Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



SHIP-BOY, n. A boy that serves on board of a ship.

SHIP-CARPENTER, n. A shipwright; a carpenter that works at ship-building.

SHIP-CHANDLER, n. [ship and chandler.] One who deals in cordage, canvas and other furniture of ships.

SHIP-HOLDER, n. [ship and hold.] The owner of a ship or of shipping.

SHIPLESS, a. Destitute of ships.

SHIPMAN, n. [ship and man.] A seaman or sailor. Obs.

SHIPMASTER, n. [ship and master.] The captain, master or commander of a ship.


1. The act of putting any thing on board of another ship or vessel; embarkation; as, he engaged in the shipment of coal for London.

2. The goods or things shipped, or put on board of another ship or vessel. We say, the merchants have made large shipments to the United States.

The question is whether the share of M in the shipment is exempted from the condemnation by reason of his nuetral domicil. J. Story.

SHIP-MONEY, n. [ship and money.] In English history, the imosition formerly charged on the ports, towns, cities, boroughs and counties of England, for providing and furnishing certain ships for the king’s service. This imosition being laid by the king’s writ under the great seal, without the consent of the parliament, was held to contrary to the laws and statutes of th erealm, and abolished by Stat. 17 Car. 11.

SHIPPED, pp. Put on board of a ship or vessel; received on board.

SHIPPEN, n. A stable; a cow house. [Not in use.]


1. Putting on board of a ship or vessel; receiving on board.

2. a. Relating to ships; as shipping concerns.

SHIPPING, n. Ships in general; ships or vessels of any kind for navigation. The shipping of the English nation exceeds that of any other. The tunnage of shipping belonging to the United States is second only to that of Great Britain.

To take shipping, to embark; to enter on board a ship or vessel for conveyance or passage.

SHIP-SHAPE, adv. In a seamanlike manner.

SHIPWRECK, n. [ship and wreck.]

1. The destruction of a ship or vessel by being cast ashore or broken to pieces by beating against rocks and the like.

2. The parts of a shattered ship.

3. Destruction.

To make a shipwreck concerning faith, is to apostatize from the love, profession and dpractice of divine truth which had been embraced.


1. To destroy by running ashore or on ricks or sand banks. How many vessels are annually shipwrecked on the Bahama rocks!

2. To suffer the perils of being cast away; to be cast ashore with the loss of the ship. The shipwrecked mariners were saved.

SHIPWRECKED, pp. Cast ashore; dashed upon the rocks or banks; destroyed.

SHIPWRIGHT, n. [ship and wright. See Work.] One whose occupation is to construct ships; a builder of ships or other vessels.

SHIRE, n. In England, a division of territory, otherwise called a county. The shire was originally a division of the kingdom under the jurisdiction of an earl or count, whose authority was entrusted to the sherif. [shire-reeve.] On this officer the goverment ultimately devolved. In the United States, the corresponding division of a state is called a county, but we retain shire in the in the compound half-shire; as when the county court is held in two towns in the same county alternately, we call one of the divisions a half-shire.

In some states, shire as the constituent part of the name of a county, as Berkshire, Hampshire, in Massachusetts. These being the names established by law, we cannot say, the county of Berkshire, and we cannot with propriety say, the caounty of Berks, for there is no county in Massa chusetts thus named.

SHIRE-MOTE, n. Anciently in England, the county court; sherif’s turn or court.

SHIRK, a different spelling of shark, which see.

SHIRL, a different spelling of shorl. [See Shorl.]

SHIRLEY, n. A bird, by some called the greater bullfinch; having the upper part of the body a dark brown, and the throat and breast read.

SHIRT, n. shurt. [L. curtus.] A loose garment of linen, cotton or other material, worn by men and boys next the body.

It is folly for a nation to export beef and linen, while a great part of the peaple are obliged to subsist on potatoes, and have no shirts to wear. A.M.

SHIRT, v.t. shurt.

1. To cover or clothe, as with a shirt.

2. To change the shirt and put on a clean one.

SHIRTLESS, a. shurt’less. Wanting a shirt.

SHIST, SHISTUS, n. A species of argillaceous earth or slate; clay or slate.

