Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



SASSAFRAS, n. [L. saxifraga; saxum, a stone, and frango, to break.]

A tree of the genus Laurus, whose bark has an aromatic smell and taste.

SASSE, n. A sluice, canal or lock on a navigable river; a word found in old British statutes.

SASSOLIN, SASSOLINE, n. Native boracic acid, found in saline incrustations on the borders of hot springs near Sasso, in the territory of Florence.

SASSOROL, SASSOROLLA, n. A species of pigeon, called rock pigeon.

SASTRA, n. Among the Hindoos, a sacred book; a book containing sacred ordinances. The six great Sastras, in the opinion of the Hindoos, contain all knowledge, human and divine. These are the Veda, Upaveda, Vedanga, Purana, Dherma, and Dersana.

SAT, pret. of sit.

SATAN, n. [Heb. an adversary.] The grand adversary of man; the devil or prince of darkness; the chief of the fallen angels.

SATANIC, SATANICAL, a. Having the qualities of Satan; resembling Satan; extremely malicious or wicked; devilish; infernal.

Detest the slander which with a satanic smile, exults over the character it has ruined.

SATANICALLY, adv. With the wicked and malicious spirit of Satan; diabolically.

SATANISM, n. The evil and malicious disposition of Satan; a diabolical spirit.

SATANIST, n. A very wicked person. [Little used.]

SATCHEL, n. [See Sachel.] A little sack or bag.

SATE, v.t. [L. satio. The primary sense is to stuff, to fill, from crowding, driving.]

To satiate; to satisfy appetite; to glut; to feed beyond natural desire.

While the vultures sate their maws with full repast.

SATED, pp. Filled; glutted; satiated.

SATELESS, a. Insatiable; not capable of being satisfied.

SATELLITE, n. [L. satelles.]

1. A secondary planet or moon; a small planet revolving round another. In the solar system, eighteen satellites have been discovered. The earth has one, called the moon, Jupiter four, Saturn seven, and Herschel six.

2. A follower; an obsequious attendant or dependant.

SATELLITIOUS, a. Consisting of satellites.

SATIATE, v.t. sa’shate. [L. satiatus, from satio. See Sate.]

1. To fill; to satisfy appetite or desire; to feed to the full, or to furnish enjoyment to the extent of desire; as, to satiate appetite or sense.

2. To fill to the extent of want; as, to satiate the earth or plants with water.

3. To glut; to fill beyond natural desire.

He may be satiated, but not satisfied.

4. To gratify desire to the utmost.

I may yet survive the malice of my enemies, although they should be satiated with my blood.

5. To saturate. [Not unusual. See Saturate.]

SATIATE, a. Filled to satiety; glutted; followed by with or of. the former is most common; as satiate of applause. [Unusual.]

SATIATION, n. The state of being filled.

SATIETY, n. [L. satietas. See Sate.]

Properly, fullness of gratification, either of the appetite or any sensual desire; but it usually implies fullness beyond desire; an excess of gratification which excites wearisomeness or lothing; state of being glutted.

In all pleasures there is satiety.

- But thy words, with grace divine imbu’d, bring to their sweetness no satiety.

SATIN, n. [Gr. L. sindon. Heb.]

A species of glossy silk cloth, of a thick close texture.


1. A thin species of satin.

2. A particular kind of woolen cloth.

SATIN-FLOWER, n. A plant of the genus Lunaria.

SATIN-SPAR, n. A mineral, fibrous limestone.

SATIRE, n. [L. satira; so named from sharpness, pungency. See Satyriasis.]

1. A discourse or poem in which wickedness or folly is exposed with severity. It differs from lampoon and pasquinade, in being general rather than personal.

2. Severity of remark. It differs from sarcasm, in not expressing contempt or scorn.

SATIRIC, SATIRICAL, a. [L. satiricus.]

1. Belonging to satire; conveying satire; as a satiric style.

2. Censorious; severe in language.

SATIRICALLY, adv. With severity of remark; with invective; with intention to censure.

SATIRIST, n. One who writes satire.

Wycherly, in his writings, is the sharpest satirist of his time.

SATIRIZE, v.t. To censure with keenness or severity.

