Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



SNEAKINGNESS, n. Meanness; niggardliness.

SNEAKUP, n. A sneaking, cowardly, insidious fellow. [Not used.]

SNEAP, v.t.

1. To check; to reprove abruptly; to reprimand.

2. To nip.

SNEB, v.t. To check; to reprimand. [The same as sneap.]

SNEEK, n. The latch of a door. [Not in use.]

SNEED, SNEAD, n. A snath. [See Snath.]

SNEER, v.i. [from the root of L. naris, nose; to turn up the nose.]

1. To show contempt by turning up the nose, or by a particular cast or countenance; “naso suspendere adunco.”

2. To insinuate contempt by covert expression. I could be content to be a little sneered at.

3. To utter with grimace.

4. To show mirth awkwardly.


1. A look of contempt, or a turning up of the nose to manifest contempt; a look of disdain, derision or ridicule.

2. An expression of ludicrous scorn.

SNEERER, n. One that sneers.

SNEERFUL, a. Given to sneering. [Not in use.]

SNEERING, ppr. Manifesting contempt or scorn by turning up the nose, or by some grimace or significant look.

SNEERINGLY, adv. With a look of contempt or scorn.

SNEEZE, v.i.

To emit air through the nose audibly and violently, by a kind of involuntary convulsive force, occasioned by irriatation of the inner membrance of the nose. Thus snuff or any thing that tickles the nose, makes one sneeze.

SNEEZE, n. A sudden and violent ejection of air through the nose with an audible sound.

SNEEZE-WORT, n. A plant, a species of Achillea, and another of Xeranthemum.

SNEEZING, ppr. Emitting air from the nose audibly.

SNEEZING, n. The act of ejecting air violently and audibly through the nose; sternutation.

SNELL, a. Active; brisk; nimble. [Not in use.]

SNET, n. The fat of a dear. [Local among sportsmen.]

SNEW, old pret. of snow.

SNIB, to nip or reprimand, is only a different spelling of sneb, sneap.

SNICK, n. A small cut or mark; a latch. [Not in use.] Snick and snee, a combat with knives. [Not in use.]

[Snee is a Dutch contraction of snyden, to cut.]

SNICKER, SNIGGER, v.i. [This can have no connection with sneer. the elements and the sense are different.] To laugh slily; or to laugh in one’s sleeve. [It is a word in common use in New WNgland, not easily defined. It signifies to laugh with small audible catches of voice, as when persons attempt to suppress loud laughter.]

SNIFF, v.i. To draw air audibly up the nose. [See Snuff.]

SNIFF, v.t. To draw in with the breath. [Not in use.]
SNIFF, n. Perception by the nose. [Not in use.]

SNIFT, v.i. To snort. [Not in use.]

SNIG, n. [See Snake.] A kind of eel.

SNIGGLE, v.i. [supra.] To fish for eels, by thrusting the bait into their holes.

SNIGGLE, v.t. To snare; to catch.

SNIP, v.t. To clip; to cut off the nip or neb, or to cut off at once with shears or scissors.

SNIP, n.

1. A clip; a single cut with shears or scissors.

2. A small shred.

3. Share; a snack. [A low word.]


1. A bird tha frequents the banks of rivers and the borders of fens, distinguished by the length of its bill; the scolopax gallinago.

2. A fool; a blockhead.

SNIPPER, n. One that snips or clips.

SNIPPET, n. A small part or share. [Not in use.]

SNIPSNAP, a cant word, formed by repeating snap, and signifying a tart dialogue with quick replies.

SNITE, n. A snipe. [Not in use.]

SNITE, v.t. To blow the nose. [Not in use.] In Scotland, snite the candle, snuff it.

SNIVEL, n. sniv’l. Snot; mucus running from the nose.

SNIVEL, v.i.

1. To run at the nose.

2. To cry as children, with snuffing or sniveling.


1. One that cries with sniveling.

2. One that weeps for slight causes, or manifests weakness by weeping.

SNIVELY, a. Running at the nose; pitiful; whining.

SNOD, n. A fillet. [Not in use.]

SNOOK, v.i. To lurk; to lie in ambush. [Not in use.]

SNORE, v.i. [from the root of L. naris, the nose or nostrils.] To breathe with a rough hoarse noise in sleep.

