Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



RESISTIBLE, a. That may be resisted; as a resistible force; resistible grace.

RESISTING, ppr. withstanding; opposing.

Resisting medium, a substance which opposes the passage of a body through it.

RESISTIVE, a. Having the power to resist.


1. That cannot be effectually opposed or withstood; irresistible.

Resistless in her love as in her hate.

2. That cannot resist; helpless.

RESISTLESSLY, adv. So as not to be opposed or denied.

RESOLD, pp. of resell. Sold a second time, or sold after being bought.

RESOLUBLE, a. s as z. [re and L. solubilis. See Resolve.]

That may be melted or dissolved; as bodies resoluble by fire.

RESOLUTE, a. [The Latin resolutus has a different signification. See Resolve.]

Having a fixed purpose; determined; hence, bold; firm; steady; constant in pursuing a purpose.

Edward is at hand, ready to fight; therefore be resolute.


1. With fixed purpose; firmly; steadily; with steady perseverance. Persist resolutely in a course of virtue.

2. Boldly; firmly.

Some of these facts he examines, some be resolutely denies.

RESOLUTENESS, n. Fixed purpose; firm determination; unshaken firmness.

RESOLUTION, n. [L. resolutio. See Resolve.]

1. The act, operation or process of separating the parts which compose a complex idea or a mixed body; the act of reducing any compound or combination to its component parts; analysis; as the resolution of complex ideas; the resolution of any material substance by chimical operations.

2. The act or process of unraveling or disentangling perplexities, or of dissipating obscurity in moral subjects; as the resolution of difficult questions in moral science.

3. Dissolution; the natural process of separating the component parts of bodies.

4. In music, the resolution of a dissonance, is the carrying of it, according to rule, into a consonance in the subsequent chord.

5. In medicine, the disappearing of any tumor without coming to suppuration; the dispersing of inflammation.

6. Fixed purpose or determination of mind; as a resolution to reform our lives; a resolution to undertake an expedition.

7. The effect of fixed purpose; firmness, steadiness or constancy in execution, implying courage.

They who governed the parliament, had the resolution to act those monstrous things.

8. Determination of a cause in a court of justice; as a judicial resolution.

[But this word is now seldom used to express the decision of a judicial tribunal. We use judgment, decision or decree.]

9. The determination or decision of a legislative body, or a formal proposition offered for legislative determination. We call that a resolution, which is reduced to form and offered to a legislative house for consideration, and we call it a resolution when adopted. We say, a member moved certain resolutions; the house proceeded to consider the resolutions offered; they adopted or rejected the resolutions.

10. The formal determination of any corporate body, or of any association of individuals; as the resolutions of a town or other meeting.

11. In algebra, the resolution of an equation, is the same as reduction; the bringing of the unknown quantity by itself on one side, and all the known quantities on the other, without destroying the equation, by which is found the value of the unknown quantity.

12. Relaxation; a weakening. Obs.

RESOLUTIONER, n. One who joins in the declaration of others. [Not in use.]

RESOLUTIVE, a. Having the power to dissolve or relax. [Not much used.]

RESOLVABLE, a. That may be resolved or reduced to first principles.

RESOLVE, v.t. rezolv’. [L. resolvo; re and solvo, to loose.]

1. To separate the component parts of a compound substance; to reduce to first principles; as, to resolve a body into its component or constituent parts; to resolve a body into its elements.

2. To separate the parts of a complex idea; to reduce to simple parts; to analyze.

3. To separate the parts of a complicated question; to unravel; to disentangle of perplexities; to remove obscurity by analysis; to clear of difficulties; to explain; as, to resolve questions in moral science; to resolve doubts; to resolve a riddle.

4. To inform to free from doubt or perplexity; as, to resolve the conscience.

Resolve me, stranger, whence and what you are?

5. To settle in an opinion; to make certain.

Long since we were resolv’d of your truth, your faithful service and your toil in war.

6. To confirm; to fix in constancy.

Quit presently the chapel, or resolve you for more amazement. [Unusual.]

7. To melt; to dissolve.

8. To form or constitute by resolution, vote or determination; as, the house resolved itself into a committee of the whole.

9. In music, to resolve a discord or dissonance, is to carry it, according to rule, into a consonance in the subsequent chord.

