Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary
SAGATHY — SALOOP
SAGATHY, n. A kind of serge; a slight woolen stuff.
SAGE, n. A plant of the genius Salvia, of several species; as the officinalis, or common large sage, of several varieties; the tomentosa or balsamic sage; the auriculata, or sage of virtue; and the pomifera.
SAGE, a. [L. saga, sagus, sagio. See Sagacious.]
1. Wise; having nice discernment and powers of judging; prudent; grave; as a sage counselor.
2. Wise; judicious; proceeding from wisdom; well judged; well adapted to the purpose; as sage counsels.
SAGE, n. A wise man; a man of gravity and wisdom; particularly, a man venerable for years, and known as a man of sound judgment and prudence; a grave philosopher.
At his birth a star proclaims him come, and guides the eastern sages.
Groves where immortal sages taught.
SAGELY, adv. Wisely; with just discernment and prudence.
SAGENESS, n. Wisdom; sagacity; prudence; gravity.
SAGENITE, n. Acicular rutile.
SAGITTAL, a. [L. sagittalis, from sagitta, an arrow; that which is thrown or driven, probably from the root of say and sing.]
Pertaining to an arrow; resembling an arrow; as sagittal bars of yellow.
In anatomy, the sagittal suture is the suture which unites the parietal bones of the skull.
SAGITTARIUS, n. [L. an archer.] One of the twelve signs of the zodiac, which the sun enters November 22.
SAGITTARY, n. [supra.] A centaur, an animal half man, half horse, armed with a bow and quiver.
SAGITTATE, a. In botany, shaped like the head of an arrow; triangular, hollowed at the base, with angles at the hinder part; or with the hinder angles acute, divided by a sinus; applied to the leaf, stipula or anther.
SAGO, n. a dry mealy substance or granulated paste, imported from Java and the Philippine and Molucca isles. It is the pith or marrow of a species of palm tree, and much used in medicine as a restorative diet.
SAGOIN, n. The Sagoins form a division of the genus Simia, including such of the monkeys of America as have hairy tails, not prehensile.
SAGY, a. [from sage.] Full of sage; seasoned with sage.
SAHLITE, n. A mineral name from the mountain Sahla, in Westermania, where it was discovered. It is of a light greenish gray color, occurs massive, and composed of coarse granular concretion. It is called also malacolite; a subspecies or variety of augite.
SAIC, n. a Turkish or Grecian vessel, very common in the Levant, a kind of ketch which has no top-gallant-sail, nor mizen-top-sail.
SAID, pret. and pp. of say; so written for sayed.
1. Declared; uttered; reported.
2. Aforesaid; before mentioned.
SAIL, n. [L. sal, salt.]
1. In navigation, a spread of canvas, or an assemblage of several breadths of canvas, [or some substitute for it,] sewed together with a double seam at the borders, and edged with a cord called the bolt-rope, to be extended on the masts or yards for receiving the impulse of wind by which a ship is driven. The principal sails are the courses or lower salts, the top-sails and top-gallant-sails.
2. In poetry, wings.
3. A ship or other vessel; used in the singular for a single ship, or as a collective name for many. We saw a sail at the leeward. We saw three sail on our star-board quarter. The fleet consists of twenty sail.
To loose sails, to unfurl them.
To make sail, to extend an additional quantity of sail.
To set sail, to expand or spread the sails; and hence; to begin a voyage.
To shorten sail, to reduce the extent of sail, or take in a part.
1. To strike sail, to lower the sails suddenly, as in saluting or in sudden gusts of wind.
2. To bate show or pomp.
1. To be impelled or driven forward by the action of wind upon sails, as a ship on water. A ship sails from New York for Liverpool. She sails ten knots an hour. She sails well close-hauled.
2. To be conveyed in a vessel on water; to pass by water. We sailed from London to Canton.
3. To swim.
Little dolphins, when they sail in the vast shadow of the British whale.
4. To set sail; to begin a voyage. We sailed from New York for Havre, June 15, 1824. We sailed from Cowes for New York, May 10, 1825.
5. To be carried in the air, as a balloon.
6. To pass smoothly along.
As is a wing’d messenger from heaven, when he bestrides the lazy pacing clouds, and sails upon the bosom of the air.
7. To fly without striking with the wings.
1. To pass or move upon in a ship, by means of sails.
A thousand ships were mann’d to sail the sea.
[This use is elliptical, on or over being omitted.]
2. To fly through
Sublime she sails th’ aerial space, and mounts the winged gales.
