Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary



REPRINTING, ppr. Printing again; renewing an impression.

REPRISAL, n. s as z. [L. prendo.]

1. The seizure or taking of any thing from an enemy by way of retaliation or indemnification for something taken or detained by him.

2. That which is taken from an enemy to indemnify an owner for something of his which the enemy has seized. Reprisals may consist of persons or of goods. Letters of marque and reprisal may be obtained in order to seize the bodies or goods of the subjects of an offending state, until satisfaction shall be made.

3. Recaption; a retaking of a man’s own goods or any of his family, wife, child or servant, wrongfully taken from him or detained by another. In this case, the owner may retake the goods or persons wherever he finds them.

Letters of marque and reprisal, a commission granted by the supreme authority of a state to a subject, empowering him to pass the frontiers [marque,] that is, enter an enemy’s territories and capture the goods and persons of the enemy, in return for goods or persons taken by him.

4. The act of retorting on an enemy by inflicting suffering or death on a prisoner taken from him, in retaliation of an act of inhumanity.

REPRISE, n. s as z. A taking by way of retaliation. Obs.

REPRISE, v.t. s as z.

1. To take again. Obs.

2. To recompense; to pay. Obs.

REPRIZES, n. plu. In law, yearly deductions out of a manor, as rent-charge, rent-seek, etc.

REPROACH, v.t. [L. prox, in proximus.]

1. To censure in terms of opprobrium or contempt.

Mezentius with his ardor warm’d his fainting friends, reproach’d their shameful flight, repell’d the victors.

2. To charge with a fault in severe language.

That shame there sit not, and reproach us as unclean.

3. To upbraid; to suggest blame for any thing. A man’s conscience will reproach him for a criminal, mean or unworthy action.

4. To treat with scorn or contempt. Luke 6:22.


1. Censure mingled with contempt or derision; contumelious or opprobrious language towards any person; abusive reflections; as foul-mouthed reproach.

2. Shame; infamy; disgrace.

Give not thine heritage to reproach. Joel 2:17; Isaiah 4:1.

3. Object of contempt, scorn or derision.

Come, and let us build up the wall of Jerusalem, that we may be no more a reproach. Nehemiah 2:17.

4. That which is the cause of shame or disgrace. Genesis 30:23.


1. Deserving reproach.

2. Opprobrious; scurrilous. [Not proper.]

REPROACHED, pp. Censured in terms of contempt; upbraided.


1. Expressing censure with contempt; scurrilous; opprobrious; as reproachful words.

2. Shameful; bringing or casting reproach; infamous; base; vile; as reproachful conduct; a reproachful life.


1. In terms of reproach; opprobriously; scurrilously 1 Timothy 5:14.

2. Shamefully; disgracefully; contemptuously.

REPROBATE, a. [L. reprobatus, reprobo, to disallow; re and probo, to prove.]

1. Not enduring proof or trial; not of standard purity or fineness; disallowed; rejected.

Reprobate silver shall men call them, because the Lord hath rejected them. Jeremiah 6:30.

2. Abandoned in sin; lost to virtue or grace.

They profess that they know God, but in works deny him, being abominable and disobedient, and to every good work reprobate. Titus 1:16.

3. Abandoned to error, or in apostasy. 2 Timothy 3:8.

REPROBATE, n. A person abandoned to sin; one lost to virtue and religion.

I acknowledge myself a reprobate, a villain, a traitor to the king.


1. To disapprove with detestation or marks of extreme dislike; to disallow; to reject. It expresses more than disapprove or disallow. We disapprove of slight faults and improprieties; we reprobate what is mean or criminal.

2. In a milder sense, to disallow.

Such an answer as this, is reprobated and disallowed of in law.

3. To abandon to wickedness and eternal destruction.

4. To abandon to his sentence, without hope of pardon.

Drive him out to reprobated exile.

REPROBATED, pp. Disapproved with abhorrence; rejected; abandoned to wickedness or to destruction.

REPROBATENESS, n. The state of being reprobate.

REPROBATER, n. One that reprobates.

REPROBATING, ppr. Disapproving with extreme dislike; rejecting; abandoning to wickedness or to destruction.

REPROBATION, n. [L. reprobatio.]

1. The act of disallowing with detestation, or of expressing extreme dislike.

2. The act of abandoning or state of being abandoned to eternal destruction.

When a sinner is so hardened as to feel no remorse or misgiving of conscience, it is considered as a sign of reprobation.

3. A condemnatory sentence; rejection.

Set a brand of reprobation on clipped poetry and false coin.

REPROBATIONER, n. One who abandons others to eternal destruction.

REPRODUCE, v.t. [re and produce.] To produce again; to renew the production of a thing destroyed. Trees are reproduced by new shoots from the roots or stump; and certain animals, as the polype, are reproduced from cuttings.

REPRODUCED, pp. Produced anew.

REPRODUCER, n. One or that which reproduces.

REPRODUCING, ppr. Producing anew.

REPRODUCTION, n. The act or process of reproducing that which has been destroyed; as the reproduction of plants or animals from cuttings or slips. The reproduction of several parts of lobsters and crabs is one of the greatest curiosities in natural history.

REPROOF, n. [from reprove.]

1. Blame expressed to the face; censure for a fault; reprehension.

Those best can bear reproof, who merit praise.

He that hateth reproof is brutish. Proverbs 12:1.

2. Blame cast; censure directed to a person.

REPROVABLE, a. [from reprove.] Worthy of reproof; deserving censure; blamable.

REPROVE, v.t. [L. reprobo; re and probo, to prove.]