10. In medicine, to disperse or scatter; to discuss; as inflammation or a tumor.

11. To relax; to lay at ease.

12. In algebra, to resolve an equation, is to bring all the known quantities to one side of the equation, and the unknown quantity to the other.

RESOLVE, v.i. rezolv’.

1. To fix in opinion or purpose; to determine in mind. He resolved to abandon his vicious course of life.

2. To determine by vote. The legislature resolved to receive no petitions after a certain day.

3. To melt; to dissolve; to become fluid.

When the blood stagnates in any part, it first coagulates, then resolves and turns alkaline.

4. To separate into its component parts, or into distinct principles; as, water resolves into vapor; a substance resolves into gas.

5. To be settled in opinion.

Let men resolve of that as they please. [Unusual.]

RESOLVE, n. rezolv’.

1. Fixed purpose of mind; settled determination; resolution.

He strait revokes his bold resolve.

2. Legal or official determination; legislative act concerning a private person or corporation, or concerning some private business. Public acts of a legislature respect the state, and to give them validity, the bills for such acts must pass through all the legislative forms. Resolves are usually private acts, and are often passed with less formality. Resolves may also be the acts of a single branch of the legislature; whereas public acts must be passed by a majority of both branches.

3. The determination of any corporation or association; resolution.


1. Separated into its component parts; analyzed.

2. Determined in purpose; as, I am resolved not to keep company with gamesters. This phrase is properly, “I have resolved;” as we say, a person is deceased, or has deceased; he is retired, or has retired. In these phrases, the participle is rather an adjective.

3. Determined officially or by vote.

RESOLVEDLY, adv. With firmness of purpose.

RESOLVEDNESS, n. Fixedness of purpose; firmness; resolution.

RESOLVENT, n. That which has the power of causing solution. In medicine, that which has power to disperse inflammation and prevent the suppuration of tumors; a discutient.

RESOLVER, n. One that resolves or forms a firm purpose.

RESOLVING, ppr. Separating into component parts; analyzing; removing perplexities or obscurity; discussing, as tumors; determining.

RESOLVING, n. The act of determining or forming a fixed purpose; a resolution.

RESONANCE, n. s as z. [L. resonans.]

1. A resounding; a sound returned from the sides of a hollow instrument of music; reverberated sound or sounds.

2. A sound returned.

RESONANT, a. [L. resonans; re and sono, to sound.] Resounding; returning sound; echoing back.

RESORB, v.t. [L. resorbeo; re and sorbeo, to drink in.] To swallow up.

RESORBENT, a. Swallowing up.

RESORT, v.i. s as z.

1. To have recourse; to apply; to betake.

The king thought it time to resort to other counsels.

2. To go; to repair.

The people resort to him again. Mark 10:1; John 18:20.

3. To fall back.

The inheritance of the son never resorted to the mother. Obs.


1. The act of going to or making application; a betaking one’s self; as a resort to other means of defense; a resort to subterfuges for evasion.

2. Act of visiting.

Join with me to forbid him her resort.

3. Assembly; meeting.

4. Concourse; frequent assembling; as a place of resort.

5. The place frequented; as, alehouses are the resorts of the idle and dissolute.

6. Spring; active power or movement; a Gallicism. [Not in use.]

Last resort, ultimate means of relief; also, final tribunal; that from which there is no appeal.

RESORTER, n. One that resorts or frequents.

RESORTING, ppr. Going; having recourse; betaking; frequenting.

RESOUND, v.t. s as z. [L. resono; re and sono, to sound.]

1. To send back sound; to echo.

And Albion’s cliffs resound the rural lay.

2. To sound; to praise or celebrate with the voice or the sound of instruments.

3. To praise; to extol with sounds; to spread the fame of.

The man for wisdom’s various arts renown’d, long exercis’d in woes, O muse, resound.


1. To be echoed; to be sent back, as sound; as, common fame resounds back to them.

2. To be much and loudly mentioned.

RESOUND, v.t. [re and sound; with the accent on the first syllable.] To sound again.
RESOUND, n. s as z. Return of sound; echo.

RESOUNDED, pp. Echoed; returned, as sound; celebrated.

RESOUNDING, ppr. Echoing; returning, as sound.