SAILABLE, a. Navigable; that may be passed by ships.
SAIL-BORNE, n. Borne or conveyed by sails.
SAIL-BOARD, a. [See Broad.] Spreading like a sail.
SAILED, pp. Passed in ships or other water craft.
1. One that sails; a seaman; usually sailor.
2. A ship or other vessel, with reference to her manner of sailing. Thus we say, a heavy sailer; a fast sailer; a prime sailer.
SAILING, ppr. Moving on water or in air; passing in a ship or other vessel.
1. The act of moving on water; or the movement of a ship or vessel impelled or wafted along the surface of water by the action of wind on her sails.
2. Movement through the air, as in a balloon.
3. The act of setting sail or beginning a voyage.
SAIL-LOFT, n. A loft or apartment where sails are cut out and made.
1. One whose occupation is to make sails.
2. An officer on board ships of war, whose business is to repair or alter sails.
SAIL-MAKING, n. The art or business of making sails.
SAILOR, n. [a more common spelling than sailer.]
A mariner; a seaman; one who follows the business of navigating ships or other vessels, or one who understands the management of ships in navigation. The word however does not by itself express any particular skill in navigation. It denotes any person who follows the seas, and is chiefly or wholly applied to the common hands. [See Seaman.]
SAIL-YARD, n. The yard or spar on which sails are extended.
SAIM, n. [L. sebum, contracted.] Lard. [Local.]
SAIN, for sayen, pp. of say. Obs.
SAINT, n. [L. sanctus.]
1. A person sanctified; a holy or godly person; one eminent for piety and virtue. It is particularly applied to the apostles and other holy persons mentioned in Scripture. A hypocrite may imitate a saint. Psalm 16:3.
2. One of the blessed in heaven. Revelation 18:24.
4. One canonized by the church of Rome.
SAINT, v.t. To number or enroll among saints by an official act of the pope; to canonize.
Over against the church stands a large hospital, erected by a shoemaker who has been beautified, though never sainted.
SAINT, v.i. To act with a show of piety.
1. Canonized; enrolled among the saints.
2. a. Holy; pious; as, thy father was a most sainted king.
3. Sacred; as the gods on sainted hills.
SAINTESS, n. A female saint.
SAINT JOHN’S BREAD, n. A plant of the genus Ceratonia.
SAINT JOHN’S WORT, n. A plant of the genus Hypericum.
SAINTLIKE, a. [saint and like.]
1. Resembling a saint; as a saintlike prince.
2. Suiting a saint; becoming a saint.
Gloss’d over only with a saintlike show.
SAINTLY, a. Like a saint; becoming a holy person; as wrongs with saintly patience borne.
SAINT PETER’S WORT, n. A plant of the genus Ascyrum, and another of the genus Hypericum.
SAINT’S BELL, n. A small bell rung in churches when the priest repeats the words sancte, sancte, sancte, Deus sabaoth, that persons absent might fall on their knees in reverence of the holy office.
SAINT-SEEMING, a. Having the appearance of a saint.
SAINTSHIP, n. The character or qualities of a saint.
SAJENE, n. [written also sagene. Tooke writes it sajene.]
A Russian measure of length, equal to seven feet English measure.
SAKE, n. [Heb. to press or oppress. The primary sense is to strain, urge, press or drive forward, and this is from the same root as seek, essay and L. sequor, whence we have pursue and prosecute. We have analogous words in cause, thing, and the L. res.]
1. Final cause; end; purpose; or rather the purpose of obtaining. I open a window for the sake of air, that is, to obtain it, for the purpose of obtaining air. I read for the sake of instruction, that is, to obtain it. Sake then signifies primarily effort to obtain, and secondarily purpose of obtaining. The hero fights for the sake of glory; men labor for the sake of subsistence or wealth.
2. Account; regard to any person or thing.
I will not again curse the ground any more for man’s sake. Genesis 8:21.
Save me for thy mercies’ sake. Psalm 6:4.
1. A hawk; a species of falcon.
2. A piece of artillery.
SAKERET, n. The male of the sakerhawk.
SALABLE, a. [from sale.] That may be sold; that finds a ready market; being in good demand.
SALABLENESS, n. The state of being salable.
SALABLY, adv. In a salable manner.
SALACIOUS, a. [L. salax, from the root of sal, salt; the primary sense of which is shooting, penetrating, pungent, coinciding probably with L. salio, to leap. Salacious then is highly excited, or prompt to leap.] Lustful; lecherous.
