Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



ROUGHINGS, n. ruf’ings. Grass after mowing or reaping. [Local.]

ROUGHLY, adv. ruf’ly.

1. With uneven surface; with asperities on the surface.

2. Harshly; uncivilly; rudely; as, to be treated roughly.

3. Severely; without tenderness; as, to blame too roughly.

4. Austerely to the taste.

5. Boisterously; tempestuously.

6. Harshly to the ear.

7. Violently; not gently.

ROUGHNESS, n. ruf’ness.

1. Unevenness of surface, occasioned by small prominences; asperity of surface; as the roughness of a board, of a floor, or of a rock.

2. Austereness to the taste; as the roughness of sloes.

3. Taste of astringency.

4. Harshness to the ear; as the roughness of sounds.

5. Ruggedness of temper; harshness; austerity.

6. Coarseness of manners or behavior; rudeness.

Severity breedeth fear; but roughness breedeth hate.

7. Want of delicacy or refinement; as military roughness.

8. Severity; harshness or violence of discipline.

9. Violence of operation in medicines.

10. Unpolished or unfinished state; as the roughness of a gem or a draught.

11. Inelegance of dress or appearance.

12. Tempestuousness; boisterousness; as of winds or weather.

13. Violent agitation by wind; as the roughness of the sea in a storm.

14. Coarseness of features.

ROUGH-SHOD, a. ruf’-shod. Shod with shoes armed with points; as a rough-shod horse. [This word is not generally used in America. In New England, instead of rough-shod, calked is used.]

ROUGHT, for raught; pret. of reach. Obs.

ROUGH-WORK, v.t. ruf’-work. [rough and work.]

To work over coarsely, without regard to nicety, smoothness or finish.

ROUGH-WROUGHT, a. ruf’-raut. Wrought or done coarsely.

ROULEAU, n. roolo’. A little roll; a roll of guineas in paper.

ROUN, v.i. To whisper. Obs.

ROUN, v.t. To address in a whisper. Obs.

ROUNCE, n. rouns’. The handle of a printing press.

ROUNCEVAL, n. A variety of pea, so called.


1. Cylindrical; circular; spherical or globular. Round is applicable to a cylinder as well as to a globe or sphere. We say, the barrel of a musket is round; a ball is round; a circle is round.

2. Full; large; as a round sum or price.

3. Full; smooth; flowing; not defective or abrupt.

In his satires, Horace is quick, round and pleasant.

His style, though round and comprehensive -

4. Plain; open; candid; fair.

Round dealing is the honor of man’s nature.

Let her be round with him.

5. Full; quick; brisk; as a round trot.

6. Full; plump; bold; positive; as a round assertion.

A round number, is a number that ends with a cipher, and may be divided by 10 without a remainder; a complete or full number. It is remarkable that the W. cant, a hundred, the L. centum, and Sax. hund, signify properly a circle, and this use of round may have originated in a like idea.


1. A circle; a circular thing, or a circle in motion.

With rounds of waxen tapers on their heads.

Knit your hands, and beat the ground in a light fantastic round.

2. Action or performance in a circle, or passing through a series of hands or things and coming to the point of beginning; or the time of such action.

Women to cards may be compared; we play a round or two; when used, we throw away.

The feast was serv’d; the bowl was crown’d; to the king’s pleasure went the mirthful round.

So we say, a round of labors or duties.

We run the daily round.

3. Rotation in office; succession in vicissitude.

4. A rundle; the step of a ladder.

All the rounds like Jacob’s ladder rise.

5. A walk performed by a guard or an officer round the rampart of a garrison, or among sentinels, to see that the sentinels are faithful and all things safe. Hence the officer and men who perform this duty are called the rounds.

6. A dance; a song; a roundelay, or a species of fugue.

7. A general discharge of fire-arms by a body of troops, in which each soldier fires once. In volleys, it is usual for a company or regiment to fire three rounds.

A round of cartridges and balls, one cartridge to each man; as, to supply a regiment with a single round or with twelve rounds of cartridges.

ROUND, adv.

