Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary




1. Uneasiness; unquietness; a state of disturbance or agitation, either of body or mind.

2. Want of sleep or rest; uneasiness.

3. Motion; agitation; as the restlessness of the magnetic needle.

RESTORABLE, n. [from restore.] That may be restored to a former good condition; as restorable land.

RESTORAL, n. Restitution. [Not in use.]

RESTORATION, n. [L. restauro.]

1. The act of replacing in a former state.

Behold the different climes agree, rejoicing in thy restoration.

So we speak of the restoration of a man to his office, or to a good standing in society.

2. Renewal; revival; re-establishment; as the restoration of friendship between enemies; the restoration of peace after war; the restoration of a declining commerce.

3. Recovery; renewal of health and soundness; as restoration from sickness or from insanity.

4. Recovery from a lapse or any bad state; as the restoration of man from apostasy.

5. In theology, universal restoration, the final recovery of all men from sin and alienation from God, to a state of happiness; universal salvation.

6. In England, the return of king Charles II in 1660, and the re-establishment of monarchy.

RESTORATIVE, a. That has power to renew strength and vigor.

RESTORATIVE, n. A medicine efficacious in restoring strength and vigor, or in recruiting the vital powers.

RESTORE, v.t. [L. restauro. This is a compound of re and the root of store, story, history. The primary sense is to set, to lay or to throw, as in Gr. solid.]

1. To return to a person, as a specific thing which he has lost, or which has been taken from him and unjustly detained. We restore lost or stolen goods to the owner.

Now therefore restore to the man his wife. Genesis 20:7.

2. To replace; to return; as a person or thing to a former place.

Pharaoh shall restore thee to thy place. Genesis 40:13.

3. To bring back.

The father banish’d virtue shall restore.

4. To bring back or recover from lapse, degeneracy, declension or ruin to its former state.

- Loss of Eden, till one greater man restore it, and regain the blissful seat.

- Our fortune restored after the severest afflictions.

5. To heal; to cure; to recover from disease.

His hand was restored whole like as the other. Matthew 12:13.

6. To make restitution or satisfaction for a thing taken, by returning something else, or something of different value.

He shall restore five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep. Exodus 22:1.

7. To give for satisfaction for pretended wrongs something not taken. Psalm 69:4.

8. To repair; to rebuild; as, to restore and to build Jerusalem. Daniel 9:25.

9. To revive; to resuscitate; to bring back to life.

Whose son he had restored to life. 2 Kings 8:1, 5.

10. To return or bring back after absence. Hebrews 13:19.

11. To bring to a sense of sin and amendment of life. Galatians 6:1.

12. To renew or re-establish after interruption; as, peace is restored. Friendship between the parties is restored.

13. To recover or renew, as passages of an author obscured or corrupted; as, to restore the true reading.

RESTORE, v.t. [re and store.] To store again. The goods taken out were restored.

RESTORED, pp. Returned; brought back; retrieved; recovered; cured; renewed; re-established.

RESTOREMENT, n. The act of restoring; restoration. [Not used.]

RESTORER, n. One that restores; one that returns what is lost or unjustly detained; one who repairs or re-establishes.

RESTORING, ppr. Returning what is lost or taken; bringing back; recovering; curing; renewing; repairing; re-establishing.

RESTRAIN, v.t. [L. restringo; re and stringo, to strain. The letter g appears from the participle to be casual; stringo, for strigo. Hence strictus, strict, stricture. If the two letters st are removed, the word rigo coincides exactly, in primary sense, with L. rego, rectus, right, and the root of reach, stretch, straight.]

1. To hold back; to check; to hold from action, proceeding or advancing, either by physical or moral force, or by an interposing obstacle. Thus we restrain a horse by a bridle; we restrain cattle from wandering by fences; we restrain water by dams and dikes; we restrain men from crimes and trespasses by laws; we restrain young people, when we can, by arguments or counsel; we restrain men and their passions; we restrain the elements; we attempt to restrain vice, but not always with success.