SALACIOUSLY, adv. Lustfully; with eager animal appetite.
SALACIOUSNESS, SALACITY, n. Lust; lecherousness; strong propensity to venery.
Raw herbs, usually dressed with salt, vinegar, oil or spices, and eaten for giving a relish to other food.
Leaves eaten raw, are termed salad.
SALADING, n. Vegetables for salads.
SAL-ALEMBROTH, n. A compound muriate of mercury and ammonia.
SALAM, n. [Oriental, peace or safety.] A salutation or compliment of ceremony or respect. [Not in use.]
SALAMANDER, n. [L. Gr. salamandra.] An animal of the genus Lacerta or Lizard, one of the smaller species of the genus, not being more than six or seven inches in length. It has a short cylindrical tail, four toes on the four feet, and a naked body. The skin is furnished with small excrescences like teats, which are full of holes from which oozes a milky liquor that spreads over the skin, forming a kind of transparent varnish. The eyes are placed in the upper part of the head. The color is dark, with a bluish cast on the belly, intermixed with irregular yellow spots. This animal is oviparous, inhabits cold damp places among trees or hedges, avoiding the heat of the sun. The vulgar story of its being able to endure fire, is a mistake.
Salamander’s hair or wool, a name given to a species of asbestos or mineral flax; I believe no long used.
SALAMANDRINE, a. Pertaining to or resembling a salamander; enduring fire.
Sal ammoniac, muriate of ammonia. The native sal ammoniac is of two kinds, volcanic and conchoidal.
SALARIED, a. Enjoying a salary.
SALARY, n. [L. salarium; said to be from sal, salt, which was part of the pay of Roman soldiers.]
The recompense or consideration stipulated to be paid to a person for services, usually a fixed sum to be paid by the year, as to governors, magistrates, settled clergymen, instructors of seminaries, or other officers, civil or ecclesiastical. When wages are stated or stipulated by the month, week or day, we do not call the compensation salary, but pay or wages; as in the case of military men and laborers.
SALE, n. [The primary sense of sell, is simply to deliver or cause to pass from one person to another.]
1. The act of selling; the exchange of a commodity for money of equivalent value. The exchange of one commodity for another is barter or permutation, and sale differs from barter only in the nature of the equivalent given.
2. Vent; power of selling; market. He went to market, but found no sale for his goods.
3. Auction; public sale to the highest bidder, or exposure of goods in market. [Little used.]
4. State of being venal, or of being offered to bribery; as, to set the liberty of a state to sale.
5. A wicker basket.
SALE, a. Sold; bought; as opposed to homemade. [Colloquial.]
SALEBROSITY, n. [See Salebrous.] Roughness or ruggedness of a place or road.
SALEBROUS, a. [L. salebrosus, from salebra, a rough place; probably allied to salio, to shoot out.] Rough; rugged; uneven. [Little used.]
SALEP, n. [said to be a Turkish word; written also salop, saloop and saleb.]
In the materia medica, the dried root of a species of orchis; also, a preparation of this root to be used as food.
SALESMAN, n. [sale and man.] One that sells clothes ready made.
SALEWORK, n. Work or things made for sale; hence, work carelessly done. This last sense is a satire on man.
SALIC, a. [The origin of this word is not ascertained.]
The Salic law of France is a fundamental law, by virtue of which males only can inherit the throne.
SALIENT, a. [L. saliens, salio, to leap.]
1. Leaping; an epithet in heraldry applied to a lion or other beast, represented in a leaping posture, with his right foot in the dexter point, and his hinder left foot in the sinister base of the escutcheon, by which it is distinguished from rampant.
2. In fortification, projecting; as a salient angle. A salient angle points outward, and is opposed to a re-entering angle, which points inward.
SALIENT, a. [L. saliens, from salio, to leap or shoot out.]
1. Leaping; moving by leaps; as frogs.
2. Beating; throbbing; as the heart.
3. Shooting out or up; springing; darting; as a salient sprout.
SALIFEROUS, a. [L. sal, salt, and fero, to produce.]
Producing or bearing salt; as saliferous rock.
SALIFIABLE, a. [from salify.] Capable of becoming a salt, or of combining with an acid to form a neutral salt. Salifiable bases are alkalies, earths and metallic oxyds.
SALIFICATION, n. The act of salifying.
SALIFIED, pp. Formed into a neutral salt by combination with an acid.
SALIFY, v.t. [L. sal, salt, and facio, to make.]
To form into a neutral salt, by combining an acid with an alkali, earth or metal.