1. On all sides.

Thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round. Luke 19:43.

2. Circularly; in a circular form; as, a wheel turns round.

3. From one side or party to another; as, to come or turn round. Hence these expressions signify to change sides or opinions.

4. Not in a direct line; by a course longer than the direct course. The shortest course is not the best; let us go round.

All round, in common speech, denotes over the whole place, or in every direction.

Round about is tautological.

ROUND, prep.

1. On every side of; as, the people stood round him; the sun sheds light round the earth. In this sense, around is much used, and all is often used to modify the word. They stood all round or around him.

2. About; in a circular course, or in all parts; as, to go round the city. He led his guest round his fields and garden. he wanders round the world.

3. Circularly; about; as, to wind a cable round the windlass.

To come or get round one, in popular language, is to gain advantage over one by flattery or deception; to circumvent.

ROUND, v.t.

1. To make circular, spherical or cylindrical; as, to round a silver coin; to round the edges of any thing.

Worms with many feet, that round themselves into balls, are bred chiefly under logs of timber.

2. To surround; to encircle; to encompass.

Th’ inclusive verge of golden metal that must round my brow.

Our little life is rounded with a sleep.

3. To form to the arch or figure of the section of a circle.

The figures on our modern medals are raised and rounded to very great perfection.

4. To move about any thing; as, the sun, in polar regions, rounds the horizon.

5. To make full, smooth and flowing; as, to round periods in writing.

To round in, among seamen, to pull upon a slack rope, which passes through one or more blocks in a direction nearly horizontal.

ROUND, v.i.

1. To grow or become round.

The queen, your mother, rounds space.

2. To go round, as a guard.

- They nightly rounding walk.

To round to, in sailing, is to turn the head of the ship towards the wind.

ROUND, v.i. To whisper; as, to round in the ear. Obs.

ROUNDABOUT, a. [round and about.]

1. Indirect; going round; loose.

Paraphrase is a roundabout way of translating.

2. Ample; extensive; as roundabout sense.

3. Encircling; encompassing.

[In any sense, this word is inelegant.]

ROUNDABOUT, n. A large strait coat.


1. A sort of ancient poem, consisting of thirteen verses, of which eight are in one kind of rhyme and five in another. It is divided into couplets; at the end of the second and third of which, the beginning of the poem is repeated, and that, if possible, in an equivocal or punning sense.

2. A round form or figure. [Not used.]

ROUNDER, n. [See Rondure.] Circumference; inclosure. [Not in use.]

ROUNDHEAD, n. [round and head.] A name formerly given to a puritan, from the practice which prevailed among the puritans of cropping the hair round.

ROUNDHEADED, a. Having a round head or top.


1. A constable’s prison; the prison to secure persons taken up by the night-watch, till they can be examined by a magistrate.

2. In a ship of war, a certain necessary near the head, for the use of particular officers.

3. In large merchantmen and ships of war, a cabin or apartment in the after part of the quarter-deck, having the poop for its roof; sometimes called the coach. It is the master’s lodging room.


1. Making round or circular.

2. Making full, flowing and smooth.

ROUNDING, a. Round or roundish; nearly round.
ROUNDING, n. Among seamen, old ropes wound about the part of the cable which lies in the hawse, or athwart the stem, to prevent its chafing.

Rounding in, a pulling upon a slack rope, which passes through one or more blocks in a direction nearly horizontal. Rounding up is a pulling in like manner, when a tackle hangs in a perpendicular direction.

ROUNDISH, a. Somewhat round; nearly round; as a roundish seed; a roundish figure.

ROUNDISHNESS, n. The state of being roundish.

ROUNDLET, n. A little circle.


1. In a round form or manner.

2. Openly; boldly; without reserve; peremptorily.

He affirms every thing roundly.

3. Plainly; fully. He gives them roundly to understand that their duty is submission.

4. Briskly; with speed.

When the mind has brought itself to attention, it will be able to cope with difficulties and master them, and then it may go on roundly.