It is as hard to satirize well a man of distinguished vices, as to praise well a man of distinguished virtues.

SATIRIZED, pp. Severely censured.

SATIRIZING, ppr. Censuring with severity.

SATISFACTION, n. [L. satisfactio. See Satisfy.]

1. That state of the mind which results from the full gratification of desire; repose of mind or contentment with present possession and enjoyment. Sensual pleasure affords no permanent satisfaction.

2. The act of pleasing or gratifying.

The mind having a power to suspend the execution and satisfaction of its desires -

3. Repose of the mind on the certainty of any thing; that state which results from relief from suspense, doubt or uncertainty; conviction.

What satisfaction can you have?

4. Gratification; that which pleases.

Exchanging solid quiet to obtain the windy satisfaction of the brain.

5. That which satisfies; amends; recompense; compensation; indemnification; atonement. Satisfaction for damages, must be an equivalent; but satisfaction in many cases, may consist in concession or apology.

6. Payment; discharge; as, to receive a sum in full satisfaction of a debt; to enter satisfaction on record.

SATISFACTIVE, a. Giving satisfaction. [Little used or not at all.]


1. In a manner to give satisfaction or content.

2. In a manner to impress conviction or belief. The crime was satisfactorily proved.

SATISFACTORINESS, n. The power of satisfying or giving content; as the satisfactoriness of pleasure or enjoyment.


1. Giving or producing satisfaction; yielding content; particularly, relieving the mind from doubt or uncertainty and enabling it to rest with confidence; as, to give a satisfactory account of any remarkable transaction. A judge seeks for satisfactory evidence of guilt before he condemns.

2. Making amends, indemnification or recompose; causing to cease from claims and to rest content; atoning; as, to make satisfactory compensation, or a satisfactory apology for an offense.

- A most wise and sufficient means of salvation by the satisfactory and meritorious death and obedience of the incarnate Son of God, Jesus Christ.

SATISFIED, pp. Having the desires fully gratified; made content.

SATISFIER, n. One that gives satisfaction.

SATISFY, v.t. [L. satisfacio; satis, enough, and facio, to make.]

1. To gratify wants, wishes or desires to the full extent; to supply possession or enjoyment till no more is desired. The demands of hunger may be easily satisfied; but who can satisfy the passion for money or honor?

2. To supply fully what is necessary and demanded by natural laws; as, to satisfy with rain the desolate and waste ground. Job 38:27.

3. To pay to content; to recompense or indemnify to the full extent of claims; as, to satisfy demands.

He is well paid, that is, well satisfied.

4. To appease by punishment; as, to satisfy rigor.

5. To free from doubt, suspense or uncertainty; to cause the mind to rest in confidence by ascertaining the truth; as, to satisfy one’s self by inquiry.

6. To convince. A jury must be satisfied of the guilt of a man, before they can justly condemn him.

The standing evidences of the truth of the gospel are in themselves most firm, solid and satisfying.

7. To pay; to discharge; as, to satisfy an execution.

Debts due to the United States are to be first satisfied.


1. To give content. Earthly good never satisfies.

2. To feed or supply to the full.

3. To make payment. [But the intransitive use of this verb is generally elliptical.]

SATISFYING, ppr. Giving content; feeding or supplying to the full extent of desire; convincing; paying.

SATIVE, a. [L. sativus, from sero, satum, to sow.] Sown in gardens.

SATRAP, n. In Persia, an admiral; more generally, the governor of a province.

SATRAPAL, a. Pertaining to a satrap or a satrapy.

SATRAPESS, n. A female satrap.

SATRAPY, n. The government or jurisdiction of a satrap.

SATURABLE, a. [See Saturate.] That may be saturated; capable of saturation.

SATURANT, a. [L. saturans.] Saturating; impregnating to the full.

SATURANT, n. In medicine, a substance which neutralizes the acid in the stomach; an absorbent.

SATURATE, v.t. [L. saturo, from satur, filled; satio, to feed to the full. See Sate.]

1. To impregnate or unite with, till no more can be received. Thus an acid saturates an alkali, and an alkali saturates an acid, when the solvent can contain no more of the dissolving body.