SHISTIC, SHISTOUS, a. Pertaining to shist, or partaking of its properties.

SHITTAH, n. In Scripture, a sort of precious wood of which the tables, altars, and boards of the Jewish tabernacle were made.

SHITTAM, boards of the tabernacle were made among the Jews. The wood is said to be hard, tough and smooth, and very beautiful.

SHITTLE, a. [See Shoot.] Wavering; unsettled. [Not used or or local.]

SHITTLE-COCK. [See Shuttle-cock.]

SHITTLENESS, n. Unsettledness; inconsistancy. [Not used or local.]

SHIVE, n. shiv.

1. A slice; a thin cut; as a shive of bread. [Not in use.]

2. A thin flexible piece cut off. [Not in use.]

3. A little piece or fragment; as the shives of flax made by breaking


1. In mineralogy, a species of blue slate; shist; shale.

2. In seamen’s language, a little wheel; a sheeve.

SHIVER, v.t. [supra. Qu. Heb. to break in pieces. Class Br. No. 26.] To break into many small pieces or splinters; to shatter; to dash to pieces by a blow.

The ground with shiver’d armor strown. Milton.

SHIVER, v.i.

1. To fell at once into many small pieces or parts.

The natural world, should gravity once cease, would instantly shiver into of millions of atoms. Woodward.

2. To quake; to tremble; to shudder; to shake, as with cold, ague; fear or horror.

The man that shiver’d on the brink of sin. Dryden.

Prometeus is laid

On icy Caucasus to shiver. Swift.

3. To be affected with a thrilling sensation, like that of chillness.

Any very harsh noise will set the teeth on edge, and make all the body shiver. Shak.


1. A small piece or fragment into which a thing breaks by any sudden violence.

He would pound thee into shivers with his fist, as a sailor breaks his biscuit. Shak.

2. A slice; a sliver.

SHIVERED, pp. Broken or dashed into small pieces.


1. Breaking or dashing into small pieces.

2. Quaking; trembling; shaking, as with cold or fear.


1. The act of breaking or dashing to pieces; division; severance.

2. A trembling; a shaking with cold or fear.

SHIVER-SPAR, n. A corbonate of lime, so called for its slaty structure; called also slate-spar.

SHIVERY, a. Easily falling inot many pieces; not firmly cohering; incompact; as shivery stone.

SHOAD, n. Among miners, a train of metallic stones which serves to direct them in the discovery of mines.

SHOAD-STONE, n. A small ston, smooth, of a dark liver color with a shade of purple. Shoad-stoners are loose masses found at the entrances of mines, sometimes running in a straight line from the surface to a vein of ore. They appear to be broken from the strata or larger massess; they usually contain mundic, or marcastic matter, and a portion of the ore of the mine.


1. A great multitude assembled; a crowd; a throng; as shoals of people. Immense shoals of herring appear on the coast in the spring.

The vices of a prince draw shoals of followers. Decay of Piety.

2. A place where the water of a river, lake or sea is shallow or af little depth; a sand bank or bar; a shallow. The entrance of rivers is often rendered difficult or dangerous by shoals.

SHOAL, v.i.

1. To crowd; to throng; to assemble in a multitude. The fishes shoaled about the place.

2. To become more shallow. The water shoals as we approach the town.

SHOAL, a. Shallow; of little depth; as shoal water.

SHOALINESS, n. [from shoaly.]

1. Shallowness; little depth of water.

2. The state of abounding with shoals.

SHOALY, a. Full of shoals or shallow places.

The tossing vessel sail’d on shoaly ground. Dryden.


1. A violent collision of bodies, or the concussion which it occasions; a viosent striking or dashing against.

The strong unshaken mounds resist the shocks

Of tides and seas. Blackmore.

2. Violent onset; conflict of contending armies or foes.

He stood the shock of a whole host of foes. Addison.

3. External violence; as the shocks of fortune.

4. Offense; impression of disgust.

Fewer shocks a staesman gives his friend. Young.

5. In electricity, the effect on the animal system of a discharge of the fluid from a charged body.

6. A pile of sheaves of wheat, rey, etc.

And cause it on shocks to be by and by set. Tusser.