SNORE, n. A breathing with a harse noise in sleep.

SNORER, n. One that snores.

SNORING, ppr. Respiring with a harsh noise.

SNORT, v.i.

1. To force the air with violence through the nose, so as to make a noise, as high spirited horses in prancing and play.

2. To snore. [Not common.]

SNORT, v.t. To turn up in anger, scorn or derision, as the nose. [Unusual.]

SNORTER, n. One that snorts; a snorer.

SNORTING, ppr. Forcing the air violently through the nose.

SNORTING, n. The act of forcing the air through the nose with violence and noise. Jeremiah 8:16.

SNOT, n. Mucus discharged from the nose.

SNOT, v.t. To blow the nose.

SNOTTER, v.i. To snivel; to sob.


1. Foul with snot.

2. Mean; dirty.


1. The long projecting nose of a beast, as that of swine.

2. The nose of a man; in contempt.

3. The nozzle or end of a hollow pipe.

SNOUT, v.t. To furnish with a nozzle or point.

SNOUTED, a. Having a snout.

SNOUTY, a. Resembling a beast’s snout.

SNOW, n. [L. nix, nivis; The Latin nivis, is contracted from nigis, like Eng. bow.]

1. Frozen vapor; watery particles congealed into white crystals in the air, and falling to the earth. When there is no wind, these crystals fall in flakes or unbroken collections, sometimes extremely beautiful.

2. A vessel equipped with two masts, resembling the main and fore-masts of a ship, and a third small mast just abaft the mainmast, carrying a try-sail.

SNOW, v.i. To fall in snow; as, it snows; it snowed yesterday.
SNOW, v.t. To scatter like snow.

SNOWBALL, n. [snow and ball.] A round mass of snow, pressed or rolled together.

SNOWBALL TREE, n. A flowering shrub of the genus Virburnum; gelder rose.

SNOW-BIRD, n. A small bird whcih appears in the time of snow, of the genus Emberiza; called also snow-bunting. In the U. States, the snow-bird is the Fringilla nivalis.

SNOWBROTH, n. [snow and broth.] Snow and water mixed; very cold liquor.

SNOW-CROWNED, a. [snow and crown.] Crowned or having the top covered with snow.

SNOWDEEP, n. [snow and deep.] A plant.

SNOW-DRIFT, n. [snow and drift.] A bank of snow driven together by the wind.

SNOW-DROP, n. [snow and drop.] A plant bearing a white flower, cultivated in gardens for its beauty; the Galanthus nivalis.

SNOWLESS, a. Destitute of snow.

SNOWLIKE, a. Resembling snow.

SNOW-SHOE, n. [snow and shoe.] A shoe or racket worn by men traveling on snow, to prevent their feet from sinking into the snow.

SNOW-SLIP, n. [snow and slip.] A large mass of snow which slips down the side of a mountain, and sometimes buries houses.

SNOW-WHITE, a. [snow and white.] White as snow; very white.


1. White like snow.

2. Abounding with snow; covered with snow. The snowy top of cold Olympus.

3. White; pure; unblemished.

SNUB, n. A knot or protuberance in wood; a snag. [Not in use.]

SNUB, v.t. [supra.]

1. To nip; to clip or break off the end. Hence,

2. To check; to reprimand; to check, stop or rebuke with a tart sarcastic reply or remark. [This is the same word radically as sneap, sneb, and is the word chiefly used.]

SNUB-NOSE, n. A short or flat nose.

SNUB-NOSED, a. Having a short flat nose.

SNUDGE, v.i. [See Snug.] To lie close; to snug. [Not in use.]

SNUDGE, n. A miser, or a sneaking fellow. [Not in use.]

SNUFF, n. [allied to snub, neb, nib.]

1. The burning part of a candle wick, or that which has been charred by the flame, whether burning or not.

2. A candle almost burnt out.

3. Pulverized tobacco, taken or prepared to be taken into the nose.

4. Resentment; huff, expressed by a snuffing of the nose.

SNUFF, v.t.

1. To draw in with the breath; to inhale; as, to snuff the wind.

2. To scent; to smell; to perceive by the nose.

3. To crop the snuff, as of a candle; to take off the end of the snuff.

SNUFF, v.i.