1. Any source of aid or support; an expedient to which a person may resort for assistance, safety or supply; means yet untried; resort. An enterprising man finds resources in his own mind.

Pallas view’d his foes pursuing and his friends pursu’d, used threat’nings mix’d with prayers, his last resource.

2. Resources, in the plural, pecuniary means; funds; money or any property that can be converted into supplies; means of raising money or supplies. Our national resources for carrying on war are abundant. Commerce and manufactures furnish ample resources.

RESOURCELESS, a. Destitute of resources. [A word not to be countenanced.]

RESOW, v.t. pret. resowed; pp. resowed or resown. [re and sow.] To sow again.

RESOWED, RESOWN, pp. Sown anew.

RESPEAK, v.t. pret. respoke; pp. respoken, respoke. [re and speak.]

1. To answer; to speak in return; to reply. [Little used.]

2. To speak again; to repeat.

RESPECT, v.t. [L. respecto, or respectus, from respicio; re and specio, to view.]

1. To regard; to have regard to in design or purpose.

In orchards and gardens, we do not so much respect beauty, as variety of ground for fruits, trees and herbs.

2. To have regard to, in relation or connection; to relate to. The treaty particularly respects our commerce.

3. To view or consider with some degree of reverence; to esteem as possessed of real worth.

I always loved and respected Sir William.

4. To look towards.

Palladius adviseth the front of his house should so respect the south. [Not in use.]

To respect the person, to suffer the opinion or judgment to be influenced or biased by a regard to the outward circumstances of a person, to the prejudice of right and equity.

Thou shalt not respect the person of the poor. Leviticus 19:15.

Neither doth God respect any person. 2 Samuel 14:14.

RESPECT, n. [L. respectus.]

1. Regard; attention.

2. That estimation or honor in which men hold the distinguished worth or substantial good qualities of others. It expresses less than reverence and veneration, which regard elders and superiors; whereas respect may regard juniors and inferiors.

Respect regards the qualities of the mind, or the actions which characterize those qualities.

Seen without awe, and serv’d without respect.

3. That deportment or course of action which proceeds from esteem; regard; due attention; as, to treat a person with respect.

These same men treat the sabbath with little respect.

4. Good will; favor.

The Lord had respect to Abel and his offering. Genesis 4:4.

5. Partial regard; undue bias to the prejudice of justice; as the phrase, respect of persons. 1 Peter 1:17; James 2:1; Proverbs 24:23.

6. Respected character; as persons of the best respect in Rome.

7. Consideration; motive in reference to something.

Whatever secret respects were likely to move them -

8. Relation; regard; reference; followed by of, but more properly by to.

They believed but one Supreme Deity, which, with respect to the benefits men received from him, had several titles.

RESPECTABILITY, n. State or quality of being respectable; the state or qualities which deserve or command respect.


1. Possessing the worth or qualities which deserve or command respect; worth of esteem and honor; as a respectable citizen; respectable company.

No government, any more than an individual, will long be respected, without being truly respectable.

2. In popular language, this word is much used to express what is moderate in degree of excellence on in number, but not despicable. We say, a respectable discourse or performance, a respectable audience, a respectable number of citizens convened.

RESPECTABLENESS, n. Respectability.


1. With respect; more generally, in a manner to merit respect.

2. Moderately, but in a manner not to be despised.

RESPECTED, pp. Held in honorable estimation.

RESPECTER, n. One that respects; chiefly used in the phrase, respecter of persons, which signifies a person who regards the external circumstances of others in his judgment, and suffers his opinion to be biased by them, to the prejudice of candor, justice and equity.

I perceive that God is no respecter of persons. Acts 10:34.

RESPECTFUL, a. Marked or characterized by respect; as respectful deportment.

With humble joy and with respectful fear.

RESPECTFULLY, adv. With respect; in a manner comporting with due estimation.

RESPECTFULNESS, n. The quality of being respectful.

RESPECTING, ppr. Regarding; having regard to; relating to. This word, like concerning, has reference to a single word or to a sentence. In the sentence, “his conduct respecting us is commendable,” respecting has reference to conduct. But when we say, “respecting a further appropriation of money, it is to be observed, that the resources of the country are inadequate,” respecting has reference to the whole subsequent clause or sentence.


