Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary
SHORTSIGHTED — SHUFFLED
SHORTSIGHTED, a. [short and sight.]
1. Not able to see far; having limited vision; in a literal sense.
2. Not able to look far into futurity; not able to understand things deep or remite; of limited intellect.
1. A defect in vision, consisting in the inability to see things at a distance, or at the distance to which ssight normally extends. Short-sightedness is owing to the too great convexity of the crystaline humor of the eye, by which the rays of light are brought to a focus too soon, that is, before they reach the retina.
2. Defected or limited intellectual sight; inabilaty to see far into futurity or into things deep or abstruse.
SHORT-WAISTED, a. [short and waist.] Having a short waist or body.
SHORT-WINDED, a. [short and wind.] Affected with shortness of breath; having a quick respiration; as asthmatic persons.
SHORT-WINGED, a. [short and wing.] Having short wings; as a short-winged hawk.
SHORT-WITTED, a. Having little wit; not wise; of scanty intellect or judgement.
SHORY, a. [from shore.] Lying near th eshore or coast. [Little used.]
SHOT, pret. and pp. of shoot.
1. The act of shooting; discharge of a missile weapon.
He caused twenty shot of his greatest cannon to be made at the king’s army. Clarendon.
[Note. The plural shots, may be used, but shot is generally used in both numbers.]
2. A missile weapon, particularly a ball or bullet. Shot is properly what is discharged from fire-arms or cannons by the force of gunpowder. Shot used in war is of various kinds; as, roundshot or balls; those for cannon make of iron, those for muskets and pistols, of lead. Secondly, double headed shot or bar shot, consisting of a bar with a round head at each end. Thirdly, chain-shot, consisting of to balls chained together. Fourthly, grape-shot, consisting of a number of balls bound together with a cord in canvas on an iron bottom. Fifthly, case shot or canister shot, consisting of a great number of small bullets in a cylindrical tin box. Sixthly, langrel or langrage, which consists of pieces of iron of any kind or shape. Small shot, denotes musket balls.
3. Small globular masses of lead, used for killing fowls and other small animals. These are not called balls or bullets.
4. The flight of a missile weapon, or the distance which it passes from the engine; as a cannon shot; a musket shot; a pistol shot; a bow shot.
5. A reckoning; charge or proportional share of expense. [See Scot.]
Shot of a cable, in seaman’s language, the splicing of two cables together; or the whole length of two cables thus united. A ship will ride easier with one shot of cable thus lengthened, than with three short cables.
1. A fish resembling the trout.
2. A young hog. [See Shoot.]
SHOT-FREE, a. [shot and free.]
1. Free from charge; exempted from any share of expense; scot-free.
2. Not to be injured by shot. [Not used.]
3. Unpunished. [Not used.]
SHOTTEN, a. shot’n. [from shoot.]
1. Having ejected the spawn; as a shotten herring.
2. Shooting into angles.
3. Shot out of its socket; dislocated; as a bone.
SHOULD. shood. The preterit of shall, but now used as an auxiliary verb, either in the past time or conditional present. “He should have paid the debt at the time the note became due.” Should here denotes past time. “I should ride to town this day if the weather would permit.” Here should expresses present or future time conditionally. In the second and third persons, it denotes obligation or duty, as in the first example above.
1. I should go. When should in this person is uttered without emphasis, it declares simply that an event would take place, on some condition or under circumstances.
But when expressed with emphasis, should in this person denotes obligation, duty or determination.
2. Thou shouldst go.
You should Without emphasis, should, in the second person, is nearly equivalent to ought; you ought to go, it is your duty, you are bound to go. [See Shall.]
With emphasis, should expresses determination in th espeaker conditionally to compel the person to act. “If I had the care of you, you should go, whether willing or not.”
3. He should go. should, in the third person, has the same force as in the second.
4. If I should, if you should, if he should, etc. denote a figure contingent event.
5. After should, the principal verb is sometimes omitted, without obscuring the sense.
So subjects love just kings, or so they should. Ktyden.
That is, so they should love them.
6. should be, ought to be; a proverbial phrase, conveying some censure, contempt or irony. Things are not as they should be.
The biys think their mother no better than they should be. Addison.
