Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary
RING-STREAKED — ROBUST
RING-STREAKED, a. [ring and streak.] Having circular streaks or lines on the body; as ring-streaked goats. Genesis 30:35.
RING-TAIL, n. [ring and tail.]
1. A kind of kite with a whitish tail.
2. A small quadrilateral sail, set on a small mast on a ship’s tafferel.
RING-WORM, n. [ring and worm.] A circular eruption on the skin; a kind of tetter. [Herpes serpigo.]
RINSE, v.t. rins. [Our common people pronounce this word rens, retaining their native pronunciation. This is one of a thousand instances in which the purity of our vernacular language has been corrupted by those who have understood French better than their mother tongue.]
1. To wash; to cleanse by washing. But in present usage,
2. To cleanse with a second or repeated application of water, after washing. We distinguish washing from rinsing. Washing is performed by rubbing, or with the use of soap; rinsing is performed with clean water, without much rubbing or the use of soap. Clothes are rinsed by dipping and dashing; and vessels are rinsed by dashing water on them, or by slight rubbing. A close barrel may be rinsed, but cannot well be washed.
RINSED, pp. Cleansed with a second water; cleaned.
RINSER, n. One that rinses.
RINSING, ppr. Cleansing with a second water.
1. In a general sense, tumult; uproar; hence technically, in law, a riotous assembling of twelve persons or more, and not dispersing upon proclamation.
The definition of riot must depend on the laws. In Connecticut, the assembling of three persons or more, to do an unlawful act by violence against the person or property of another, and not dispersing upon proclamation, is declared to be a riot. In Massachusetts and New Hampshire, the number necessary to constitute a riot is twelve.
2. Uproar; wild and noisy festivity.
3. Excessive and expensive feasting. 2 Peter 2:13.
The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed today.
To run riot, to act or move without control or restraint.
1. To revel; to run to excess in feasting, drinking or other sensual indulgences.
2. To luxuriate; to be highly excited.
No pulse that riots, and no blood that glows.
3. To banquet; to live in luxury; to enjoy.
How base is the ingratitude which forgets the benefactor, while it is rioting on the benefit!
4. To raise an uproar or sedition.
1. One who indulges in loose festivity or excessive feasting.
2. In law, one guilty of meeting with others to do an unlawful act, and declining to retire upon proclamation.
RIOTING, ppr. Reveling; indulging in excessive feasting.
RIOTING, n. A reveling.
RIOTISE, n. Dissoluteness; luxury. [Not in use.]
1. Luxurious; wanton or licentious in festive indulgences; as riotous eaters of flesh. Proverbs 23:20.
2. Consisting of riot; tumultuous; partaking of the nature of an unlawful assembly; seditious.
3. Guilty of riot; applied to persons.
1. With excessive or licentious luxury.
2. In the manner of an unlawful assembly; tumultuously; seditiously.
RIOTOUSNESS, n. The state or quality of being riotous.
RIP, v.t. [L. rapio. Eng. reap and rive; allied perhaps to the L. crepo.]
1. To separate by cutting or tearing; to tear or cut open or off; to tear off or out by violence; as, to rip open a garment by cutting the stitches; to rip off the skin of a beast; to rip open a sack; to rip off the shingles or clapboards of a house; to rip up a floor. We never use lacerate in these senses, but apply it to a partial tearing of the skin and flesh.
2. To take out or away by cutting or tearing.
He’ll rip the fatal secret from her heart.
3. To tear up for search or disclosure or for alteration; to search to the bottom; with up.
You rip up the original of Scotland.
They ripped up all that had been done from the beginning of the rebellion.
4. To rip out, as an oath. [L crepo.]
1. A tearing; a place torn; laceration.
2. A wicker basket to carry fish in.
3. Refuse. [Not in use or local.]
1. Brought to perfection in growth or to the best state; mature; fit for use; as ripe fruit; ripe corn.
2. Advanced to perfection; matured; as ripe judgment, or ripe in judgment.
3. Finished; consummate; as a ripe scholar.
4. Brought to the point of taking effect; matured; ready; prepared; as things just ripe for war.
5. Fully qualified by improvement; prepared; as a student ripe for the university; a saint ripe for heaven.
6. Resembling the ripeness of fruit; as a ripe lip.
7. Complete; proper for use.
When time is ripe.