1. Relative; having relation to something else; not absolute; as the respective connections of society.

2. Particular; relating to a particular person or thing. Let each man retire to his respective place of abode. The officers were found in their respective quarters; they appeared at the head of their respective regiments. Let each give according to his respective proportion.

3. Worthy of respect. [Not in use.]

4. Careful; circumspect; cautious; attentive to consequences; as respective and wary men. [Not in use.]


1. As relating to each; particularly; as each belongs to each. Let each man respectively perform his duty.

The impressions from the objects of the senses do mingle respectively every one with its kind.

2. Relatively; not absolutely.

3. Partially; with respect to private views. Obs.

4. With respect. Obs.

RESPECTLESS, a. Having no respect; without regard; without reference. [Little used.]

RESPECTLESSNESS, n. The state of having no respect or regard; regardlessness. [Little used.]

RESPERSE, v.t. respers’. [L. respersus, respergo; re and spargo, to sprinkle.] To sprinkle. [Rarely used.]

RESPERSION, n. [L. respersio.] The act of sprinkling.

RESPIRABLE, a. [from respire.] That may be breathed; fit for respiration or for the support of animal life; as respirable air. Azotic gas is not respirable.

RESPIRATION, n. [L. respiratio.]

1. The act of breathing; the act of inhaling air into the lungs and again exhaling or expelling it, by which animal life is supported. The respiration of fishes, [for these cannot live long without air,] appears to be performed by the air contained in the water acting on the gills.

2. Relief from toil.

RESPIRATORY, a. Serving for respiration; as respiratory organs.

RESPIRE, v.i. [L. respiro; re and spiro, to breathe.]

1. To breathe; to inhale air into the lungs and exhale it, for the purpose of maintaining animal life.

2. To catch breath.

3. To rest; to take rest from toil.

RESPIRE, v.t. To exhale; to breathe out; to send out in exhalations.

RESPIRED, pp. Breathed; inhaled and exhaled.

RESPIRING, ppr. Breathing; taking breath.


1. Pause; temporary intermission of labor, or of any process or operation; interval of rest.

Some pause and respit only I require.

2. In law, reprieve; temporary suspension of the execution of a capital offender.

3. Delay; forbearance; prolongation of time for the payment of a debt beyond the legal time.

4. The delay of appearance at court granted to a jury, beyond the proper term.

RESPIT, v.t.

1. To relieve by a pause or interval of rest.

To respit his day-labor with repast.

2. To suspend the execution of a criminal beyond the time limited by the sentence; to delay for a time.

3. To give delay of appearance at court; as, to respit a jury.

RESPITED, pp. Relieved from labor; allowed a temporary suspension of execution.

RESPITING, ppr. Relieving from labor; suspending the execution of a capital offender.

RESPLENDENCE, RESPLENDENCY, n. [L. resplendens, resplendeo; re and splendeo, to shine.]

Brilliant luster; vivid brightness; splendor.

Son! thou in whom my glory I behold in full resplendence, heir of all my might.

RESPLENDENT, a. [supra.] Very bright; shining with brilliant luster.

With royal arras and resplendent gold.

RESPLENDENTLY, adv. With brilliant luster; with great brightness.

RESPLIT, v.t. [re and split.] To split again.

RESPOND, v.i. [L. respondeo; re and spondeo, to promise, that is, to sent to. Hence respondeo is to send back.]

1. To answer; to reply.

A new affliction strings a new chord in the heart, which responds to some new note of complaint within the wide scale of human woe.

2. To correspond; to suit.

To every theme responds thy various lay.

3. To be answerable; to be liable to make payment; as, the defendant is held to respond in damages.

RESPOND, v.t. To answer; to satisfy by payment. The surety was held to respond the judgment of court. The goods attached shall be held to respond the judgment.

1. A short anthem interrupting the middle of a chapter, which is not to proceed till the anthem is ended.

2. An answer. [Not in use.]

RESPONDED, pp. Answered; satisfied by payment.

RESPONDENT, a. Answering; that answers to demand or expectation.

- Wealth respondent to payment and contributions.


1. One that answers in a suit, particularly a chancery suit.

2. In the schools, one who maintains a thesis in reply, and whose province is to refute objections or overthrow arguments.