Behind th emaster walks, builds up the shocks. Thomson.

7. In New England, the number of sixteen sheaves of wheat, rye, etc. [This is the sense in which this word is generally used with us.]

8. A dog with long rough hair or shag. [from shag.]

SHOCK, v.t.

1. To shake by the sudden collision of a body.

2. To meet with force; to encounter.

3. To strike, as with horror or disgust; to cause to recoil, as from something odious or horrible; to offend extremely; to disgust. I was shocked at the sight of so much misery. A void everything that can shock the feelings of delicacy.

Advise him not to shock a father’s will. Dryden.

SHOCK, v.i. To collect sheaves into a pile; to pile sheaves.


1. Struck, as with horror; offended; disgusted.

2. Piled, as in sheaves.


1. Shaking with sudden violence.

2. Meeting in onset or violent encounter.

And now with shouts the shocking armies clos’d. Pope.

3. a. Striking, as with horror; causing to recoil with horror or disgust; extremely offensive or disgusting.

The French humor- is very shocking to the Italians. Addison.

SHOCKINGLY, adv. In a manner to strike with horror or disgust.

SHOD, for shoed, pret. and pp. of shoe.

SHOE, n. plu. shoes.

1. A covering for the foot, usually of lether, composed of a thick species for the sole, and a thinner kind for the vamp and quarthers. Shoes for ladies often have some kind of cloth for the vamp and quarters.

2. A plate or rim of iron nailed to the hoof of a horse to defend it from injury; also, a plate of iron for for an ox’s hoof, one for each division of the hoof. Oxen are shod in New England, sometimes to defend the hoof from injury in stony places, more generally to enable them to wald on ice, in which case the shoes are armed with sharp points. This is called calking.

3. The plate of iron which is nailed to the bottom of the runner of a sleigh, or any vehicle that slides on snow in the winter.

4. A piece of timber fastened with pins to the bottom of the runners of a sled, to prevent them from wearing.

5. Something in form of a shoe.

6. A cover for defense.

Shoe of an anchor, a small block of wood, convex on the back, with a hole to receive the point of the anchor fluke; used to prevent the anchor from tearing the planks of a ship’s bow, when raised or lowered.

SHOE, v.t. pret. and pp. shod.

1. To furnish with shoes; ot put shoes on; as, to shoe a horse or an ox; to shoe a sled or sleigh.

2. To cover at the bottom.

To shoe an anchor, to cover the flukes with a broad triangular piece of plank whose area is larger than that of the fluke. This is intended to give the anchor a stronger hold in soft grounds.

SHOEBLACK, n. [shoe and black.] A person that cleans shoes.

SHOEBOY, n. [shoe and boy.] A boy that cleans shoes.

SHOEBUCKLE, n. [shoe and buckle.] A buckle for fastening the shoe to the foot.

SHOEING, ppr. Putting on shoes.

SHOEINGHORN, n. [shoe and horn.]

1. A horn used to facilitate the entrance of the foot onto a narrow shoe.

2. Any thing by which transaction is facilitated; any thing used as a medium; in contempt. [I have never heard this word in America.]

SHOE-LEATHER, SHOE-LETHER, n. [shoe and lether.] Lether for shoes.

SHOELESS, a. Destitute of shoes.

Caltrops very much incommoded the shoeless Moors. Dr. Addison.

SHOEMAKER, n. [shoe and maker.] One whose occupation or trade is to make shoes and boots.

SHOER, n. One that fits shoes to the feet; one that furnishes or futs on shoes; as a farrier.

SHOESTRING, n. [shoe and string.] A string used to fasten a shoe to the foot.

SHOETYE, n. [shoe and tye.] A ribin used to fasten a shoe to the foot.

SHOG, for shock, a violent concussion. [Not in use.]

SHOG, v.t. To shake; to agitate. [Not in use.]
SHOG, v.i. To move off; to be gone; to jog. [Not in use. See Jog.]

SHOGGING, n. Concussion. [Not in use.]

SHOGGLE, v.t. To shake; to joggle. [Not in use. See Joggle.]

SHOLE, n. A throng; a crowd; a great multitude assembled. [This is the better orthography. See Shoal.]