8. Maturated; suppurated; as an abscess or tumor.
RIPE, v.i. To ripen; to grow ripe; to be matured. [Not used. See Ripen.]
RIPE, v.t. To mature; to ripen. [Not used.]
RIPELY, adv. Maturely; at the fit time.
RIPEN, v.i. ri’pn.
1. To grow ripe; to be matured; as grain or fruit. Grain ripens best in dry weather.
2. To approach or come to perfection; to be fitted or prepared; as, a project is ripening for execution.
RIPEN, v.t. ri’pn.
1. To mature; to make ripe; as grain or fruit.
2. To mature; to fit or prepare; as, to ripen one for heaven.
3. To bring to perfection; as, to ripen the judgment.
1. The state of being ripe or brought to that state of perfection which fits for use; maturity; as the ripeness of grain.
2. Full growth.
Time which made them their fame outlive, to Cowley scarce did ripeness give.
3. Perfection; completeness; as the ripeness of virtue, wisdom or judgment.
4. Fitness; qualification.
5. Complete maturation or suppuration, as of an ulcer or abscess.
6. A state of preparation; as the ripeness of a project for execution.
RIPHEAN, a. An epithet given to certain mountains in the north of Asia, probably signifying snowy mountains.
RIPIER, RIPPER, n. In old laws, one who brings fish to market in the inland country.
RIPPED, pp. Torn or cut off or out; torn open.
RIPPER, n. One who tears or cuts open.
RIPPING, ppr. Cutting or tearing off or open; tearing up.
1. A tearing.
2. A discovery. Obs.
To fret on the surface; as water when agitated or running over a rough bottom, appears rough and broken, or as if ripped or torn.
1. To clean, as flax.
2. To agitate the surface of water.
1. The fretting of the surface of water; little curling waves.
2. A large comb or hatchel for cleaning flax.
RIPPLING, ppr. Fretting on the surface.
1. The ripple dashing on the shore, or the noise of it.
2. The act or method of cleaning flax; a hatcheling.
RIPT, pp. for ripped.
RIPTOWELL, n. A gratuity given to tenants after they had reaped their lord’s corn.
1. To move to pass upward in any manner; to ascend; as, a fog rises from a river or from low ground; a fish rises in water; fowls rise in the air; clouds rise from the horizon towards the meridian; a balloon rises above the clouds.
2. To get up; to leave the place of sleep or rest; as, to rise from bed.
3. To get up or move from any recumbent to an erect posture; as, to rise after a fall.
4. To get up from a seat; to leave a sitting posture; as, to rise from a sofa or chair.
5. To spring; to grow; as a plant; hence, to be high or tall. A tree rises to the height of 60 feet.
6. To swell in quantity or extent; to be more elevated; as, a river rises after a rain.
7. To break forth; to appear; as, a boil rises on the skin.
8. To appear above the horizon; to shine; as, the sun or a star rises.
He maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good. Matthew 5:45.
9. To begin to exist; to originate; to come into being or notice. Great evils sometimes rise from small imprudences.
10. To be excited; to begin to move or act; as, the wind rose at 12 o’clock.
11. To increase in violence. The wind continued to rise till 3 o’clock.
12. To appear in view; as, to rise up to the reader’s view.
13. To appear in sight; also, to appear more elevated; as in sailing towards a shore, the land rises.
14. To change a station; to leave a place; as, to rise from a siege.
15. To spring; to be excited or produced. A thought now rises in my mind.
16. To gain elevation in rank, fortune or public estimation; to be promoted. Men may rise by industry, by merit, by favor, or by intrigue.
Some rise by sin, and some by virtue fall.
When the wicked rise, men hide themselves. Proverbs 28:28.
17. To break forth into public commotions; to make open opposition to government; or to assemble and oppose government; or to assemble in arms for attacking another nation. The Greeks have risen against their oppressors.
No more shall nation against nation rise.
18. To be excited or roused into action.
Rise up to the battle. Jeremiah 49:14.
19. To make a hostile attack; as when a man riseth against his neighbor. Deuteronomy 22:26.
Also, to rebel. 2 Samuel 18:32.
20. To increase; to swell; to grow more or greater. A voice, feeble at first, rises to thunder. The price of good rises. The heat rises to intensity.
