.

3. To thrust in; to crowd; to press.

Put roses into a glass with a narrow mouth, stuffing them close together.

4. To fill by being put into nay thing.

With inward arms the dire machine they load, and iron bowels stuff the dark abode.

5. To swell or cause to bulge out by putting something in.

Stuff me out with straw.

6. To fill with something improper.

For thee I dim these eyes, and stuff this head with all such reading as was never read.

7. To obstruct, as any of the organs.

Im stuffd, cousin; I cannot smell.

8. To fill meat with seasoning; as, to stuff a leg of veal.

9. To fill the skin of a dead animal for presenting and preserving his form; as, to stuff a bird or a lions skin.

10. To form by filling.

An eastern king put a judge to death for an iniquitous sentence, and ordered his hide to be stuffed into a cushion, and placed upon the tribunal.

STUFF, v.i. To feed gluttonously.

Taught harmless man to cram and stuff.

STUFFED, pp. Filled; crowded; crammed.

STUFFING, ppr. Filling; crowding.


1. That which is used for filling any thing; as the stuffing of a saddle or cushion.

2. Seasoning for meat; that which is put into meat to give it a higher relish.

STUKE, for stucco, not in use.

STULM, n. A shaft to draw water out of a mine.

STULP, n. A post. [Local.]

STULTIFY, v.t. [L., foolish; to make.]

1. To make foolish; to make one a fool.

2. In law, to alledge or prove to be insane, for avoiding some act.

STULTILOQUENCE, n. [L., foolish; a talking.] Foolish talk; a babbling.

STULTILOQUY, n. [L., supra.] Foolish talk; silly discourse; babbling.

STUM, n. [G.]

1. Must; wine unfermented.

2. New wine used to raise fermentation in dead or vapid wines.

3. Wine revived by a new fermentation.

STUM, v.t.

1. To renew wine by mixing must with it, and raising a new fermentation.

We stum our wines to renew their spirits.

2. To fume a cask or liquor with burning brimstone. [Local.]

STUMBLE, v.i. [This word is probably from a root that signifies to stop or to strike, and may be allied to stammer.]

1. To trip in walking or moving in any way upon the legs; to strike the foot so as to fall, or to endanger a fall; applied to any animal. A man may stumble, as well as a horse.

The way of the wicked is as darkness; they know not at what they stumble. Proverbs 4:19.

2. To err; to slide into a crime or an error.

He that loveth his brother, abideth in the light, and there is none occasion of stumbling in him. 1 John 2:10.

3. To strike upon without design; to fall on; to light on by chance. Men often stumble upon valuable discoveries.

Ovid stumbled by some inadvertence upon Livia in a bath.


1. To obstruct in progress; to cause to trip or stop.

2. To confound; to puzzle; to put to a nonplus; to perplex.

One thing more stumbles me in the very foundation of this hypothesis.


1. A trip in walking or running.

2. A blunder; a failure.

One stumble is enough to deface the character of an honorable life.

STUMBLED, pp. Obstructed; puzzled.

STUMBLER, n. One that stumbles or makes a blunder.

STUMBLING, ppr. Tripping; erring; puzzling.

STUMBLING-BLOCK, STUMBLING-STONE, n. [stumble and block or stone.] Any cause of stumbling; that which causes to err.

We preach Christ crucified, to the Jews a stumbling-block, and to the Greeks foolishness. 1 Corinthians 1:23.

This stumbling stone we hope to take away.

STUMP, n. [G.]

1. The stub of a tree; the part of a tree remaining int he earth after the tree is cut down, or the part of any plant left in the earth by the sythe or sickle.

2. The part of a limb or other body remaining after a part is amputated or destroyed; as the stump of a leg, of a finger or a tooth.

STUMP, v.t.

1. To strike any thing fixed and hard with the toe. [Vulgar.]

2. To challenge. [Vulgar.]


1. Full of stumps.

2. Hard; strong. [Little used.]

3. Short; stubby. [Little used.]

STUN, v.t. [The primary sense is to strike or to stop, to blunt, to stupefy.]

1. To make senseless or dizzy with a blow on the head; as, to be stunned by a fall, or by a falling timber.

One hung a pole-ax at his saddle bow, and one a heavy mace to stun the foe.

2. To overpower the sense of hearing; to blunt or stupefy the organs of hearing. To prevent being stunned, cannoneers sometimes fill their ears with wool.

3. To confound or make dizzy by loud and mingled sound.

--An universal hubbub wild of stunning sounds and voices all confusd.

STUNG, pret. and pp. of sting.

STUNK, pret. of stink.

STUNNED, pp. Having the sense of hearing overpowered; confounded with noise.

STUNNING, ppr. Overpowering the organs of hearing; confounding with noise.

STUNT, v.t. [See Stint.] To hinder from growth; applied to animals and plants; as, to stunt a child; to stunt a plant.

STUNTED, pp. Hindered from growth or increase.

STUNTEDNESS, n. The state of being stunted.

STUNTING, ppr. Hindering from growth or increase.

STUPE, n. [L., tow; probably allied to stuff.] Cloth or flax dipped in warm medicaments and applied to a hurt or sore; fomentation; sweating bath.

STUPE, v.t. To foment.
STUPE, n. A stupid person. [Not in use.]