2. To supply or fill to fullness.

SATURATED, pp. Supplied to fullness.

SATURATING, ppr. Supplying to fullness.

SATURATION, n. In a general sense, a filling or supply to fullness. In chimistry, the union, combination or impregnation of one body with another by natural attraction, affinity or mixture, till the receiving body can contain no more; or solution continued till the solvent can contain no more. The saturation of an alkali by an acid, is by affinity; the saturation of water by salt, is by solution.


The last day of the week; the day next preceding the sabbath.

SATURITY, n. [L. saturitas. See Saturate.]

Fullness of supply; the state of being saturated. [Little used.]

SATURN, n. [L. saturnus.]

1. In mythology, one of the oldest and principal deities, the son of Coelus and Terra, (heaven and earth,) and the father of Jupiter. He answers to the Greek Chronus or Time.

2. In astronomy, one of the planets of the solar system, less in magnitude than Jupiter, but more remote from the sun. Its diameter is seventy nine thousand miles, is mean distance from the sun somewhat more than nine hundred millions of miles and its year, or periodical revolution round the sun, nearly twenty nine years and a half.

3. In the old chimistry, an appellation given to lead.

4. In heraldry, the black color in blazoning the arms of sovereign princes.

SATURANLIAN, a. [from L. saturnalia, feasts of Saturn.]

1. Pertaining to the festivals celebrated in honor of Saturn, Dec. 16, 17 or 18, in which men indulged in riot without restraint. Hence,

2. Loose; dissolute; sportive.

SATURNIAN, a. In fabulous history, pertaining to Saturn, whose age or reign, from the mildness and wisdom of his government, is called the golden age; hence, golden; happy; distinguished for purity, integrity and simplicity.

Th’ Augustus, born to bring Saturnian times.

SATURNINE, a. [L. Saturnus.]

1. Supposed to be under the influence of Saturn. Hence,

2. Dull; heavy; grave; not readily susceptible of excitement; phlegmatic; as a saturnine person or temper.

SATURNIST, n. A person of a dull, grave, gloomy temperament.

SATURNITE, n. A metallic substance of recent discovery, separated from lead in torrefaction, resembling lead in its color, weight, solubility in acids, etc. but more fusible and brittle; easily scorified and volatilized.

SATYR, n. [L. satyrus; Gr. a monkey, a fawn.]

In mythology, a sylvan deity or demi-god, represented as a monster, half man and half goat, having horns on his head, a hairy body, with the feet and tail of a goat. Satyrs are usually found in the train of Bacchus, and have been distinguished for lasciviousness and riot. They have been represented as remarkable for their piercing eyes and keen raillery.

SATYRIASIS, n. [Gr. We observe in this word a connection with satire, in the sense of excitement, pungency.]

Immoderate venereal appetite.

SATYRION, n. A plant.

SAUCE, n. [L. salsus, salt, from sal.]

1. A mixture or composition to be eaten with food for improving its relish.

High sauces and rich spices are brought from the Indies.

2. In New England, culinary vegetables and roots eaten with flesh. This application of the word falls in nearly with the definition.

Roots, herbs, vine-fruits, and salad-flowers - they dish up various ways, and find them very delicious sauce to their meats, both roasted and boiled, fresh and salt.

Sauce consisting of stewed apples, is a great article in some parts of New England; but cranberries make the most delicious sauce.

To serve one the same sauce, is to retaliate one injury with another. [Vulgar.]

SAUCE, v.t.

1. To accompany meat with something to give it a higher relish.

2. To gratify with rich tastes; as, to sauce the palate.

3. To intermix or accompany with any thing good, or ironically, with any thing bad.

Then fell she to sauce her desires with threatenings.

Thou say’st his meat was sauc’d with thy upbraidings.

4. To treat with bitter, pert or tart language. [Vulgar.]

SAUCE-BOX, n. saus’-box. [from saucy.] A saucy impudent fellow.

SAUCE-PAN, n. saus’-pan. A small pan for sauce, or a small skillet with a long handle, in which sauce or small things are boiled.


1. A small pan in which sauce is set on a table.

2. A piece of china or other ware, in which a tea cup or coffee cup is set.

SAUCILY, adv. [from saucy.] Impudently; with impertinent boldness; petulantly.