7. “We think it strange that stones should fall from the aerial regions.” In this use, should implies that stones do fall. In all similar phrases, should implies the actual existence of the fact, without a condition of supposition.
1. The joint by which the arm of a human being or the fore leg of a quadruped is connected with the body; or in man, the projection formed by the bones called scapula or shoulder blades, which extend from the basis of the neck in a horizontal direction.
2. The upper joint of the fore leg of an animal cut for th emarket; as a shoulder of mutton.
3. Shoulders, in the plural, the upper part of the back.
Adown her shoulders fell her length of hair. Dryden.
4. Figuratively, support; sustaining power; or that which elevates and sustains.
For on thy shoulders do I build my seat. Shak.
5. Among artificers, something like the human shoulder; a horizontal or rectangular projection from the body of a thing.
1. To push or thrust with the shoulder; to push with violence.
Around her numberless the rabble flow’d,
Should’ring each other, crowding for a view. Rowe.
As they the earth would shoulder from her seat. Spenser.
2. To take upon the shoulder; as, to shoulder a basket.
SHOULDER-BELT, n. [shoulder and belt.] A belt that passes across the shoulder.
SHOULDER-BLADE, n. [shoulder and blade.] The bone of the shoulder, or blade bone, broad and triangular, covering the hind part of the ribs; called by anatomists scapula and omoplata.
SHOULDER-CLAPPER, n. [shoulder and clap.] One that claps another on the shoulder, or that uses great familiarity. [Not in use.]
SHOULDER-KNOT, n. [shoulder and knot.] An ornamental knot of ribin or lace worn on the shoulder; an epaulet.
SHOULDER-SHOTTEN, a. [shoulder and shot.] Strained in the shoulder, as a horse.
SHOULDER-SLIP, n. [shoulder and slip.] Dislocation of the shoulder or of the humerus.
SHOUT, v.i. To utter a sudden and loud outcry, usually in joy, triumph or exultation, or to animate soldiers in an onset.
It is not the voice of them that shout for mastery. Exodus 32:18.
When ye hear th esound of the trumpet, all the people shall shout with a great shout. Joshua 6:5.
SHOUT, n. A loud burst of voice or voices; a vehement and sudden outcry, particularly of a multitude of men, expressing joy, triumph, exultation or animated courage. It is sometimes intended in derision.
The Rhodians seeing an enemy turn their backs, gave a great shout in derision. Knolles.
SHOUT, v.t. To treat with shouts or clamor.
SHOUTER, n. One that shouts.
SHOUTING, ppr. Uttering a sudden and loud outcry in joy or exultation.
SHOUTING, n. The act of shouting; a loud outcry expressive of joy or animation.
1. To push; to propel; to drive along by the direct application of strength without impulse; particularly, to push a body by sliding or causing it to move along the surface of another body, either by the hand or by an instrument; as, the shove a bottle along a table; to shove a table along the floor; to shove a boat along the water.
And shove away the worthy bidden guest. Milton.
Shoving back this earth on which I sit. Dryden.
2. To push; to press against.
He used to shove an elbow his fellow servants to get near his mistress Arbuthnot.
To shove away, to push to a distance; to thrust off.
To shove by, to push away; to delay, or to reject; as, to shove by the hearing of a cause; or to shove by justice. [Not elegant.]
To shove off, to thrust or push away.
To shove down, to overthrow by pushing.
1. To push or drive forward; to urge a course.
2. To push off; to move in a boat or with a pole; as, he shoved from shore.
To shove off, to move from shore by pushing with poles or oars.
SHOVE, n. The act of pushing or pressing against by strength, without a sudden impulse.
SHOVED, pp. Pushed; propelled.
SHOVEL, n. shov’l. An instrument consisting of a broad scoop or hollow blade with a handle; used por throwing earth or other loole substances.
1. To take up and throw with a shovel; as, to shovel earth into a heap or into a cart, or out of a pit.
2. To gather in great quantities.
SHOVEL-BOARD, n. A board on which they play by sliding metal pieces at a mark.
SHOVELED, pp. Thrown with a shovel.
SHOVELER, n. [from shovel.] A fowl of the genus Anas or duck kind.