1. To snort; to inhale air with violence or with noise; as dogs and horses.

2. To turn up the nose and inhale air in contempt. Malachi 1:13.

3. To take offense.

SNUFFBOX, n. A box for carrying snuff about the person.

SNUFFER, n. One that snuffs.

SNUFFERS, n. plu. An instrument for cropping the snuff of a candle.

SNUFFLE, v.i. To speak through the nose; to breathe hard through the nose, or through the nose when obstructed. Some senseless Phillis, in a broken not, SnuffLing at nose.

SNUFFLER, n. One that snuffles or speaks through the nose when obstructed.

SNUFFLES, n. Obstruction of the nose by mucus.

SNUFFLING, n. A speaking through the nose.

SNUFFTAKING, n. One that takes snuff, or inhales in into the nose.

SNUFFY, a. Soiled with snuff.

SNUG, v.i. [See Snake.] To lie close; as, a child snugs to its mother or nurse.

SNUG, a.

1. Lying close; closely pressed; as, an infant lies snug.

2. Close; concealed; not exposed to notice. At Will’s lie snug and hear what critics say.

3. Being in good order; all convenient; neat; as a snug little farm.

4. Close; neat; convenient; as a snug house.

5. Slily or insidiously close. When you lay snug, to snap young Damon’s goat.

SNUGGLE, v.i. [from snug.] To move one way and the other to get a close place; to lie close for convenience or warmth.

SNUGLY, adv. Closely; safely.

SNUGNESS, n. Closeness; the state of being neat or convenient.

SO, adv. [L. sic, contracted. It is from some root signifying to set, to still, and this sense is retained in the use of the word by milkmaids, who say to cows, so, so, that is, stand still, remain as you are; and in this use, the word may be the original verb.]

1. In like manner, answering to as, and noting comparison or resemblance; as with the people, so with the priest.

2. In such a degree; to that degree. Why is his chariot so long in coming? Judges 5:28.

3. In such a manner; sometimes repeated, so and so; as certain colors, mingled so and so.

4. It is followed by as. There is something equivalent in France and Scotland; so as it is a hard calumny upon our soil to affirm that so excellent a fruit will not grow here. But in like phrases, we now use that; “so that it is a hard calumny;” and this may be considered as the extablished usage.

5. In the smae manner. Use your tutor with great respect, and cause all your family to do so too.

6. Thus; in this manner; as New York so called from the duke of York. I know not why it is, but so it is. It concerns every man, with the greatest seriousness, to inquire whether theese thing are so or not.

7. Therefore; thus; for this reason; in consequence of this or that. It leaves instruction, and so instructors, to the sobriety fo the settled articles of the church. God makes him in own image an intelectual creature, and so capable of dominion. This statute made the clipping of coin hign treason, which it was not at common law; so that this was an enlarging staute.

8. On these terms, noting a conditional petition. Here then exchange we mutually forgiveness; SO may the guilt of all my broken vows, my perjuries to thee be all forgotten. So here might be expressed by thus, that is, in this manner, by this mutual forgiveness.

9. Provided that; on condition that, [L. modo.] So the doctrine by but wholesome and edifying though there should be a want of exactness in the manner of speaking and resoning, it may be overlooked. I care not who furnishes the means, so they are furnished.

10. In like manner, noting the concession of one proposition of fact and the assumption of another; answering to as. As a war should be undertaken upon a just motive, so a prince ought to consider the condition he is in when he enters on it.

11. So often expresses the sense of a word or sentence going before. In this case it prevents a repetition, and may be considered as a substitute for the word or phrase. “France is highly cultivated, but England is more so,” that is, more highly cultivated.

12. Thus; thus it is; this is the state. How sorrow shakes him! So now the tempest tears him up by th’ roots.

13. Well; the fact being such. And so the work is done, is it?

14. It is sometimes used to express a certain degree, implying comparison, and yet without the corresponding word as, to render the degree definite. An astringent is not quite so proper, where relaxing the urinary passages is necessary.

15. It is sometimes equivalent to be it so, let it be so, let it be as it is, or in that manner. There is Percy; if your father will do me any honor, so; if not, let him kill the next Percy himself.

16. It expresses a wish, desire or petition. Ready are the appellant and defendant- So please your highness to behold the fight.

17. So much as, however much. Instead of so, we now generally use as; as much as, that much; whatever the quantity may be.