SHONE, pp. of shine.

SHOOK, pp. of shake.

SHOOT, v.t. pret. and pp. shot. The old participle shotten, is obsolete. [L. scateo, to shoot out water.]

1. To let fly and drive with force; as, to shoot an arrow.

2. To discharge and cause to be driven with violence; as, to shoot a ball.

And from about her shot darts of desire. Milton.

4. To let off; used of the instrument.

The two ends of a bow shot off, fly from one another. Boyle.

5. To strike with any thing shot; as, to shoot with an arrow or a bullet.

6. To send out; to push forth; as, a plant shoots a branch.

7. To push out; to emit; to dart; to thrust forth.

Beware of the secret snake that shoots a sting. Dryden.

8. To push forward; to drive; to propel; as, to shoot a bolt.

9. To push out; to thrust forward.

They shoot out the lip. Psalm 22:7.

The phrase, to shoot out the lip, signifies to treat with derision or contempt.

10. To pass through with swiftness; as, to shoot the Stygian flood.

11. To fit to each other by planing; a workman’s term.

Two pieces of wood that are shot, that is, planed or pared with a chisel. Moxon.

12. To kill by a ball, arrow or other thing shot; as, to shoot a duck.

SHOOT, v.i.

1. To perform the act of discharging, sending with force, or driving any thing by means of an engine or instrument; as, ot shoot at a target or mark.

When you shoot, and shut one eye. Prior.

The archers have sorely grieved him, and shot at him. Genesis 49:23.

2. To germinate; to bud; to sprout; to send forth branches.

But the wild olive shoots and shades the ungrateful plane. Dryden.

Delightjul task,

To teach the young idea how to shoot. Thomson.

3. To form by shooting, or by an arrangement of particles into spiculae. Metals shoot into crystals. Every salt shoots into crystals of a determinate form.

4. To be emitted, sent forth or driven along.

There shot a streaming lamp along the sky. Dryden.

5. To protuberate; to be pushed out; to jut; to project. The land shoots into a promontory.

6. To pass, as an arrow or pointed instrument; to penetrate.

The words shoot through my heart. Addison.

7. To grow rapidly; to become by rapid growth. The boy soon shoots up to a man.

He’ll soon shoot up a hero. Dryden.

8. To move with velocity; as a shooting star.

9. To feel a quick darting pain. My temples shoot

To shoot ahead, to outstrip in running, flying or sailing.


1. The act of propelling or driving any thing with violence; the discharge of a fire-arm or bow; as a good shot.

The Turkish bow giveth a very forcible shoot. Bacon.

2. The act of striking or endeavoring to strike with a massive weapon.

3. A young branch.

Prune off superfluous branches and shoots of this second spring. Evelyn.

4. A young swine. [In New England pronounced shote.]

SHOOTER, n. One that shoots; an archer; a gunner.

SHOOTING, ppr. Discharging, as fire-arms; driving or sending with violence; pushing out; protuberating; germinating; branching; glancing, as in pain.


1. The act of discharging fire-arms, or of sending an arrow with force; a firing.

2. Sensation of a wuick glancing pain.

3. In sportsmanship, the act or practice of killing game with guns or fire-arms.

SHOP, n.

1. A builking in which goods, wares, drugs, etc. are sold by retail.

2. a building in which mechanics work, and where they keep their manufactures for sale.

Keep your shop, and your shop will keep you. Franklin.

SHOP, v.i. To visit shops for purchasing goods; used chiefly in the participle; as, the laky is shopping.

SHOPBOARD, n. [shop and board.] A bench on which work is performed; as a doctor or divine taken from the shopboard.

SHOPBOOK, n. [shop and book.] A book in which a tradesman keeps his accounts.

SHOPKEEPER, n. [shopand keep.] A trader who sells in a shop or by retail; in distinction from a merchant, or one who sells by wholesale.

SHOPLIFTER, n. [shop and lift. See Lift.] One who steals any thing from a shop, or takes goods privately from a shop; one who under pretense of buying goods, takes occasion the steal.

SHOPLIFTING, n. Larceny committed in a shop; the stealing of any thing from a shop.

SHOPLIKE, a. Low; vulgar.