SAUCINESS, n. Impudence; impertinent boldness; petulance; contempt of superiors.


In mining or gunnery, a long pipe or bag, made of cloth well pitched, or of leather, filled with powder, and extending from the chamber of the mine to the entrance of the gallery. To preserve the powder from dampness, it is generally placed in a wooden pipe. It serves to communicate fire to mines, caissons, bomb-chests, etc.

SAUCY, a. [from sauce; L. salsus, salt or salted. The use of this word leads to the primary sense of salt, which must be shooting forward, penetrating, pungent, for boldness is a shooting forward.]

1. Impudent; bold to excess; rude; transgressing the rules of decorum; treating superiors with contempt. It expresses more than pert; as a saucy boy; a saucy fellow.

2. Expressive of impudence; as a saucy eye; saucy looks.

SAUL, an old spelling of soul.

SAUNDERS. [See Sandal and Sanders.]

SAUNTER, v.i. s’anter.

1. To wander about idly; as sauntering from place to place.

2. To loiter; to linger.

This must not run it into a lazy sauntering about ordinary things.

SAUNTERER, n. One that wanders about idly.

SAUNTERING, ppr. Wandering about lazily or idly; loitering.

SAURIAN, a. [Gr. a lizard.] Pertaining to lizards; designating an order of reptiles.

SAUSAGE, n. [L. salsus.]

The intestine of an animal stuffed with minced meat and seasoned.

SAUSSURITE, n. A mineral so named from Saussure, the discoverer, of a white gray or green color, found at the foot of mount Rosa. It approaches andalusite.

SAVABLE, a. [from save.] Capable of being saved.

SAVABLENESS, n. Capability of being saved.

SAVAGE, a. [L. silva, a wood, or silvicola, an inhabitant of a wood, or silvaticus.]

1. Pertaining to the forest; wild; remote from human residence and improvements; uncultivated; as a savage wilderness.

Cornels and savage berries of the wood.

2. Wild; untamed; as savage beasts of prey.

3. Uncivilized; untaught; unpolished; rude; as savage life; savage manners.

What nation since the commencement of the christian era, ever rose from savage to civilized without christianity?

4. Cruel; barbarous; fierce; ferocious; inhuman; brutal; as a savage spirit.


1. A human being in his native state of rudeness; one who is untaught, uncivilized or without cultivation of mind or manners. The savages of America, when uncorrupted by the vices of civilized men, are remarkable for their hospitality to strangers, and for their truth, fidelity and gratitude to their friends, but implacably cruel and revengeful towards their enemies. From this last trait of the savage character, the word came to signify,

2. A man of extreme, unfeeling, brutal cruelty; a barbarian.

3. The name of a genus of fierce voracious flies.

SAVAGE, v.t. To make wild, barbarous or cruel. [Not well authorized and little used.]

SAVAGELY, adv. In the manner of a savage; cruelly; inhumanly.


1. Wildness; an untamed, uncultivated or uncivilized state; barbarism. Hence,

2. Cruelty; barbarousness.

Wolves and bears, they say, casting their savageness aside, have done like offices of pity.


1. Wild growth, as of plants.

2. Cruelty; barbarity.

SAVAGISM, n. The state of rude uncivilized men; the state of men in their native wildness and rudeness.

The greater part of modern philosophers have declared for the original savagism of men.


An extensive open plain or meadow, or a plain destitute of trees.

SAVE, v.t. [L. salvo. As salve is used in Latin for salutation or wishing health, as hail is in English, I suspect this word to be from the root of heal or hail, the first letter being changed. Gr. See Salt.]

1. To preserve from injury, destruction or evil of any kind; to rescue from danger; as, to save a house from the flames; to save a man from drowning; to save a family from ruin; to save a state from war.

He cried, saying Lord, save me. Matthew 14:30; Genesis 45:7.

2. To preserve from final and everlasting destruction; to rescue from eternal death.

Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners. 1 Timothy 1:15.

3. To deliver; to rescue from the power and pollution of sin.

He shall save his people from their sins. Matthew 1:21.