5. Completely; to the purpose; vigorously; in earnest.


1. The quality of being round, circular, spherical, globular or cylindrical; circularity; sphericity; cylindrical form; rotundity; as the roundness of the globe, of the orb of the sun, of a ball, of a bowl, etc.

2. Fullness; smoothness of flow; as the roundness of a period.

3. Openness; plainness; boldness; positiveness; as the roundness of an assertion.

ROUNDRIDGE, v.t. [round and ridge.] In tillage, to form round ridges by plowing.


A written petition, memorial or remonstrance signed by names in a ring or circle.

ROUNDS, n. plu.

1. [See Round, n. No. 5.]

2. Round-top. [See Top.]

ROUSE, v.t. rouz. [This word, written also arouse, seems to belong to the family of raise or rush. See Raise.]

1. To wake from sleep or repose. Genesis 49:9.

2. To excite to thought or action from a state of idleness, languor, stupidity or inattention.

3. To put into action; to agitate.

Blust’ring winds that rous’d the sea.

4. To drive a beast from his den or place of rest.

ROUSE, v.i.

1. To awake from sleep or repose.

Morpheus rouses from his bed.

2. To be excited to thought or action from a state of indolence, sluggishness, languor or inattention.

ROUSE, v.i. In seamen’s language, to pull together upon a cable, etc. without the assistance of tackles or other mechanical power.
ROUSE, n. rouz.

A full glass of liquor; a bumper in honor of a health. Obs.

ROUSED, pp. Awakened from sleep; excited to thought or action.

ROUSER, n. One that rouses or excites.


1. Awaking from sleep; exciting; calling into action.

2. a. Having power to awaken or excite.

3. Great; violent; as a rousing fire. [Vulgar.]

ROUT, n.

1. A rabble; a clamorous multitude; a tumultuous crowd; as a rout of people assembled.

The endless routs of wretched thralls.

2. In law, a rout is where three persons or more meet to do an unlawful act upon a common quarrel, as forcibly to break down fences on a right claimed of common or of way, and make some advances towards it.

3. A select company; a party for gaming.

ROUT, n. [This is a corruption of the L. ruptus, from rumpo, to break.]

The breaking or defeat of an army or band of troops, or the disorder and confusion of troops thus defeated and put to flight.

ROUT, v.t. To break the ranks of troops and put them to flight in disorder; to defeat and throw into confusion.

The king’s horse - routed and defeated the whole army.

ROUT, v.i. To assemble in a clamorous and tumultuous crowd. [Not in use.]
ROUT, n. [It belongs to the family of ride and L. gradior; properly a going or passing.]

The course or way which is traveled or passed, or to be passed; a passing; a course; a march.

Wide through the furzy field their rout they take.

Rout and road are not synonymous.

We say, to mend or repair a road, but not to mend a rout. We use rout for a course of passing, and not without reference to the passing of some person or body of men; but rout is not the road itself.

ROUT, v.i. To snore. Obs.
ROUT, v.t. [for root.] To turn up the ground with the snout; to search. [Not in use.]

ROUTINE, n. rootee’n. [L. rota, a wheel.]

1. A round of business, amusements or pleasure, daily or frequently pursued; particularly, a course of business or official duties, regularly or frequently returning.

2. Any regular habit or practice not accommodated to circumstances.

ROVE, v.i. [L. rapio.]

To wander; to ramble; to range; to go, move or pass without certain direction in any manner, by walking, riding, flying or otherwise.

For who has power to walk, has power to rove.

ROVE, v.t. To wander over; as roving a field; roving the town. This is an elliptical form of expression, for roving over, through or about the town.
ROVE, v.t. To draw a thread, string or cord through an eye or aperture.


1. A wanderer; one who rambles about.

2. A fickle or inconstant person.

3. A robber or pirate; a freebooter. [So corsair is from L. cursus, curro, to run.]

At rovers, without any particular aim; at random; as shooting at rovers.

[I never heard this expression in the United States.]

ROVING, ppr. Rambling; wandering; passing a cord through an eye.

ROW, n.