SHOVELING, ppr. Throwing with a shovel.
SHOW, v.t. pret. SHOWED; pp. shown. It is sometimes written shew, shewed, shewn. [If the radical letter lost was a labial, show coincides with the Gr.]
1. To exhibit or present to the view of others.
Go thy way, show thyself to the priest. Matthew 8:4.
2. To afford to the eye or to notice; to contain in a visible form.
Nor want we skill o rart, from whence to raise
Magnificence; and what can heaven show more? Milton.
3. To make or enable to see.
4. To make or enable to perceive.
5. To make to know; to cause to understand; to make known; to teach or inform.
Know, I am sent
To show thee what shall come in future days. Milton.
6. To prove; to manifest.
I’ll show my duty by my timely care. Dryden.
7. T oinform; to teach; with of.
The time cometh when I shall no more speak to you in proverbs, but I shall show you plainly of the Father. John 16:25.
8. To point out, as a guide.
Thou shalt show them the way in which they must walk. Exodus 18:20.
9. To bestow; to confer; to afford; as, to show favor or mercy on any person.
10. To prove by evidence, testimony or authentic registers or documents.
They could not show their father’s house. Ezra 2:59.
11. To disclose; to make known.
I durst not show mine opinion. Job 32:6.
12. To discover; to explain; as, to show a dream or interpretation.
To show forth, to manifest; to publish; to proclaim.
1. To appear; to look; to be in appearance.
Just such she shows before a rising storm. Dryden.
2. To have appearance; to become or suit well or ill.
My lord of York, it better show’d with you. Obs. Shak.
1. Superficial appearance; not reality.
Disapproves that care, though wise in show. Milton.
2. A spectacle; something offered to view for money.
3. Ostentatious display or parade.
I envy none their pageantry and show. Young.
4. Appearance as an object of notice.
The city itself makes the noblest showof any in the world. Addison.
5. Public appearance, in distinction of concealment; as an open show.
6. Semblance; likeness.
In show plebeian angel militant. Milton.
7. Seciousness; plausibility.
But a short exile must for show precede. Dryden.
8. External appearance.
And forc’d, at least in show, to prize it more. Dryden.
9. Exhibition in view; as a show o fcattle, or cattle-show.
10. Pomp; magnificent spectacle.
As for triumphs, masks, feasts, and such shows- Bacon.
11. A phantom; as a fairy show.
12. Representative action; as a dumb show.
13. External appearance; hypocritical pretense.
Who devour widows’ houses, and for a show make long prayers. Luke 20:47.
SHOW-BREAD, SHEW-BREAD, n. [show and bread.] Among the Jews, bread of exhibition; the loaves of bread which the priest of the week placed before the Lord, on the golden table in the sanctuary. They were shaped like a brick, were ten palms long and five wide, weighing about eight pounds each. They were made of fine flour unleavened, and changed every sabbath. The loaves were twelve in number, and represented the twelve tribes of Israel. They were to be eaten by the priest only.
SHOWER, n. One who shows or exhibits.
SHOWER, n. [Qu. Heb. Ch. Ar. to be rough, to shudder.]
1. A fall of rain or hail, a sort of duration. It may be applied to like a fall of snow, but this seldon occurs. It is applied to a fall of rain or hail of short continuance, or of more or less violence, but never to a storm of long continuance.
2. A fall of thing from the air in thick succession; as a shower of darts or arrows; a shower of stones.
3. A copious supply bestowed; liberal distribution; as a great shower of gifts.
1. To water with a shower; to wet copiously with rain; as, to shower the earth.
2. To bestow liberally; to distribute or scatter in abundance.
That show’rs down greatness on his friends. Addison.
3. To be wet with falling water, as in the shower-bath.
SHOWER, v.i. To rain with showers.
SHOWERED, pp. Wet with a shower; watered abundantly; bestowed or distributed liberally.
SHOWERLESS, a. Without showers.
SHOWERY, a. Raining in showers; abounding with frequent falls of rain.
SHOWILY, adv. In a showy manner; pompously; with parade.
SHOWINESS, n. State of being showy; pompousness; great parade.
1. Splendid; gaudy. [Little used.]
SHOWN, pp. of show. Exhibited; manifested; proved.