21. To be improved; to recover from depression; as, a family may rise after misfortune to opulence and splendor.
22. To elevate the style or manner; as, to rise in force of expression; to rise in eloquence.
23. To be revived from death.
The dead in Christ shall rise first. 1 Thessalonians 4:16.
24. To come by chance.
25. To ascend; to be elevated above the level or surface; as, the ground rises gradually one hundred yards. The Andes rise more than 20,000 feet above the level of the ocean; a mountain in Asia is said to rise still higher.
26. To proceed from.
A scepter shall rise out of Israel. Numbers 24:17.
27. To have its sources in. Rivers rise in lakes, ponds and springs.
28. To be moved, roused, excited, kindled or inflamed, as passion. His wrath rose to rage.
29. To ascend in the diatonic scale; as, to rise a tone or semitone.
30. To amount. The public debt rises to a hundred million.
31. To close a session. We say, congress will rise on the 4th of March; the legislature or the court will rise on a certain day.
This verb is written also arise, which see. In general, it is indifferent which orthography is used; but custom has, in some cases, established one to the exclusion of the other. Thus we never say, the price of goods arises, when we mean advanced, but we always say, the price rises. We never say, the ground arises to a certain altitude, and rarely, a man arises into an office or station. It is hardly possible to class or define the cases in which usage has established a difference in the orthography of this verb.
RISE, n. rise.
1. The act of rising, either in a literal or figurative sense; ascent; as the rise of vapor in the air; the rise of mercury in the barometer; the rise of water in a river.
2. The act of springing or mounting from the ground; as the rise of the feet in leaping.
3. Ascent; elevation, or degree of ascent; as the rise of a hill or mountain.
4. Spring; source; origin; as the rise of a stream in a mountain. All sin has its rise in the heart.
5. Any place elevated above the common level; as a rise of land.
6. Appearance above the horizon; as the rise of the sun or a star.
7. Increase; advance; as a rise in the price of wheat.
8. Advance in rank, honor, property or fame. Observe a man after his rise to office, or a family after its rise from obscurity.
9. Increase of sound on the same key; a swelling of the voice.
10. Elevation or ascent of the voice in the diatonic scale; as a rise of a tone or semitone.
11. Increase; augmentation.
12. A bough or branch. [Not in use.]
1. One that rises; as an early riser.
2. Among joiners, the upright board of a stair.
RISIBILITY, n. [from risible.]
1. The quality of laughing, or of being capable of laughter. Risibility is peculiar to the human species.
2. Proneness to laugh.
RISIBLE, a. [L. risibilis, from rideo, risi, to laugh. See Ridiculous.]
1. Having the faculty or power of laughing. Man is a risible animal.
2. Laughable; capable of exciting laughter. The description of Falstaff in Shakespeare, exhibits a risible scene. Risible differs from ludicrous, as species from genus; ludicrous expressing that which is playful and sportive; risible, that which may excite laughter. Risible differs from ridiculous, as the latter implies something mean or contemptible, and risible does not.
1. Getting up; ascending; mounting; springing; proceeding from; advancing; swelling; increasing; appearing above the horizon; reviving from death, etc.
2. Increasing in wealth, power or distinction; as a rising state; a rising character.
1. The act of getting up from any recumbent or sitting posture.
2. The act of ascending; as the rising of vapor.
3. The act of closing a session, as of a public body; as the rising of the legislature.
4. The appearance of the sun or a star above the horizon.
5. The act of reviving from the dead; resurrection. Mark 9:10.
6. A tumor on the body. Leviticus 13:2.
7. An assembling in opposition to government; insurrection; sedition or mutiny.
1. Hazard; danger; peril; exposure to harm. He, at the risk of his life, saved a drowning man.
2. In commerce, the hazard of loss, either of ship, goods or other property. Hence, risk signifies also the degree of hazard or danger; for the premiums of insurance are calculated upon the risk. The underwriters now take risks at a low premium.
To run a risk, is to incur hazard; to encounter danger.
1. To hazard; to endanger; to expose to injury or loss; as, to risk goods on board of a ship; to risk one’s person in battle; to risk one’s fame by a publication; to risk life in defense of rights.