A series of persons or things arranged in a continued line; a line; a rank; a file; as a row of trees; a row of gems or pearls; a row of houses or columns.

Where the bright Seraphim in burning row.

ROW, v.t. [Gr. to row, an oar. If the noun is the primary word, ruder and rother, an oar, may be from the root of rod, L. radius, or from the root of rado, to rub, grate, sweep. If the verb is the primary word, the sense is to sweep, to urge, drive, impel. See Rudder.]

1. To impel, as a boat or vessel along the surface of water by oars; as, to row a boat.

2. To transport by rowing; as, to row the captain ashore in his barge.

ROW, v.i. To labor with the oar; as, to row well; to row with oars muffled.

ROWABLE, a. Capable of being rowed or rowed upon. [Not in use.]

ROWED, pp. Driven by oars.

ROWEL, n. [L. rota.]

1. The little wheel of a spur, formed with sharp points.

2. Among farriers, a roll of hair or silk, used as an issue on horses, answering to a seton in surgery.

3. A little flat ring or wheel of plate or iron on horses’ bits.

ROWEL, v.t. To insert a rowel in; to pierce the skin and keep open the wound by a rowel.

ROWEN, n. [Heb. to be green, to thrive.]

Rowen is a field kept up till after Michaelmas, that the corn left on the ground may sprout into green.

Turn your cows that give milk into your rowens, till snow comes.

In New England, the second growth of grass in a season. We never apply the word to a field, nor to a growth of corn, after harvest, nor is the word ever used in the plural. The first growth of grass for mowing is called the first crop, and the second rowen.

ROWER, n. One that rows or manages an oar in rowing.

ROWING, ppr. Impelling, as a boat by oars.

ROWLEY-RAGG, [See Ragg.]

ROW-LOCK, n. That part of a boat’s gunwale on which the oar rests in rowing.

ROW-PORT, n. A little square hole in the side of small vessels of war, near the surface of the water, for the use of an oar for rowing in a calm.

ROYAL, a. [L. regalis, from rex, king. See Reck and Right.]

1. Kingly; pertaining to a king; regal; as royal power or prerogative; a royal garden; royal domains; the royal family.

2. Becoming a king; magnificent; as royal state.

3. Noble; illustrious.

How doth that royal merchant, good Antonio?


1. A large kind of paper. It is used as a noun or an adjective.

2. Among seamen, a small sail spread immediately above the top-gallant-sail; sometimes termed the top-gallant-royal.

3. One of the shoots of a stag’s head.

4. In artillery, a small mortar.

5. In England, one of the soldiers of the first regiment of foot, called the royals, and supposed to be the oldest regular corps in Europe.

ROYALISM, n. Attachment to the principles or cause of royalty, or to a royal government.

ROYALIST, n. An adherent to a king, or one attached to a kingly government.

Where Candish fought, the royalist prevail’d.

ROYALIZE, v.t. To make royal.

ROYALLY, adv. In a kingly manner; like a king; as becomes a king.

His body shall be royally interr’d.


1. Kingship; the character, state or office of a king.

Royalty by birth was the sweetest way of majesty.

2. Royalties, plu. emblems of royalty; regalia.

3. Rights of a king; prerogatives.

ROYNE, v.t. To bite; to gnaw. [Not in use.]


Mean; paltry; as the roynish clown. [Not in use.]

ROYTELET, n. A little king. [Not in use.]

ROYTISH, a. Wild; irregular. [Not in use.]

RUB, v.t. [L. probrum, exprobro; Gr. to rub. We have the elements of the word in scrape, scrub, L. scribo, Gr.]

1. To move something along the surface of a body with pressure; as, to rub the face or arms with the hand; to rub the body with flannel. Vessels are scoured or cleaned by rubbing them.

2. To wipe; to clean; to scour; but rub is a generic term, applicable to friction for every purpose.

3. To touch so as to leave behind something which touches; to spread over; as to rub any thing with oil.

4. To polish; to retouch; with over.

The whole business of our redemption is to rub over the defaced copy of the creation.