2. To repress; to keep in awe; as, to restrain offenders.

3. To suppress; to hinder or repress; as, to restrain excess.

4. To abridge; to hinder from unlimited enjoyment; as, to restrain one of his pleasure or of his liberty.

5. To limit; to confine.

Not only a metaphysical or natural, but a moral universality is also to be restrained by a part of the predicate.

6. To withhold; to forbear.

Thou restrainest prayer before God. Job 15:4.

RESTRAINABLE, a. Capable of being restrained.

RESTRAINED, pp. Held back from advancing or wandering; withheld; repressed; suppressed; abridged; confined.

RESTRAINEDLY, adv. With restraint; with limitation.

RESTRAINER, n. He or that which restrains.


1. Holding back from proceeding; checking; repressing; hindering from motion or action; suppressing.

2. a. Abridging; limiting; as a restraining statute.


1. The act or operation of holding back or hindering from motion, in any manner; hinderance of the will, or of any action, physical, moral or mental.

2. Abridgment of liberty; as the restraint of a man by imprisonment or by duress.

3. Prohibition. The commands of God should be effectual restraints upon our evil passions.

4. Limitation; restriction.

If all were granted, yet it must be maintained, within any bold restraints, far otherwise than it is received.

5. That which restrains, hinders or represses. The laws are restraints upon injustice.

RESTRICT, v.t. [L. restrictus, from restringo. See Restrain.]

To limit; to confine; to restrain within bounds; as, to restrict words to a particular meaning; to restrict a patient to a certain diet.

RESTRICTED, pp. Limited; confined to bounds.

RESTRICTING, ppr. Confining to limits.

RESTRICTION, n. [L. restrictus.]

1. Limitation; confinement within bounds.

This is to have the same restriction as all other recreations.

Restriction of words, is the limitation of their signification in a particular manner or degree.

2. Restraint; as restrictions on trade.


1. Having the quality of limiting or of expressing limitation; as a restrictive particle.

2. Imposing restraint; as restrictive laws of trade.

3. Styptic. [Not used.]

RESTRICTIVELY, adv. With limitation.

RESTRINGE, v.t. restrinj. [L. restringo, supra.] To confine; to contract; to astringe.

RESTRINGENCY, n. The quality or power of contracting.

RESTRINGENT, a. Astringent; styptic.

RESTRINGENT, n. A medicine that operates as an astringent or styptic.

RESTRIVE, v.i. [re and strive.] To strive anew.

RESTY, a. The same as restive or restif, of which it is a contraction.

RESUBJECTION, n. [re and subjection.] A second subjection.

RESUBLIMATION, n. A second sublimation.

RESUBLIME, v.t. [re and sublime.] To sublime again; as, to resublime mercurial sublimate.

RESUBLIMED, pp. sublimed a second time.

RESUBLIMING, ppr. Subliming again.

RESUDATION, n. [L. resudatus, resudo; re and sudo, to sweat.] The act of sweating again.

RESULT, v.i. s as z. [L. resulto, resilio; re and salio, to leap.]

1. to leap back; to rebound.

The huge round stone, resulting with a bound -

2. To preceed, spring or rise, as a consequence, from facts, arguments, premises, conbination of circumstances, consultation or meditation. Evidence results from testimony, or from a variety of concurring circumstances; pleasure results from friendship; harmony results from certain accordances of sounds.

Pleasure and peace naturally result from a holy and good life.

3. To come to a conclusion or determination. the council resulted in recommending harmony and peace to the parties.


1. Resilience; act of flying back.

Sound is produced between the string and the air, by the return of the result of the string.

2. Consequence; conclusion; inference; effect; that which proceeds naturally or logically from facts, premises or the state of things; as the result of reasoning; the result of reflection; the result of a consultation or council; the result of a legislative debate.

3. Consequence or effect.

The misery of sinners will be the natural result of their vile affections and criminal indulgences.