18. So so, or so repeated, used as a kind of exclamation; equivalent to well, well; or it is so, the thing is done. So, so, it works; now, mistress, sit you fast.

19. So so, much as it was; indifferently; not well not much amiss. His leg is but so so.

20. So then, thus then it is; therefore; the consequence is. So then the Volscians stand; but as at first ready, when time shall prompt them, to make road upon’s again.

SOAK, v.t.

1. To steep; to cause or suffer to lie in a fluid till the substance has imbibed what it can contain; to macerate in water or other fluid; as, to soak cloth; to soak bread.

2. To drench; to wet thoroughly. The earth is soaked with heavy rain. Their land shall be soaked with blood. Isaiah 34:7.

3. To draw in by the pores; as the skin.

4. To drain. [Not authirized.]

SOAK, v.i.

1. To lie steeped in water or other fluid. Let the cloth lie and soak.

2. To enter into pores or interstices. Water soaks into the earth or other porous matter.

3. To drink intemperately or gluttonously; to drench; as a soaking club. [Low.]

SOAKED, pp. Steeped or macerated in a fluid; drenched.


1. One that soaks or macerates in a liquid.

2. A hard drinker. [Low.]


1. Steeping; macerating; drenching; imbibing.

2. a. That wets thoroughly; as a soaking rain.

SOAL, of a show. [See Sole.]

SOAP, n. [L. sapo.] A compound of oil and alkali, or oil and earth, and metallic oxyds; usually, a compound of oil and vegetable alkali or lye; used in washing and cleansing, in medicine, etc.

SOAP, v.t. To rub or wash over with soap.

SOAPHERRY TREE, n. A tree of the genus Sapindus.

SOAP-BOILER, n. [soap and boiler.] One whose occupation is to make soap.

SOAPSTONE, n. Steatite; a minera; or species of magnesian earth, usually white or yellow;; the lapis ollaris.

SOAP-SUDS, n. Suds; water well impregnated with soap.

SOAPWORT, n. A plant of the genus Saponaria.


1. Resembling soap; having the qualities of soap; soft and smooth.

2. Smeared with soap.

SOAR, v.i.

1. To fly aloft; to mount upon the wing; as an eagle. Hence,

2. To rise high; to mount; to tower in thought or imagination; to be sublime; as the poet or orator.

3. To rise high in ambition or heroism. Valor soars above what the world calls misfortune.

4. In general, to rise aloft; to be lofty.

SOAR, n. A towering flight.

SOARING, ppr. Mounting on the wing; rising aloft; towering in thought or mind.

SOARING, n. The act of mounting on the wing, or of towering in thought or mind; intellectual flight.

SOB, v.i. To sigh with a sudden heaving of the breast, or a kind of convulsive motion; to sigh with deep sorrow or with tears. She sigh’d, she sobb’d, and furious wtih despair, she rent her garments, and she tore her hair.

SOB, n. A convulsive sign or catching of the breath in sorrow; a convulsive act of respiration obstructed by sorrow. Break, heart, or choke with sobs my hated breath.
SOB, v.t. To soak. [Not in use.]

SOBBING, ppr. sighing with a heaving of the breast.

SOBER, a. [L. sobrius.]

1. Temperate in the use of spiritous liquors; habitually temperate; as a sober man. Live a sober, righteous and godly life.

2. Not intoxicated or overpowered by spiritous liquors; not drunken. The sot may at times be sober.

3. Not mad or insane; not wild, visionary or heated with passion; having the regular exercise of cool dispassionate reason. There was not a sober person to be had; all was tempestuous and blustering. Not sober man would put himself in danger, for the applause of escaping without breaking his neck.

4. Regular; calm; not under the influence of passion; as sober judgment; a man in his sober senses.

5. Serious; solemn; grave; as the sober livery of autumn. What parts gay France from sober Spain? See her sober over a sampler, or gay over a jointed baby.

SOBER, v.t. TO make sober; to cure of intoxication. There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain and drinking largely sobers us again.

SOBERED, pp. Make sober.


1. Without intemperance.

2. Without enthusiasm.

3. Without intemperate passion; coolly; calmly; moderately.

4. Gravely; seriously.

SOBERMINDED, a. Having a disposition or tempter habitually sober, calm and temperate.