5. To obstruct by collision. [Unusual.]

In popular language, rub is used for teasing, fretting, upbraiding, reproaching or vexing with gibes or sarcasms.

To rub down, to clean by rubbing; to comb or curry, as a horse.

To rub off, to clean any thing by rubbing; to separate by friction; as, to rub off rust.

1. To rub out, to erase; to obliterate; as, to rub out marks or letters.

2. To remove or separate by friction; as, to rub out a stain.

To rub upon, to touch hard.

1. To rub up, to burnish; to polish; to clean.

2. To excite; to awaken; to rouse to action; as, to rub up the memory.

RUB, v.i.

1. To move along the surface of a body with pressure; as, a wheel rubs against the gate-post.

2. To fret; to chafe; as, to rub upon a sore.

3. To move or pass with difficulty; as, to rub through woods, as huntsmen; to rub through the world.

RUB, n.

1. The act of rubbing; friction.

2. That which renders motion or progress difficult; collision; hinderance; obstruction.

Now every rub is smoothed in our way.

Upon this rub the English embassadors thought fit to demur.

All sort of rubs will be laid in the way.

3. Inequality of ground that hinders the motion of a bowl.

4. Difficulty; cause of uneasiness; pinch.

To sleep, perchance to dream; ay, there’s the rub.

5. Sarcasm; joke; something grating to the feelings.

RUB, RUB’-STONE, n. [rub and stone.] A stone, usually some kind of sandstone, used to sharpen instruments; a whetstone.

RUBBAGE, RUBBIDGE, RUBBLE, for rubbish, vulgar and not used.


1. One that rubs.

2. The instrument or thing used in rubbing or cleaning.

3. A coarse file, or the rough part of it.

4. A whetstone; a rubstone.

5. The gaming, two games out of three; or the game that decides the contest; or a contest consisting of three games.

India rubber, elastic resin, or caoutchouc, a substance produced from the syringe tree of south America; a substance remarkably pliable and elastic.

RUBBISH, n. [from rub; properly, that which is rubbed off; but not now used in this limited sense.]

1. Fragments of buildings; broken or imperfect pieces of any structure; ruins.

He saw the towns one half in rubbish lie.

2. Waste or rejected matter; any thing worthless.

3. Mingled mass; confusion.

RUBBLE-STONE, n. A stone, so called from its being rubbed and worn by water; graywacke.

RUBEFACIENT, a. [L. rubefacio, infra.] Making red.

RUBEFACIENT, n. In medicine, a substance or external application which excites redness of the skin.

RUBELLITE, n. [from L. rubeus, red.] A silicious mineral of a red color of various shades; the red shorl; siberite. It occurs in accumulated groups of a middle or large size, with straight tubular-like stria. In a red heat, it becomes snow-white and seems to phosphoresce.

Rubellite is red tourmaline.

RUBESCENT, a. [L. rubescens, rubesco, from rubeo, to redden or to be red.]

Growing or becoming red; tending to a red color.

RUBICAN, a. [L. rubeo, to be red.]

Rubican color of a horse, is a bay, sorrel or black, with a light gray or white upon the flanks, but the gray or white not predominant there.

RUBICEL, n. [L. rubeo, to be red.] A gem or mineral, a variety of ruby of a reddish color, from Brazil.

RUBICUND, a. [L. rubicundus.] Inclining to redness.

RUBIED, a. Red as a ruby; as a rubied lip; rubied nectar.

RUBIFIC, a. [L. ruber and facio.] Making red; as rubific rays.

RUBIFICATION, n. The act of making red.

RUBIFORM, n. [L. ruber, red, and form.] Having the form of red; as, the rubiform rays of the sun are least refrangible.

RUBIFY, v.t. [L. ruber, red and facio, to make.] To make red. [Little used.]

RUBIOUS, a. [L. rubeus.] Red; ruddy. [Not in use.]

RUBLE, n. roo’bl.

A silver coin of Russia, of the value of about fifty seven cents, or two shillings and seven pence sterling; in Russia, a hundred kopecks; originally, the fourth part of a grivna or pound, which was cut into four equal parts.