4. To hinder from being spent or lost; as, to save the expense of a new garment. Order in all affairs saves time.

5. To prevent. method in affairs saves much perplexity.

6. To reserve or lay by for preservation.

Now save a nation, and now save a groat.

7. To spare; to prevent; to hinder from occurrence.

Will you not speak to save a lady’s blush?

Silent and unobserv’d, to save his tears.

8. To salve; as, to save appearances.

9. To take or use opportunely, so as not to lose. The ship sailed in time to save the tide.

10. To except; to reserve from a general admission or account.

Israel burned none of them, save Hazor only. Joshua 11:13.

Of the Jews five times received I forty stripes, save one. 2 Corinthians 11:24.

[Save is here a verb followed by an object. It is the imperative used without a specific nominative; but it is now less frequently used than except.]

SAVE, v.i. To hinder expense.

Brass ordinance saveth in the quantity of the material.

SAVEALL, n. [save and all.] A small pan inserted in a candlestick to save the ends of candles.

SAVED, pp. Preserved from evil; injury or destruction; kept frugally; prevented; spared; taken in time.

SAVELIN, n. A fish of the trout kind, having very small scales and a black back.


1. One that saves, preserves or rescues from evil or destruction; as the saver of the country.

2. One that escapes loss, but without gain.

3. One that is frugal in expenses; an economist.

SAVIN, n. A tree or shrub of the genus Juniperus. The savin of Europe resembles the red cedar of America, and the latter is sometimes called savin.

SAVING, ppr.

1. Preserving from evil or destruction; hindering from waste or loss; sparing; taking or using in time.

2. Excepting.

3. a. Frugal; not lavish; avoiding unnecessary expenses; economical; parsimonious. But it implies less rigorous economy than parsimonious; as a saving husbandman or housekeeper.

4. That saves in returns or receipts the principal or sum employed or expended; that incurs no loss, though not gainful; as a saving bargain. The ship has made a saving voyage.

5. That secures everlasting salvation; as saving grace.


1. Something kept from being expended or lost.

By reducing the interest of the debt, the nation makes a saving.

2. Exception; reservation.

Contend not with those that are too strong for us, but still with a saving to honesty.


1. With frugality or parsimony.

2. So as to be finally saved from eternal death; as savingly converted.


1. Frugality; parsimony, caution not to expend money without necessity or use.

2. Tendency to promote eternal salvation.

SAVINGS BANK, n. A bank in which the savings or earnings of the poor are deposited and put to interest for their benefit.

SAVIOR, n. savyur. One that saves or preserves; but properly applied only to Jesus Christ, the Redeemer, who has opened the way to everlasting salvation by his obedience and death, and who is therefore called the Savior, by way of distinction, the Savior of men, the Savior of the world. General Washington may be called the saver, but not the savior of his country.

SAVOR, n. [L. sapor, sapio, to taste.]

1. Taste or odor; something that perceptibly affects the organs of taste and smell; as the savor of an orange or rose; an ill savor; a sweet savor.

I smell sweet savors -

In Scripture, it usually denotes smell, scent, odor. Leviticus 26:31; Ecclesiastes 10:1.

2. The quality which renders a thing valuable; the quality which renders other bodies agreeable to the taste.

If the salt hath lost its savor - Matthew 5:13.

3. In Scripture, character; reputation. Exodus 5:21

4. Cause; occasion. 2 Corinthians 2:14-16.

Sweet savor, in Scripture, denotes that which renders a thing acceptable to God, or his acceptance. Hence, to smell a sweet savor, is to accept the offering or service. Genesis 8:21.

SAVOR, v.i.

1. To have a particular smell or taste.

2. To partake of the quality or nature of; or to have the appearance of. The answers savor of a humble spirit; or they savor of pride.

I have rejected every thing that savors of party.

SAVOR, v.t.

1. To like; to taste or smell with pleasure.

2. To like; to delight in; to favor. Matthew 16:23.

SAVORILY, adv. [from savory.]

1. With gust or appetite.

2. With a pleasing relish.

SAVORINESS, n. Pleasing taste or smell; as the savoriness of a pineapple or a peach.

SAVORLESS, a. Destitute of smell or taste; insipid.