1. Splendid; gay; gaudy; making a great show; fine.
SHRAG, v.t. To lop. [Not in use.]
SHRAG, n. A twig of a tree cut off. [Not in use.]
SHRAGGER, n. One that lops; one that trims trees. [Not in use.]
SHRANK, pret. of shrink, nearly obsolete.
SHRED, v.t. pret. and pp. shred. To cut into small pieces, particularly marrow and long pieces, as of cloth or lether. It differs from mince, which signifies to chop into pieces fine and short.
1. A long narrow piece cut off; as shreds of cloth.
2. A fragment; a piece; as shreds of wit.
SHREDDING, ppr. Cutting into shreds.
SHREDDING, That which is cut off; a piece.
1. A peevish, brawling, turbulent, vexatious woman. It appears to have originally been applied to males as well as females; but is now restricted to the latter.
The man had got a shrew for his wife, and there could be no quiet in the house with her. L’Estrange.
2. A shrew-mouse.
SHREW, v.t. To beshrew; to curse. Obs.
1. Having the qualities of a shrew; vexatious; troublesome; mischievous. Obs.
2. Sly; cunning; arch; subtil; artful; astute; as a shrewd man.
3. Sagacious; of nice discernment; as a shrewd observer of men.
4. Proceeding from cunning or sagacity, or containing it; as a shrewd saying; a shrewd conjecture.
5. Painful; vexatious; troublesome.
Every of this number
That have endured shrewd nights and days with us. Obs. Shak.
No enemy is so despicable but he may do one a shrewd turn. Obs. L’Estrange.
SHREWDLY, adv. Mischievously; destructively.
This practice hath most shrewdly passed upon thee. Obs. Shak.
2. Vexatiously; used of slight mischief.
The obstinate and schismatical are like to think themselves shrewdly hurt by being cut from that body they chos not to be of. Obs. South.
Yet seem’d she not to winch, though shrewdly pained. Obs. Dryden.
3. Archly; sagaciously; with good guess; as, I shrewdly suspect; he shrewdly observed.
1. Sly cunning; archness.
The neighbors round admire his shrewdness. Swift.
2. Sagaciousness; sagacity; the quality of nice discernment.
3. Mischievousness; vexatiouness. [Not in use.]
SHREWISH, a. Having the qualities of a shrew; forward; peevish; petulantly clamorous.
My wife is shrewish when I keep not hours. Shak.
SHREWISHLY, adv. Peevishly; clamorously; turbulently.
He speaks very shrewishly. Shak.
SHREWISHNESS, n. The qualities of a shrew; forwardness; petulance; turbulent clamorousness.
I have no gift in shrewishness. Shak.
SHREW-MOUSE, n. A small animal resembling a mouse, but belong to the genus Sorex; an animal that burrows in the ground, feeding on corn, insects, etc. It is a harmless animal.
SHRIEK, v.i. [L. ruga, wrinkled, rugo, to bray.] To utter a sharp shrill cry; to scream; as in sudden fright, in horror or anguish.
At this she shriek’d aloud. Dryden.
It was the owl that shriek’d. Shak.
SHRIEK, n. A sharp shrill outcry or scream, such as is produced by sudden anger or extreme anguish.
Shrieks, clamors, murmurs fill the frighted town. Dryden.
SHRIEKING, ppr. Crying out with a shrill voice.
SHRIEVAL, a. Pertaining to a sherif. [Not in use.]
SHRIEVALTY, n. [from sherif.] Sherifalty; the office of a sherif.
It was ordained by 28 Ed. 1. that the people shall have election of sherif in every shire, where the shrievalty is not of inheritance. Blackstone.
SHRIEVE, n. Sherif. [Not in use.]
SHRIFT, n. Confession made to a priest. Obs.
SHRIGHT, for shrieked.
SHRIGHT, n. A shriek. [Not in use.]
SHRILL, a. [L. grillus.]
1. Sharp; acute; piercing; as sound; as a shrill voice; shrill echoes.
2. Uttering an acute sound; as the cock’s shrill sounding throat; a shrill trumpet.
[NOTE. A shrill may be tremulous of trilling; but this circumstance is not essential it, although it seems to be of the root of trill.]