2. To venture; to dare to undertake; as, to risk a battle or combat.
RISKED, pp. Hazarded; exposed to injury or loss.
RISKER, n. One who hazards.
RISKING, ppr. Hazarding; exposing to injury or loss.
RISSE, obsolete pret. of rise.
RITE, n. [L. ritus.]
The manner of performing divine or solemn service as established by law, precept or custom; formal act of religion, or other solemn duty. The rites of the Israelites were numerous and expensive; the rites of modern churches are more simple. Funeral rites are very different in different countries. The sacrament is a holy rite.
In music, a repeat; the burden of a song, or the repetition of a verse or strain.
1. Pertaining to rites; consisting of rites; as ritual service or sacrifices.
2. Prescribing rites; as the ritual law.
RITUAL, n. A book containing the rites to be observed, or the manner of performing divine service in a particular church, diocese or the like.
RITUALIST, n. One skilled in the ritual.
RITUALLY, adv. By rites; or by a particular rite.
RIVAGE, n. A bank, shore or coast. [Not in use.]
1. One who is in pursuit of the same object as another; one striving to reach or obtain something which another is attempting to obtain, and which one only can possess; a competitor; as rivals in love; rivals for a crown. Love will not patiently bear a rival.
2. One striving to equal or exceed another in excellence; as two rivals in eloquence.
3. An antagonist; a competitor in any pursuit or strife.
RIVAL, a. Having the same pretensions or claims; standing in competition for superiority; as rival lovers; rival claims or pretensions.
Equal in years and rival in renown.
1. To stand in competition with; to strive to gain the object which another is contending for; as, to rival one in love.
2. To strive to equal or excel; to emulate.
To rival thunder in its rapid course.
RIVAL, v.i. To be competitors. [Not in use.]
RIVALITY, n. Rivalry. [Not in use.]
RIVALRY, n. [from rival.] Competition; a strife or effort to obtain an object which another is pursuing; as rivalry in love; or an endeavor to equal or surpass another in some excellence; emulation; as rivalry for superiority at the bar or in the senate.
1. The state or character of a rival.
2. Strife; contention for superiority; emulation; rivalry.
RIVE, v.t. pret. rived; pp. rived or riven. [L. rumpo, rupi. It may be allied to the family of L. rapio, reap, rip.]
To split; to cleave; to rend asunder by force; as, to rive timber for rails or shingles with wedges; the riven oak; the riven clouds.
The scolding winds have riv’d the knotty oaks.
RIVE, v.i. To be split or rent asunder.
Freestone rives, splits and breaks in any direction.
RIVEL, v.t. [This word is obsolete, but shrivel, from the same root, is in use. It may be allied to ruffle.]
To contract into wrinkles; to shrink; as riveled fruits; riveled flowers.
RIVEN, pp. of rive. Split; rent or burst asunder.
RIVER, n. One who rives or splits.
RIVER, n. [L. rivus, rivulus, rips.]
1. A large stream of water flowing in a channel on land towards the ocean, a lake or another river. It is larger than a rivulet or brook; but is applied to any stream from the size of a mill-stream to that of the Danube, Maranon and Mississippi. We give this name to large streams which admit the tide and mingle salt water with fresh, as the rivers Hudson, Delaware and St. Lawrence.
2. A large stream; copious flow; abundance; as rivers of blood; rivers of oil
RIVER-DRAGON, n. A crocodile; a name given by Milton to the king of Egypt.
RIVERET, n. A small river. [Not in use.]
RIVER-GOD, n. A deity supposed to preside over a river, as its tutelary divinity; a naiad.
RIVER-HORSE, n. The hippopotamus, an animal inhabiting rivers.
RIVER-WATER, n. The water of a river, as distinguished from rain-water.
RIVET, v.t. [Heb. to drive.]
1. To fasten with a rivet or with rivets; as, to rivet two pieces of iron.
2. To clinch; as, to rivet a pin or bolt.
3. To fasten firmly; to make firm, strong or immovable; as, to rivet friendship or affection.
RIVET, n. a pin of iron or other metal with a head, driven through a piece of timber or metal, and the point bent or spread and beat down fast, to prevent its being drawn out; or a pin or bolt clinched at both ends.
RIVETED, pp. Clinched; made fast.
RIVETING, ppr. Clinching; fastening firmly.