4. The decision or determination of a council or deliberative assembly; as the result of an ecclesiastical council.

RESULTANCE, n. The act of resulting.

RESULTANT, n. In mechanics, a force which is the combined effect of two or more forces, acting in different directions.


1. Proceeding as a consequence, effect or conclusion of something; coming to a determination.

2. In law, resulting use, is a use which returns to him who raised it, after its expiration or during the impossibility of vesting in the person intended.

RESUMABLE, a. s as z. [from resume.] That may be taken back, or that may be taken up again.

RESUME, v.t. s as z. [L. resumo; re and sumo, to take.]

1. To take back what has been given.

The sun, like this from which our sight we have, gaz’d on too long, resumes the light he gave.

2. To take back what has been taken away.

They resume what has been obtained fraudulently.

3. To take again after absence; as, to resume a seat.

Reason resum’d her place, and passion fled.

4. To take up again after interruption; to begin again; as, to resume an argument or discourse. [This is now its most frequent use.]

RESUMED, pp. Taken back; taken again; begun again after interruption.

RESUMING, ppr. Taking back; taking again; beginning again after interruption.


1. To summon or call again.

2. To recall; to recover.

RESUMMONED, pp. Summoned again; recovered.

RESUMMONING, ppr. Recalling; recovering.

RESUMPTION, n. [L. resumptus.]

The act of resuming, taking back or taking again; as the resumption of a grant.

RESUMPTIVE, a. Taking back or again.

RESUPINATE, a. [L. resupinatus, resupino; re and supino, supinus, lying on the back.]

In botany, reversed; turned upside down. A resupinate corol is when the upper lip faces the ground, and the lower lip the sky. A resupinate leaf is when the upper surface becomes the lower, and contrary; or when the lower disk looks upward.

RESUPINATION, n. [supra.] The state of lying on the back; the state of being resupinate or reversed, as a corol.

RESUPINE, a. Lying on the back.

RESURRECTION, n. s as z. [L. resurrectus, resurgo; re and surgo, to rise.]

A rising again; chiefly, the revival of the dead of the human race, or their return from the grave, particularly at the general judgment. By the resurrection of Christ we have assurance of the future resurrection of men. 1 Peter 1:3.

In the resurrection, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage. Matthew 22:30.

RESURVEY, v.t. [re and survey.] To survey again or anew; to review.

RESURVEY, n. A second survey.

RESURVEYED, pp. Surveyed again.

RESURVEYING, ppr. surveying anew; reviewing.

RESUSCITATE, v.t. [L. resuscito; re and suscito, to raise.]

1. To revivify; to revive; particularly, to recover from apparent death; as, to resuscitate a drowned person; to resuscitate withered plants.

2. To reproduce, as a mixed body from its ashes.

RESUSCITATED, pp. Revived; revivified; reproduced.

RESUSCITATING, ppr. Reviving; revivifying; reproducing.


1. The act of reviving from a state of apparent death; the state of being revivified.

2. The reproducing of a mixed body from its ashes.

RESUSCITATIVE, a. Reviving; revivifying; raising from apparent death; reproducing.

RETAIL, v.t.

1. To sell in small quantities or parcels, from the sense of cutting or dividing; opposed to selling by wholesale; as, to retail cloth or groceries.

2. To sell at second hand.

3. To tell in broken parts; to tell to many; as, to retail slander or idle reports.

RETAIL, n. The sale of commodities in small quantities or parcels, or at second hand.

RETAILED, pp. Sold in small quantities.

RETAILER, n. [This word, like the noun retail, is often, perhaps generally accented on the first syllable in America.]

One who sells goods by small quantities or parcels.

RETAILING, ppr. Selling in small quantities.

RETAIN, v.t. [L. retineo; re and teneo, to hold.]

1. To hold or keep in possession; not to lose or part with or dismiss. The memory retains ideas which facts or arguments have suggested to the mind.