SALIFYING, ppr. Forming into a salt by combination with an acid.
SALIGOT, n. A plant, the water thistle.
SALINATION, n. [L. sal, salt; salinator, a salt maker.]
The act of washing with salt water.
1. Consisting of salt or constituting salt; as saline particles; saline substances.
2. Partaking of the qualities of salt; as a saline taste.
SALINE, n. A salt spring, or a place where salt water is collected in the earth; a name given to the salt springs in the United States.
SALINIFEROUS, a. [L. sal, salinum, and fero, to produce.] Producing salt.
SALINIFORM, a. [L. sal, salinum, and form.] Having the form of salt.
SALINO-TERRENE, a. [L. sal, salinum, and terrenus, from terra, earth.] Denoting a compound of salt and earth.
SALITE, v.t. [L. salio, from sal, salt.] To salt; to impregnate or season with salt. [Little used.]
The fluid which is secreted by the salivary glands, and which serves to moisten the mouth and tongue. It moistens our food also, and by being mixed with it in mastication, promotes digestion. When discharged from the mouth, it is called spittle.
SALIVAL, SALIVARY, a. [from saliva.] Pertaining to saliva; secreting or conveying saliva; as salivary glands; salivary ducts or canals.
SALIVATE, v.t. [from saliva.]
To excite an unusual secretion and discharge of saliva in a person, usually by mercury; to produce ptyalism in a person. Physicians salivate their patients in diseases of the glands, of the liver, in the venereal disease, in yellow fever, etc.
SALIVATED, pp. Having an increased secretion of saliva from medicine.
SALIVATING, ppr. Exciting increased secretion of saliva.
SALIVATION, n. The act or process of promoting ptyalism, or of producing an increased secretion of saliva, for the cure of disease.
SALIVOUS, a. Pertaining to saliva; partaking of the nature of saliva.
SALLET, n. A head-piece or helmet.
SALLET, SALLETING, n. [corrupted from salad. Not in use.]
SALLIANCE, n. [from sally.] An issuing forth. [Not in use.]
SALLOW, n. [L. salix.] A tree of the willow kind, or genus Salix.
SALLOW, a. [L. salix, the tree, supra.]
Having a yellowish color; of a pale sickly color, tinged with a dark yellow; as a sallow skin.
SALLOWNESS, n. A yellowish color; paleness tinged with a dark yellow; as sallowness of complexion.
SALLY, n. [See the Verb.] In a general sense, a spring; a darting or shooting. Hence,
1. An issue or rushing of troops from a besieged place to attack the besiegers.
2. A spring or darting of intellect, fancy or imagination; flight; sprightly exertion. We say, sallies of wit, sallies of imagination.
3. Excursion from the usual track; range.
He who often makes sallies into a country, and traverses it up and down, will know it better than one that goes always round in the same track.
4. Act of levity or extravagance; wild gaiety; frolic; a bounding or darting beyond ordinary rules; as a sally of youth; a sally of levity.
SALLY, v.i. [L. salio. Gr. to impel, to shoot. See Solar, from L. sol. Gr.]
1. To issue or rush out, as a body of troops from a fortified place to attack besiegers.
They break the truce, and sally out by night.
2. To issue suddenly; to make a sudden eruption.
SALLYING, ppr. Issuing or rushing out.
1. In fortification, a postern gate, or a passage under ground from the inner to the outer works, such as from the higher flank to the lower, or to the tenailles, or to the communication from the middle of the curtain to the ravelin.
2. A large port on each quarter of a fireship for the escape of the men into boats when the train is fired.
SALMAGUNDI, n. [See Salpicon.]
A mixture of chopped meat and pickled herring with oil, vinegar, pepper and onions.
Salmiac, a contraction of sal ammoniac.
SALMON, n. sam’mon. [L. salmo.]
A fish of the genus Salmo, found in all the northern climates of America, Europe and Asia, ascending the rivers for spawning in spring, and penetrating to their head streams. It is a remarkably strong fish, and will even leap over considerable falls which lie in the way of its progress. It has been known to grow to the weight of 75 pounds; more generally it is from 15 to 25 pounds. It furnishes a delicious dish for the table, and is an article of commerce.
SALMON-TROUT, n. sam’mon-trout. A species of trout resembling the salmon in color.
In architecture, a lofty spacious hall, vaulted at the top, and usually comprehending two stories with two ranges of windows. It is a magnificent room in the middle of a building, or at the head of a gallery, etc. It is a state room much used in palaces in Italy for the reception of embassadors and other visitors.