RIVULET, n. [L. rivulus.] A small stream or book; a streamlet.
By fountain or by shady rivulet, he sought them.
RIXATION, n. [L. rixatio, from rixor, to brawl or quarrel.]
A brawl or quarrel. [Not in use.]
A silver coin of Germany, Denmark and Sweden, of different value in different places. In Hamburg and some other parts of Germany, its value is the same as the American dollar, or 4-6d sterling. In other parts of Germany, its value is 3-6d sterling, or about 78 cents.
A fish of the genus Cyprinus, found in fresh water, easily caught and tolerably good for food.
As sound as a roach, is a phrase supposed to have been originally, as sound as a rock.
1. An open way or public passage; ground appropriated for travel, forming a communication between one city, town or place and another. The word is generally applied to highways, and as a generic term it includes highway, street and lane. The military roads of the Romans were paved with stone, or formed of gravel or pebbles, and some of them remain to this day entire.
2. A place where ships may ride at anchor at some distance from the shore; sometimes called roadstead, that is, a place for riding, meaning at anchor.
3. A journey. [Not used, but we still use ride as a noun; as a long ride; a short ride; the same word differently written.]
4. An inroad; incursion of an enemy. [Not in use.]
On the road, passing; traveling.
ROADWAY, n. A highway.
ROAM, v.i. [If m is radical, this word seems to be connected with ramble, L. ramus.]
To wander; to ramble; to rove; to walk or move about from place to place without any certain purpose or direction. The wolf and the savage roam in the forest.
Daphne roaming through a thorny wood.
ROAM, v.t. To range; to wander over; as, to roam the woods; but the phrase is elliptical.
ROAMER, n. A wanderer; a rover; a rambler; a vagrant.
ROAMING, ppr. Wandering; roving.
ROAMING, n. The act of wandering.
ROAN, a. A roan horse is one that is of a bay, sorrel or dark color, with spots of gray or white thickly interspersed.
ROAN-TREE, n. A tree of the genus Sorbus; the mountain ash.
1. To cry with a full, loud, continued sound; to bellow, as a beast; as a roaring bull; a roaring lion.
2. To cry aloud, as in distress.
The suff’ring chief roar’d out for anguish.
3. To cry aloud; to bawl; as a child.
4. To cause a loud continued sound. We say, the sea or the wind roars; a company roar in acclamation.
5. To make a loud noise.
The brazen throat of war had ceas’d to roar.
1. A full loud sound of some continuance; the cry of a beast; as the roar of a lion or bull.
2. The loud cry of a child or person in distress.
3. Clamor; outcry of joy or mirth; as a roar of laughter. he set the company in a roar.
4. The loud continued sound of the sea in a storm, or the howling of a tempest.
5. Any loud sound of some continuance; as the roar of cannon.
ROARER, n. One that roars, man or beast.
ROARING, ppr. Crying like a bull or lion; uttering a deep loud sound.
ROARING, n. The cry of a lion or other beast; outcry of distress, Job 3:24; loud continued sound of the billows of the sea or of a tempest. Isaiah 5:30.
ROARY, a. Dewy; more properly rory.
ROAST, v.t. [If the verb is from the noun, the sense is to dress or cook on a gridiron or grate, and rist, rost, coincide in elements with L. rastellum, a rake. If the verb is the root, the sense probably is to contract or crisp, or to throw or agitate, hence to make rough.]
1. To cook, dress or prepare meat for the table by exposing it to heat, as on a spit. In a bake-pan, in an oven or the like. We now say, to roast meat on a spit, in a pan, or in a tin oven, etc.; to bake meat in an oven; to broil meat on a gridiron.
2. To prepare for food by exposure to heat; as, to roast apples or potatoes; to roast eggs.
3. To heat to excess; to heat violently.
Roasted in wrath and fire.
4. To dry and parch by exposure to heat; as, to roast coffee.
5. In metallurgy, to dissipate the volatile parts of ore by heat.
6. In common discourse, to jeer; to banter severely.
ROAST, n. That which is roasted.
ROAST, a. [for roasted.] Roasted; as roast beef.
ROAST, n. In the phrase, to rule the roast, this word is a corrupt pronunciation.
ROASTED, pp. Dressed by exposure to heat on a spit.