They did not like to retain God in their knowledge. Romans 1:28.

2. To keep, as an associate; to keep from departure.

Whom I would have retained with me. Philemon 13.

3. To keep back; to hold.

An executor may retain a debt due to him from the testator.

4. To hold from escape. Some substances retain heat much longer than others. Metals readily receive and transmit heat, but do not long retain it. Seek cloths that retain their color.

5. To keep in pay; to hire.

A Benedictine convent has now retained the most learned father of their order to write in its defense.

6. To engage; to employ by a fee paid; as, to retain a counselor.

RETAIN, v.i.

1. To belong to; to depend on; as coldness mixed with a somewhat languid relish retaining to bitterness.

[Not in use. We now use pertain.]

2. To keep; to continue. [Not in use.]

RETAINED, pp. Held; kept in possession; kept as an associate; kept in pay; kept from escape.


1. One who retains; as an executor, who retains a debt due from the testator.

2. One who is kept in service; an attendant; as the retainers of the ancient princes and nobility.

3. An adherent; a dependant; a hanger on.

4. A servant, not a domestic, but occasionally attending and wearing his master’s livery.

5. Among lawyers, a fee paid to engage a lawyer or counselor to maintain a cause.

6. The act of keeping dependents, or being in dependence.

RETAINING, ppr. Keeping in possession; keeping as an associate; keeping from escape; hiring; engaging by a fee.

RETAKE, v.t. pret. retook; pp. retaken. [re and take.]

1. To take again.

2. To take from a captor; to recapture; as, to retake a ship or prisoners.

RETAKER, n. One who takes again what has been taken; a recaptor.

RETAKING, ppr. Taking again; taking from a captor.

RETAKING, n. A taking again; recapture.

RETALIATE, v.t. [Low L. retalio; re and talio, from talis, like.]

To return like for like; to repay or requite by an act of the same kind as has been received. It is now seldom used except in a bad sense, that is, to return evil for evil; as, to retaliate injuries. In war, enemies often retaliate the death or inhuman treatment of prisoners, the burning of towns or the plunder of goods.

It is unlucky to be obliged to retaliate the injuries of authors, whose works are so soon forgotten that we are in danger of appearing the first aggressors.

RETALIATE, v.i. To return like for like; as, to retaliate upon an enemy.

RETALIATED, pp. Returned, as like for like.

RETALIATING, ppr. Returning, like for like.


1. The return of like for like; the doing that to another which he has done to us; requital of evil.

2. In a good sense, return of good for good.

God takes what is done to others as done to himself, and by promise obliges himself to full retaliation.

[This, according to modern usage, is harsh.]

RETALIATORY, a. Returning like for like; as retaliatory measure; retaliatory edicts.

RETARD, v.t. [L. retardo; re and tardo, to delay, tardus, slow, late. See Target.]

1. To diminish the velocity of motion; to hinder; to render more slow in progress; as, to retard the march of an army; to retard the motion of a ship. The resistance of air retards the velocity of a cannon ball. It is opposed to accelerate.

2. To delay; to put off; to render more late; as, to retard the attacks of old age; to retard a rupture between nations. My visit was retarded by business.

RETARD, v.i. To stay back. [Not in use.]

RETARDATION, n. The act of abating the velocity of motion; hinderance; the act of delaying; as the retardation of the motion of a ship; the retardation of hoary hairs.

RETARDED, pp. Hindered in motion; delayed.

RETARDER, n. One that retards, hinders or delays.

RETARDING, ppr. Abating the velocity of motion; hindering; delaying.

RETARDMENT, n. The act of retarding or delaying.

RETCH, v.i. [See Reach.]

To make an effort to vomit; to heave; as the stomach; to strain, as in vomiting; properly to reach.

RETCHLESS, careless, is not in use. [See Reckless.]

RETECTION, n. [L. retectus, from retego, to uncover; re and tego, to cover.]

The act of disclosing or producing to view something concealed; as the retection of the native color of the body.