RESPONDING, ppr. Answering; corresponding.

RESPONSAL, a. Answerable; responsible. [Not in use.]


1. Response; answer.

2. One who is responsible. [Not in use.]

RESPONSE, n. respons’. [L. responsum.]

1. An answer or reply; particularly, an oracular answer.

2. The answer of the people or congregation to the priest, in the litany and other parts of divine service.

3. Reply to an objection in a formal disputation.

4. In the Romish church, a kind of anthem sung after the morning lesson.

5. In a fugue, a repetition of the given subject by another part.

RESPONSIBILITY, n. [from responsible.]

1. The state of being accountable or answerable, as for a trust or office, or for a debt.

It is used in the plural; as heavy responsibilities.

2. Ability to answer in payment; means of paying contracts.

RESPONSIBLE, a. [from L. responsus, respondeo.]

1. Liable to account; accountable; answerable; as for a trust reposed, or for a debt. We are all responsible for the talents entrusted to us by our Creator. A guardian is responsible for the faithful discharge of his duty to his ward. The surety is responsible for the debt of his principal.

2. Able to discharge an obligation; or having estate adequate to the payment of a debt. In taking bail, the officer will ascertain whether the proposed surety is a responsible man.


1. State of being liable to answer, repay or account; responsibility.

2. Ability to make payment of an obligation or demand.

RESPONSION, n. [L. responsio.] The act of answering. [Not used.]


1. Answering; making reply.

2. Correspondent; suited to something else.

The vocal lay responsive to the strings.

RESPONSORY, a. Containing answer.

RESPONSORY, n. A response; the alternate speaking, in church service.

REST, n. [L. resto, if the latter is a compound of re and sto; but is an original word. See Verb.]

1. Cessation of motion or action of any kind, and applicable to any body or being; as rest from labor; rest from mental exertion; rest of body or mind. A body is at rest, when it ceases to move; the mind is at rest, when it ceases to be disturbed or agitated; the sea is never at rest. Hence,

2. Quiet; repose; a state free from motion or disturbance; a state of reconciliation to God.

Learn of me, for I am meek and lowly in heart; and ye shall find rest to your souls. Matthew 11:29.

3. Sleep; as, retire to rest.

4. Peace; national quiet.

The land had rest eighty years. Judges 3:30; Deuteronomy 12:10.

5. The final sleep, death.

6. A place of quiet; permanent habitation.

Ye are not as yet come to the rest, and to the inheritance which the Lord your God giveth you. Deuteronomy 12:9.

7. Any place of repose.

In dust, our final rest, and native home.

8. That on which any thing leans or lies for support. 1 Kings 6:6.

Their vizors clos’d, their lances in the rest.

9. In poetry, a short pause of the voice in reading; a cesura.

10. In philosophy, the continuance of a body in the same place.

11. Final hope.

Sea fights have been final to the war; but this is, when princes set up their rest upon the battle. Obs.

12. Cessation from tillage. Leviticus 25:4.

13. The gospel church or new covenant state in which the people of God enjoy repose, and Christ shall be glorified. Isaiah 11:10.

14. In music, a pause; an interval during which the voice is intermitted; also, the mark of such intermission.

REST, n. [L. resto.]

1. That which is left, or which remains after the separation of a part, either in fact or in contemplation; remainder.

Religion gives part of its reward in hand, the present comfort of having done our duty, and for the rest, it offers us the best security that heaven can give.

2. Others; those not included in a proposition or description. [In this sense, rest is a noun, but with a singular termination expressing plurality.]

Plato and the rest of the philosophers -

Arm’d like the rest, the Trojan prince appears.

The election hath obtained it and the rest were blinded. Romans 11:7.

REST, v.i.

1. To cease from action or motion of any kind; to stop; a word applicable to any body or being, and to any kind of motion.

2. To cease from labor, work or performance.

God rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. Genesis 2:2.

So the people rested on the seventh day. Exodus 16:30.

3. To be quiet or still; to be undisturbed.

There rest, if any rest can harbor there.

4. To cease from war; to be at peace.

And the land rested from war. Joshua 11:23.

5. To be quiet or tranquil, as the mind; not to be agitated by fear, anxiety or other passion.

6. To lie; to repose; as, to rest on a bed.

7. To sleep; to slumber.

Fancy then retires into her private cell, when nature rests.