SHOPMAN, n. [shop and man.]

1. A petty trader.

2. One who serves in a shop.

SHOPPING, ppr. Visiting shops for the purchase of goods.

SHORE, the old. pret. of shear. Obs.

SHORE, n. The coast or land adjacent to the sea, or to a large lake or river. This word is applied primarily to land contiguous to water; but it extends to the ground near the border of the sea or of a lake, which is covered with water. We also use the word to express the land near the border of the sea or of a great lake, to an indefinite extent; as when we say, a town stands on the shore. We do not apply the word to land contiguous to a small stream. This we call a bank.
SHORE, n. [The popular but corrupt pronunciation of sewer; a pronunciation that should be carefully avoided.]
SHORE, n. A prop; a butress; something that supports a building or other thing.
SHORE, v.t.

1. To prop; to support by a post or butress; usually with sup; as, to shore up a building.

2. To set on shore. [Not in use.]

SHORED, pp. Propped; supported by a prop.

SHORELESS, a. Having no shore or coast; of indefinite or unlimited extent; as a shoreless ocean.


SHORLING, In England, the skin of a living sheep shorn, as distinct from the morling, or skin taken from a dead sheep. Hence in some parts of England, a shorling is a sheep shorn, and a morling is one that dies.

SHORL, n. A mineral, usually of a black color, found in masses of an intermediate form, or crystallized in three or nine sided prisms, which when entire are terminated by three sided summits. The surface of the crystals is longitudinally streaked. the amorphous sort presents thin straight distinct columnur concretions, sometimes parallel, sometimes diverging or stelliform. This is called also tourmalin.

The shorl of the mineralogists of the last century comprehended a variety of substances which later observations have separated into several species. The green shorl is the epidote, or the vesuvian, or the acinolite. The violet shorl an the lenticular shorl ar ethe axinite. The black volcanic shorl is si the augite. The white Vesuvian shorl is the sommite. The white grenatiform is the leucite. The white prismatic is the pycnite, a species of the topaz, and another is a variety of feldspar. Of the blue shorl, one variety is the oxyd of titanium, another the sappare, and another the phosphate of irin. The shorl cruciform is the granitite. The octahedral shorl is the octahedrite or anatase. The red shorl of Hungary and the purple of Madagascar, are varieties of the oxyd of titanium. The spathic shorl is th espodummene. the black shorl and th eelectric shorl only remain, and to this species the name tourmalin was given by that celebrated mineralogist, the Abbe Hauy.

Blue shorl is a variety of Hauyne. Red and titanic shorl is rutile.

SHORLACEOUS, a. Like shorl; partaking of the nature and characters of shorl.

SHORLITE, n. A mineral of a greenish white color, sometimes yellowish; mostly found in irregular oblong masses or columns, inserted in a mixture of quartz and mica or granite.

Shorlite of shorlous topaz, the pycnite of Werner, is of a straw yellow color.

SHORN pp. of shear.

1. Cut off; as a lock of wool shorn.

2. Having the hair or wool cut off or sheared; as a shorn lamb.

3. Deprived; as a prince shorn of his honors.

SHORT, a. [L. curtus.]

1. Not long; not having great length or extension; as a short distance; a short ferry; a short flight; a short piece of timber.

The bed is shorter than a man can stretch himself on it. Isaiah 28:20.

2. Not extended in time; not of long duration.

The triumphing of the wicked is short. Job 20:5.

3. Not of usual or suffifient length, reach or extent.

Weak though I am of limb, and short of sight. Pope.

4. Not of long duration; repeated at small intervals of time; as short breath.

5. Not of adequate extent or quantity; not reaching the point demanded, desired or expected; as a quantity short of our expectations.

Not therefore am I short

Of knowing what I ought. Milton.

6. Deficient; defective; imperfect. This account is short of the truth.

7. Not adequate; insufficient; scanty; as, provisions are short; a short allowance of water for the voyage.

8. Not sufficiently supplied; scantily furnished.

The English were inferior in number, and grew short in their provisions. Hayward.

9. Not far distant in time; future.

He commanded those who were appointed to attend him, to be ready by a short day. Clarendon.