SHRILL, v.i. To utter an acute piercing sound.
Break we out pipes that shrill’d as loud as lark. Spenser.
SHRILL, v.t. To cause to make a shrill sound.
SHRILLNESS, n. Acuteness of sound; sharpness or fineness of voice.
SHRILLY, adv. Acutely, as sound; with a sharp sound or voice.
SHRIMP, v.t. To contract. [Not in use.]
SHRIMP, n. [supra.]
1. A crustaceous animal of the genus Cancer. It has long slender feelers, claws with a single, hooked fang, and three pair of legs. It is esteemed delicious food.
2. A little wrinkled man; a dwarf; in contempt.
SHRINE, n. [L. scrinium.] A case or box; particularly applied to a case in which sacred things are deposited. Hence we hear much of shrines for relics.
Come, offer at my shrine, and I will help thee. Shak.
SHRINK, v.i. pret. and pp. shrunk. the old pret. shrank and pp. shrunken are nearly obsolete.
To contract spontaneously; to draw or be drawn into less length, breadth or compass by an inherent power; as, woolen cloth shrinks in hot water; a flaxen of hempen line shrinks in a humid atmosphere. Many substances shrink by drying.
2. To shrivel; to become wrinkled by contraction; as th eskin.
3. To withdraw or retire, as from danger; to decline action from fear. A brave man never shrinks from danger; a good man does not shrink from duty.
4. To recoil, as in fear, horror or distress. My mind shrinks from the recital of our woes.
What happier natures shrink at with affright,
The hard inhabitant contends is right. Pope.
5. To express fear, horror or pain by shrugging or contracting the body.
SHRINK, v.t. to cause to contract; as, to shrink by immersing it in boiling water.
O mighty Cesar, dost thou lie so low!
Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils,
Shrunk to this little measure! Shak.
1. Contraction; a spontaneous drawing into less compass; corrugation.
2. Contraction; a withdrawing from fear or horror.
SHRINKAGE, n. A shrinking or contraction into a less compass. Make an allowance for the shrinkage of grain in drying.
SHRINKER, n. One that shrinks; one that withdraws from danger.
SHRINKING, ppr. Contracting; drawing together; withdrawing from danger; declining to act from fear; causing to contract.
SHRIVALTY. [See Shrievalty.]
SHRIVE, v.t. To hear or receive the confession of; to administer confession; as a priest.
He shrives this woman. Obs. Shak.
SHRIVEL, v.i. shriv’l. [from the root of rivel.] To comtract; to draw or be drawn into wrinkles; to shrink and form corrugations; as, a leaf shrivels in the hot sun; the skin shrivels with age.
SHRIVEL, v.t. To contract into wrinkles; to cause to shrink into corrugations. A scorching sun shrivels the blades of corn.
Snd shrivel’d herbs on withering stems decay. Dryden.
SHRIVELED, pp. Contracted into wrinkles.
SHRIVELING, ppr. Contracting into wrinkles.
SHRIVER, n. [from shrive.] A confessor. Obs.
SHRIVING, n. Shrift; confession taken. Obs.
1. A shelter; a cover; that which covers, conceals or protects.
Swaddled, as new born, in sable shrouds. Sandys.
2. The dress of the dead; a winding sheet.
3. Shroud or shrouds of a ship, a range of large ropes extending from the head of a mast to the right and left sides of the ship, to support the mast; as the main shrouds; fore shrouds; mizen shrouds. There are also futtock shrouds, bowsprit shrouds, etc.
4. A branch of a tree. [Not proper.]
1. To cover; to shelter from danger or annoyance.
Under your beams I will me safely shroud. Spenser.
One of these trees with all its young ones, may shroud four hundred horsemen. Raleigh.
2. To dress for the grave; to cover; as a dead body.
The ancient Egyptian mummies were shrouded in several folds of linen besmeared with gums. Bacon.
3. To cover; to conceal to hide; as, to be shrouded in darkness.
-Some tempest rise,
And blow out all the stars that light the skies,
To shroud my name. Dryden.
4. To defend; to protect by hiding.
So Venus from prevailing Greeks did shroud
The hope of Rome, and saved him in a cloud. Waller.