RUBRIC, n. [L. rubrica; rubeo, to be red.]

1. In the canon law, a title or article in certain ancient law books; so called because written in red letters.

2. Directions printed in prayer books.

The rubric and the rules relating to the liturgy are established by royal authority, as well as the liturgy itself.

RUBRIC, v.t. To adorn with red.

RUBRICAL, a. Placed in rubrics.

RUBRICATE, v.t. [L. rubricatus.] To mark or distinguish with red.

RUBRICATE, a. Marked with red.

RUBY, n. [L. rubeo, to be red.]

1. A precious stone; a mineral of a carmine red color, sometimes verging to violet, or intermediate between carmine and hyacinth red; but its parts vary in color, and hence it is called sapphire ruby or orange red, and by some vermeille or rubicel.

There are two kinds of ruby, the oriental or corundum, and the spinelle. The latter is distinguishable from the former by its color and crystallization.

The ruby is next in hardness and value to the diamond, and highly esteemed in jewelry.

2. Redness; red color.

3. Any thing red.

4. A blain; a blotch; a carbuncle. [The ruby is said to be the stone called by Pliny a carbuncle.]

Ruby of arsenic or sulphur, is the realgar, or red combination of arsenic and sulphur.

Ruby of zink, is the red blend.

Rock ruby, the amethystizontes of the ancients, is the most value species of garnet.

RUBY, v.t. To make red.
RUBY, a. Of the color of the ruby; red; as ruby lips.

RUCK, v.t. [L. rugo, to wrinkle, to fold; ruga, a fold.]

1. To cower; to bend and set close. [Not in use.]

2. To wrinkle; as, to ruck up cloth or a garment.

[In this sense, the word is still used by the common people of New England.]

RUCK, n. A wrinkle; a fold; a plait.

RUCTATION, n. [L. ructo, to belch.] The act of belching wind from the stomach.

RUD, to make red, used by Spenser, is a different spelling of red. Obs. [See Ruddy.]

RUD, n. [See Red and Ruddy.]

1. Redness; blush; also, red ocher.

2. The fish rudd.

RUDD, n. [probably from red, ruddy.] A fish of the genus Cyprinus, with a deep body like the bream, but thicker, a prominent back, and small head. The back is of an olive color; the sides and belly yellow, marked with red; the ventral and anal fins and tail of a deep red color.

RUDDER, n. [See Row. The oar was the first rudder used by man, and is still the instrument of steering certain boats.]

1. In navigation, the instrument by which a ship is steered; that part of the helm which consists of a piece of timber, broad at the bottom, which enters the water and is attached to the stern-post by hinges, on which it turns. This timber is managed by means of the tiller or wheel.

2. That which guides or governs the course.

For rhyme the rudder is of verses.

3. A sieve. [Local. See Riddle.]

Rudder perch, a small fish with the upper part of the body brown, varied with large round spots of yellow, the belly and sides streaked with lines of white and yellow. This fish is said to follow the rudders of ships in the warm parts of the Atlantic.

RUDDINESS, n. [from ruddy.] The state of being ruddy; redness, or rather a lively flesh color; that degree of redness which characterizes high health; applied chiefly to the complexion or color of the human skin; as the ruddiness of the cheeks or lips.


The name of a species of chalk or red earth, colored by iron.

RUDDLE-MAN, n. One who digs ruddle.


A bird; otherwise called red-breast.


1. Of a red color; of a lively flesh color, or the color of the human skin in high health. Thus we say, reddy cheeks, ruddy lips, a reddy face or skin, a ruddy youth; and in poetic language, ruddy fruit. But the word is chiefly applied to the human skin.

2. Of a bright yellow color; as ruddy gold. [Unusual.]

RUDE, a. [L. rudis. The sense is probably rough, broken, and this word may be allied to raw and crude.]

1. rough; uneven; rugged; unformed by art; as rude workmanship, that is, roughly finished; rude and unpolished stones.

2. Rough; of coarse manners; unpolished; uncivil; clownish; rustic; as a rude countryman; rude behavior; rude treatment; a rude attack.