10. Not fetching a compass; as in the phrase, to turn short.

11. Not going to the point intended; as, to stop short.

12. Defective in quantity; as sheep short of their wool.

13. Narrow; limited; not extended; not large or comprehensive.

Their own short understandings reach

No farther than the present. Rowe.

14. Brittle; friable; breaking all at once without splinters or shatters; as marl so short that it cannot be wrought into a ball.

15. Not bending.

The lance broke short. Dryden.

16. Abrupt; brief; pointed; petulant; severe. I asked him a question, to which he gave a short answer.

To be short, to be scantily supplied; as, to be short of bread or water.

To come short, to fail; not to do what is demanded or expected, or what is necessary for the purpose; applied to persons. We all come short of perfect obedience to God’s will.

2. Not to reach or obtain.

3. To fail; to be insufficient. Provisions come short.

To cut short, to abridge; to contract; to make to small or defective; also, ot destroy or consume.

To fall short, to fail; to be inadequate or scanty; as, provisions fall short; money falls short.

2. To fail; not to do or accomplish; as, to fall short on duty.

3. To be less. The measure falls short of the estimate.

To stop short, to stop at once; also, to stop without reaching the point intended.

To turn short, to turn on the spot occupied; to turn without making a compass.

For turning short he struck with all his might. Dryden.

To be taken short, to be seized with urgent necessity.

In short, a few words; briefly; to sum up or close in a few words.

SHORT, n. A summary account; as the short of the matter.

The short and long in our play is preferred. Shak.

SHORT, adv. Not long; as short-enduring joy; a short-breathed man.

In connection with verbs, short is a modifying word, or used adverbially; as, to come short, etc.

SHORT, v.t.

1. To shorten.

2. v.i. To fail; to decrease. [Not in use.]

SHORT-BREATHED, a. Having short breath or quick respiration.

SHORT-DATED, a. [short and date.] Having little time to run.

SHORTEN, v.t. short’n.

1. To make short in measure, extent or time; as, to shorten distance; to shorten a road; to shorten days of calamity.

2. To abridge; to lessen; as, to shorten labor or work.

3. To curtail; as, to shorten the hair by clipping.

4. To cintract; to lessen; to diminish in extent or amount; as, to shorten sail; to shorten an allowance of provisions.

5. To confine; to restrain.

Here where the subject is so fruitful, I am shortened by my chain. Dryden.

6. To lop; to deprive.

The youth-shortened of his ears. Dryden.

SHORTEN, v.i. short’n.

1. To become short or shorter. The day shortens in northern latitudes from June to December.

2. To contract; as, a cord shortens by being wet; a metallic rod shortens by cold.

SHORTENED, pp. Made shorter; abridged; contracted.

SHORTENING, ppr. Making shorter; contracting.

SHORTENING, n. Something used in cookery to make paste short or friable, as butter or lard.

SHORT-HAND, n. [short amd hand.] Short writing; a compendious method of writing by substituting characters, abbreviations or symbols for words; otherwise called stenography.

SHORT-JOINTED, a. [short and joint.] A horse is said to be short-jointed when the pastern is to short.

SHORT-LIVED, a. [short and live.] Not living or lasting long; being of short continuance; as a short-lived race of beings; short-lived pleasure; short-lived passion.


1. Quickly; soon; in a little time.

The armies came shortly in view of each other. Clarendon.

2. In a few words; briefly; as, to express ideas more shortly in verse than in prose.

SHORTNER, n. He or that which shortens.


1. The quality of being short in space or time; little length or little duration; as the shortness of a journey or of distance; the shortness of the days in winter; the shortness of life.

2. Fewness of words; brevity; conciseness; as the shortness of an essay. The prayers of the church, by reason of their shortness, are easy for the memory.

3. Want of reach or the power of retention; as the shortness of the memory.

4. Deficiency; imperfection; limited extent; as the shortness of our reason.

SHORT-RIB, n. [short and rib.] One of the lower ribs; a rib shorter than the others, below the sternum; a false rib.

SHORTS, n. plu. The bran and coarse part of a meal. [Local.]

SHORT-SIGHT, n. Short-sightedness; myopy; vision accurate only when the object is near.