1. One that roasts meat; also, a gridiron.
2. A pig for roasting.
1. Preparing for the table by exposure to heat on a spit; drying and parching.
2. Bantering with severity.
ROASTING, n. A severe teasing or bantering.
The inspissated juice of ripe fruit, mixed with honey or sugar to the consistence of a conserve.
1. In law, to take from the person of another feloniously, forcibly and by putting him in fear; as, to rob a passenger on the road.
2. To seize and carry from any thing by violence and with felonious intent; as, to rob a coach; to rob the mail.
3. To plunder; to strip unlawfully; as, to rob an orchard; to rob a man of his just praise.
4. To take away by oppression or by violence.
Rob not the poor because he is poor. Proverbs 22:22.
5. To take from; to deprive. A large tree robs smaller plants near it of their nourishment.
6. In a loose sense, to steal; to take privately without permission of the owner.
7. To withhold what is due. Malachi 3:8.
ROBALLO, n. A fish found in Mexico, which affords a most delicate food.
ROBBE, n. The sea dog or seal.
ROBBED, pp. Deprived feloniously and by violence; plundered; seized and carried away by violence.
1. In law, one that takes goods or money from the person of another by force or menaces, and with a felonious intent.
2. In a looser sense, one who takes that to which he has no right; one who steals, plunders or strips by violence and wrong.
1. In law, the forcible and felonious taking from the person of another any money or goods, putting him in fear, that is, by violence or by menaces of death or personal injury. Robbery differs from theft, as it is a violent felonious taking from the person or presence of another; whereas theft is a felonious taking of goods privately from the person, dwelling, etc. of another. These words should not be confounded.
2. A plundering; a pillaging; a taking away by violence, wrong or oppression.
ROBBING, ppr. Feloniously taking from the person of another; putting him in fear; stripping; plundering; taking from another unlawfully or by wrong or oppression.
ROBBINS, ROPE-BANDS, n. [rope and bands.] Short flat plaited pieces of rope with an eye in one end, used in pairs to tie the upper edges of square sails to their yards.
1. A kind of gown or long loose garment worn over other dress, particularly by persons in elevated stations. The robe is properly a dress of state or dignity, as of princes, judges, priests, etc. See 1 Samuel 24:4; Matthew 27:28.
2. A splendid female gown or garment. 2 Samuel 13:18.
3. An elegant dress; splendid attire.
1. To put on a robe; or to dress with magnificence; to array.
2. To dress; to invest, as with beauty or elegance; as fields robed with green.
Such was his power over the expression of his countenance, that he could in an instant shake off the sternness of winter, and robe it in the brightest smiles of spring.
ROBED, pp. Dressed with a robe; arrayed with elegance.
ROBERSMAN, ROBERTSMAN, n. In the old statutes of England, a bold stout robber or night thief, said to be so called from Robinhood, a famous robber.
ROBERT, HERB-ROBERT, n. A plant of the genus Geranium; stork’s bill.
ROBERTINE, n. One of an order of monks, so called from Robert Flower, the founder, A.D. 1187.
ROBIN, n. [L. rubecula, from rubeo, to be red.]
1. A bird of the genus Motacilla, called also redbreast. This is the English application of the word.
2. In the United States, a bird with a red breast, a species of Turdus.
ROBIN-GOODFELLOW, n. An old domestic goblin.
ROBORANT, a. [L. roborans, roboro.] Strengthening.
ROBORANT, n. A medicine that strengthens; but corroborant is generally used.
ROBORATION, n. [from L. roboro, from robur, strength.]
A strengthening. [Little used.]
ROBOREOUS, a. [L. roborcus, from robur, strength, and an oak.]
Made of oak.
ROBUST, a. [L. robustus, from robur, strength.]
1. Strong; lusty; sinewy; muscular; vigorous; forceful; as a robust body; robust youth. It implies full flesh and sound health.
2. Sound; vigorous; as robust health.
3. Violent; rough; rude.
Romp loving miss is haul’d about in gallantry robust.
4. Requiring strength; as robust employment.
[Note. This is one of the words in which we observe a strong tendency in practice to accentuate the first syllable, as in access; and there are many situations of the word in which this is the preferable pronunciation. Robustious is extremely vulgar, and in the United States nearly obsolete.]