5. To overwhelm; as, to be shrouded in despair.
6. To lop the branches of a tree. [Unusual or improper.]
SHROUD, v.i. To take shelter or harbor.
If your stray attendants be yet lodg’d
Or shroud within these limits- Milton.
SHROUDED, pp. Dressed; covered; concealed; sheltered; overwhelmed.
SHROUDING, ppr. Dressing; covering; cocealing; sheltering; overwhelming.
SHROUDY, a. Affording shelter.
SHROVE, v.i. To join in the festivities of Shrove-tide. [Obs.]
SHROVE-TIDE, n. [from shrove, pret. of shrive, to take a confession. See Tide and Shrove.]
SHROVE-TUESDAY, Tuesday. Confession-time; confession-Teusday; the Tuesday after Quinquagesima Sunday; or the day immediately preceding the first of Lent, or Ash Wednesday; on which day, all the people of England when of the Catholic religion, were obliged to confess their sins one by one to their parish priests; after which they dined on pancakes or fritters. The latter ppractice still continues. The bell rung on this day is called pancake-bell.
SHROVING, n. The festivity of Shrove-tide.
SHRUB, n. A low dwarf tree; a woody plant of a size less than a tree; or more strictly, a plant with several permanent woody stems, dividing from the bottom, more slender and lower than trees.
Gooseberries and currants are shrubs; oaks and cherries are trees. Locke.
SHRUB, n. [L. sorbeo.] A liquor composed of acid and sugar, with spirir to preserve it; usually the acid of lemons.
SHRUB, v.t. To clear of shrubs.
1. Shrubs in general.
2. A plantation of shrubs.
1. Full of shrubs; as a shrubby plain.
2. Resembling a shrub; as plants shrubby and curled.
3. Consisting of shrubs or brush; as shrubby browze.
4. A shrubby plant is perennial, with several woody stems.
SHRUFF, n. Dross; recrement of metals. [Not in use.]
SHRUG, v.i. To raise or draw up the shoulders, as in expressing horror or dissatisfaction.
They grin, they shrug,
They bow, they snarl, they scratch, they hug. Swift.
SHRUG, n. A drawing up of the shoulders; a motion usually expressing dislike.
The Spaniards talk in dialogues
Of heads and shoulders, nods and shrugs. Hudibras.
SHRUGGING, ppr. Drawing up, as the shoulders.
SHRUNK, pret. and pp. of shrink.
SHRUNKEN, pp. of shrink. [Nearly obsolete.]
SHUDDER, v.i. [This word contains the same elements as the L. quatio.] To quake; to tremble or shake with fear, horror or aversion; to shiver.
I love-alas! I shudder at the name. Smith.
SHUDDER, n. A tremor; a shaking with fear or horror.
SHUDDERING, ppr. Trembling or shaking with fear or horror; quaking.
1. Properly, to shove one way and the other; to push from one to another; as, to shuffle money from hand to hand.
2. To mix by pushing or shoving; to confuse; to throw into disorder; especially, to change the relatibe positions of cards in the pack.
A man may shuffle cards or rattle dice from noon to midnight, without tracing a new idea in his head. Rambler.
3. To remove or introduce by artificial confusion.
It was contrived by your enemies, and shuffled into the papers that were seized. Dryden.
To shuffle off, to push off; to rid one’s self of. When you lay blame to a child, he will attempt to shuffle it off.
To shuffle up, to throw together in haste; to make up or form in confusion or with fraudulent disorder; as, he shuffled up a peace.
1. To change the relative position of cards in a pack by little shoves; as, to shuffle and cut.
2. To change the position; to shift ground; to prevaricate; to evade fair questions; to pratice shifts to elude detection.
Hiding my honor in my necessity, I am fain to shuffle. Shak.
3. To struggle; to shift.
Your life, good master,
Must shuffle for itself. Shak.
4. To move with an irregular gait; as a shuffling nag.
5. To shove the feet; to scrape the floor in dancing. [Vulgar.]
1. A shoving, pughing or jostling; the act of mixing and throwing into confusion by change of places.
The unguided agitation and rude shuffles of matter. Bentley.
2. An evasion; a trick; an artifice.