Ruffian, let go that rude uncivil touch.

3. Violent; tumultuous; boisterous; turbulent; as rude winds; the rude agitation of the sea.

4. violent; fierce; impetuous; as the rude shock of armies.

5. Harsh; inclement; as the rude winter.

6. Ignorant; untaught; savage; barbarous; as the rude natives of America or of New Holland; the rude ancestors of the Greeks.

7. Raw; untaught; ignorant; not skilled or practiced; as rude in speech; rude in arms.

8. Artless; inelegant; not polished; as a rude translation of Virgil.

RUDELY, adv.

1. With roughness; as a mountain rudely formed.

2. Violently; fiercely; tumultuously. The door was rudely assaulted.

3. In a rude or uncivil manner; as, to be rudely accosted.

4. Without exactness or nicety; coarsely; as work rudely executed.

I that am rudely stamp’d, and want love’s majesty to strut before a wanton ambling nymph.

5. Unskillfully.

My muse, though rudely, has resign’d some faint resemblance of his godlike mind.

6. Without elegance.


1. A rough broken state; unevenness; wildness; as the rudeness of a mountain, country or landscape.

2. Coarseness of manners; incivility; rusticity; vulgarity.

And kings the rudeness of their joy must bear.

3. Ignorance; unskillfulness.

What he did amiss was rather through rudeness and want of judgment -

4. Artlessness; coarseness; inelegance; as the rudeness of a painting or piece of sculpture.

5. Violence; impetuosity; as the rudeness of an attack or shock.

6. Violence; storminess; as the rudeness of winds or of the season.

RUDENTURE, n. [L. rudens, a rope.]

In architecture, the figure of a rope or staff, plain or carved, with which the flutings of columns are sometimes filled.

RUDERARY, a. [Low L. ruderarius; from the root of rudis, and indicating the primary sense of rude to be broken.] Belonging to rubbish. [Not used.]

RUDERATION, n. [L. ruderatio, from rudero, to pave with broken stones.]

The act of paving with pebbles or little stones. [Not used.]

RUDESBY, n. An uncivil turbulent fellow. [Not in use.]

RUDIMENT, n. [L. rudimentum. If connected with erudio, it denotes what is taught. But the real origin is not obvious.]

1. A first principle or element; that which is to be first learnt; as the rudiments of learning or science. Articulate sounds are the rudiments of language; letters or characters are the rudiments of written language; the primary rules of any art or science are its rudiments. Hence instruction in the rudiments of any art or science, constitutes the beginning of education in that art or science.

2. The original of any thing in its first form. Thus in botany, the germen, ovary or seed-bud, is the rudiment of the fruit yet in embryo; and the seed is the rudiment of a new plant.

Rudiment, in natural history, is also an imperfect organ; one which is never fully formed. Thus the flowers in the genus Pentstemon, have four stamens and a rudiment of a fifth, (a simple filament without an anther.)

God beholds the first imperfect rudiments of virtue in the soul.

RUDIMENT, v.t. to furnish with first principles or rules; to ground; to settle in first principles.

RUDIMENTAL, a. Initial; pertaining to rudiments, or consisting in first principles; as rudimental essays.

RUE, v.t. ru. [L. rudo, to roar, to bray.]

To lament; to regret; to grieve for; as, to rue the commission of a crime; to rue the day.

Thy will chose freely what it now so justly rues.

RUE, v.i. To have compassion. [Not in use.]
RUE, n. Sorrow; repentance. [Not in use.]
RUE, n. ru. [Gr. L.]

A plant of the genus Ruta, of several species. The common garden rue is medicinal, as a stimulant and detergent.

RUEFUL, a. ru’ful. [rue and full.]

1. Woeful; mournful; sorrowful; to be lamented.

Spur them to rueful work.

2. Expressing sorrow.

He sigh’d and cast a rueful eye.

RUEFULLY, adv. Mournfully; sorrowfully.

RUEFULNESS, n. Sorrowfulness; mournfulness.