8. to sleep the final sleep; to die or be dead.

Glad I’d lay me down, as in my mother’s lap; ther I should rest, and sleep secure.

9. To lean; to recline for support; as, to rest the arm on a table. The truth of religion rests on divine testimony.

10. to stand on; to be supported by; as, a column rests on its pedestal.

11. To be satisfied; to acquiesce; as, to rest on heaven’s determination.

12. To lean; to trust; to rely; as, to rest on a man’s promise.

13. To continue fixed. Isaiah 51:4.

14. To terminate; to come to an end. Ezekiel 16:42.

15. To hang, lie or be fixed.

Over a tent a cloud shall rest by day.

16. To abide; to remain with.

They said, the spirit of Elijah doth rest on Elisha. 2 Kings 2:15; Ecclesiastes 7:9.

17. To be calm or composed in mind; to enjoy peace of conscience.

REST, v.i. To be left; to remain. Obs.
REST, v.t.

1. To lay at rest; to quiet.

Your piety has paid all needful rites, to rest my wandering shade.

2. To place, as on a support. We rest our cause on the truth of the Scripture.

Her weary head upon your bosom rest.

RESTAGNANT, a. [L. restagnans.] Stagnant; remaining without a flow or current. [Not much used.]

RESTAGNATE, v.i. [L. restagno; re and stagno, to stagnate.]

To stand or remain without flowing.

[This word is superseded by stagnate.]

RESTAGNATION, n. Stagnation, which see.

RESTANT, a. [L. restans, reto.] In botany, remaining, as footstalks after the fructification has fallen off.

RESTAURATION, n. [L. restauro.] Restoration to a former good state.

[The present orthography is restoration, which see.]

RESTED, pp. Laid on for support.

RESTEM, v.t. [re and stem.] To force back against the current.

RESTFUL, a. [from rest.] Quiet; being at rest.

RESTFULLY, adv. In a state of rest or quiet.

REST-HARROW, n. A plant of the genus Ononis.

RESTIF, a. [L. resto.]

1. Unwilling to go, or only running back; obstinate in refusing to move forward; stubborn; as a restif steed. It seems originally to have been used of horses that would not be driven forward. It is sometimes written restive.

All who before him did ascend the throne, labor’d to draw three restive nations on.

2. Unyielding; as restif stubbornness.

3. Being at rest, or less in action. [Not in use.]

RESTIF, n. A stubborn horse.


1. Obstinate reluctance or indisposition to move.

2. Obstinate unwillingness.

RESTINCTION, n. [L. restinctio, restinguo; re and extinguo.] The act of quenching or extinguishing.

RESTING, ppr. Ceasing to move or act; ceasing to be moved or agitated; lying; leaning; standing; depending or relying.

RESTING-PLACE, n. A place for rest.

RESTINGUISH, v.t. [L. restinguo; re and extinguo.] To quench or extinguish.

RESTITUTE, v.t. [L. restituo; re and statuo, to set.]

To restore to a former state. [Not used.]

RESTITUTION, n. [L. restitutio.]

1. The act of returning or restoring to a person some thing or right of which he has been unjustly deprived; as the restitution of ancient rights to the crown.

Restitution is made by restoring a specific thing taken away or lost.

2. The act of making good, or of giving an equivalent for any loss, damage or injury; indemnification.

He restitution to the value makes.

3. The act of recovering a former state or posture. [Unusual.]

Restitution of all things, the putting the world in a holy and happy state. Acts 3:21.

RESTITUTOR, n. One who makes restitution. [little used.]



1. Unquiet; uneasy; continually moving; as a restless child.

2. Being without sleep; uneasy.

Restless he pass’d the remnant of the night.

3. Passed in unquietness; as, the patient has had a restless night.

4. Uneasy; unquiet; not satisfied to be at rest or in peace; as a restless prince; restless ambition; restless passions.

5. Uneasy; turbulent; as restless subjects.

6. Unsettled; disposed to wander or to change place or condition.

- Restless at home, and ever prone to range.

RESTLESSLY, adv. Without rest; unquietly.

When the mind casts and turns itself restlessly from one thing to another.