RETENT, n. That which is retained.

RETENTION, n. [L. retentio, retineo; re and teneo, to hold.]

1. The act of retaining or keeping.

2. The power of retaining; the faculty of the mind by which it retains ideas.

3. In medicine, the power of retaining, or that state of contraction in the solid or vascular parts of the body, by which they hold their proper contents and prevent in voluntary evacuations; undue retention of some natural discharge.

4. The act of withholding; restraint.

5. Custody; confinement. [Not in use.]

RETENTIVE, a. Having the power to retain; as a retentive memory; the retentive faculty; the retentive force of the stomach; a body retentive of heat or moisture.

RETENTIVENESS, n. The quality of retention; a retentiveness of memory.

RETICENCE, RETICENCY, n. [L. reticentia, reticeo; re and tacco, to be silent.]

Concealment by silence. In rhetoric, aposiopesis or suppression; a figure by which a person really speaks of a thing, while he makes a show as if he would say nothing on the subject.

RETICLE, n. [L. reticulum, from rete, a net.]

1. A small net.

2. A contrivance to measure the quantity of an eclipse; a kind of micrometer.

RETICULAR, a. [supra.] Having the form of a net or of net-work; formed with interstices; as a reticular body or membrane.

In anatomy, the reticular body, or rete mucosum, is the layer of the skin, intermediate between the cutis and the cuticle, the principal seat of color in man; the reticular membrane is the same as the cellular membrane.

RETICULATE, RETICULATED, a. [L. reticulatus, from rete, a net.] Netted; resembling net-work; having distinct veins crossing like net-work; as a reticulate corol or petal.

RETICULATION, n. Net-work; organization of substances resembling a net.

RETIFORM, a. [L. retiformis; rete, a net, and forma, form.]

Having the form of a net in texture; composed of crossing lines and interstices; as the retiform coat of the eye.

RETINA, n. [L. from rete, a net.] In anatomy, one of the coats of the eye, being an expansion of the optic nerve over the bottom of the eye, where the sense of vision is first received.

RETINASPHALT, n. A bituminous or resinous substance of a yellowish or reddish brown color, found in irregular pieces very light and shining. [See Retinite.]

RETINITE, n. [Gr. resin.] Pitchstone; stone of fusible pitch, of a resinous appearance, compact, brown, reddish, gray, yellowish, blackish or bluish, rarely homogeneous, and often containing crystals of feldspar and scales of mica. It is the pechstein porphyry or obsidian of the Germans. It is called also retinasphalt.

RETINUE, n. [L. retineo; re and tenco, to hold.]

The attendants of a prince or distinguished personage, chiefly on a journey or an excursion; a train of persons.


In fortification, a kind of retrenchment in the body of a bastion or other work, which is to be disputed inch by inch, after the defenses are dismantled. It usually consists of two faces, which make a re-entering angle.

RETIRE, v.i.

1. To withdraw; to retreat; to go from company or from a public place into privacy; as, to retire from the world; to retire from notice.

2. To retreat from action or danger; as, to retire from battle.

3. To withdraw from a public station. General Washington, in 1796, retired to private life.

4. To break up, as a company or assembly. The company retired at eleven o’clock.

5. To depart or withdraw for safety or for pleasure. Men retire from the town in summer for health and pleasure. But in South Carolina, the planters retire from their estates to Charleston, or to an isle near the town.

6. To recede; to fall back. The shore of the sea retires in bays and gulfs.

RETIRE, v.t. To withdraw; to take away.

He retired himself, his wife and children into a forest.

As when the sun is present all the year, and never doth retire his golden ray.

[This transitive use of retire is now obsolete.]


1. Retreat; recession; a withdrawing. Obs.

2. Retirement; place of privacy. Obs.


1. Secluded from much society or from public notice; private. He lives a retired life; he has a retired situation.

2. Secret; private; as retired speculations.

3. Withdrawn.