1. To blame; to censure.

I will not reprove thee for thy sacrifices - Psalm 50:8.

2. To charge with a fault to the face; to chide; to reprehend. Luke 3:19.

3. To blame for; with of; as, to reprove one of laziness.

4. To convince of a fault, or to make it manifest. John 16:8.

5. To refute; to disprove. [Not in use.]

6. To excite a sense of guilt. The heart or conscience reproves us.

7. To manifest silent disapprobation or blame.

The vicious cannot bear the presence of the good, whose very looks reprove them, and whose life is a severe, though silent admonition.

REPROVED, pp. Blamed; reprehended; convinced of a fault.

REPROVER, n. One that reproves; he or that which blames. Conscience is a bold reprover.

REPROVING, ppr. Blaming; censuring.

REPRUNE, v.t. [re and prune.] To prune a second time.

REPRUNED, pp. Pruned a second time.

REPRUNING, ppr. Pruning a second time.

REPTILE, a. [L. reptilis, from repo, to creep, Gr. See Creep.]

1. Creeping; moving on the belly, or with many small feet.

2. Groveling; low; vulgar; as a reptile race or crew; reptile vices.


1. An animal that moves on its belly, or by means of small short legs, as earth-worms, caterpillars, snakes and the like.

In zoology, the reptiles constitute an order of the class Amphibian, including all such as are furnished with limbs or articulated extremities, as tortoises, lizards and frogs.

2. A groveling or very mean person; a term of contempt.

REPUBLIC, n. [L. respublica; res and publica; public affairs.]

1. A commonwealth; a state in which the exercise of the sovereign power is lodged in representatives elected by the people. In modern usage, it differs from a democracy or democratic state, in which the people exercise the powers of sovereignty in person. Yet the democracies of Greece are often called republics.

2. Common interest; the public. [Not in use.]

Republic of letters, the collective body of learned men.


1. Pertaining to a republic; consisting of a commonwealth; as a republican constitution or government.

2. Consonant to the principles of a republic; as republican sentiments or opinions; republican manners.

REPUBLICAN, n. One who favors or prefers a republican form of government.


1. A republican form or system of government.

2. Attachment to a republican form of government.

REPUBLICANIZE, v.t. To convert to republican principles; as, to republicanize the rising generation.

REPUBLICATION, n. [re and publication.]

1. A second publication, or a new publication of something before published.

2. A second publication, as of a former will, renewal.

If there be many testaments, the last overthrows all the former; but the republication of a former will, revokes one of a later date, and establishes the first.

REPUBLISH, v.t. [re and publish.]

1. To publish a second time, or to publish a new edition of a work before published.

2. To publish anew.

Unless, subsequent to the purchase or contract, the devisor republishes his will.

REPUBLISHED, pp. Published anew.

REPUBLISHER, n. One who republishes.

REPUBLISHING, ppr. Publishing again.

REPUDIABLE, a. [from repudiate.] That may be rejected; fit or proper to be put away.

REPUDIATE, v.t. [L. repudio.]

1. To cast away; to reject; to discard.

Atheists - repudiate all title to the kingdom of heaven.

2. Appropriately, to put away; to divorce; as a wife.

REPUDIATED, pp. Cast off; rejected; discarded; divorced.

REPUDIATING, ppr. Casting off; rejecting; divorcing.

REPUDIATION, n. [L. repudiatio.]

1. Rejection.

2. Divorce; as the repudiation of a wife.

REPUGN, n. repu’ne. [L. repugno; re and pugno.]

To oppose; to resist. [Not used.]

REPUGNANCE, REPUGNANCY, n. [L. repugnantia, from repugno, to resist; re and pugno, to fight.]

1. Opposition of mind; reluctance; unwillingness.

2. Opposition or struggle of passions; resistance.

3. Opposition of principles or qualities; inconsistency; contrariety.

But where difference is without repugnancy, that which hath been can be no prejudice to that which is.

REPUGNANT, a. [L. repugnans.]

1. Opposite; contrary; inconsistent; properly followed by to. Every sin is repugnant to the will of God. Every thing morally wrong, is repugnant both to the honor, as well as to the interest of the offender.

2. Disobedient; not obsequious. [Not in use.]

REPUGNANTLY, adv. With opposition; in contradiction.

REPULLULATE, v.i. [L. re and pullulo, to bud.] To bud again.

REPULLULATION, n. The act of budding again.

REPULSE, n. repuls’. [L. repulsa, from repello; re and pello, to drive.]

1. A being checked in advancing, or driven back by force. The enemy met with a repulse and retreated.

2. Refusal; denial.

REPULSE, v.t. repuls’. [L. repulsus, repello.]

To repel; to beat or drive back as, to repulse an assailant or advancing enemy.

REPULSED, pp. Repelled; driven back.

REPULSER, n. One that repulses or drives back.

REPULSING, ppr. Driving back.


1. In physics, the power of repelling or driving off; that property of bodies which causes them to recede from each other or avoid coming in contact.

2. The act of repelling.


1. Repelling; driving off, or keeping from approach. The repulsive power of the electric fluid is remarkable.

2. Cold; reserved; forbidding; as repulsive manners.

REPULSIVENESS, n. The quality of being repulsive or forbidding.

REPULSORY, a. Repulsive; driving back.

REPURCHASE, v.t. [re and purchase.] To buy again; to buy back; to regain by purchase or expense.

REPURCHASE, n. The act of buying again; the purchase again of what has been sold.

REPURCHASED, pp. Bought back or again; regained by expense; as a throne repurchased with the blood of enemies.

REPURCHASING, ppr. Buying back or again; regaining by the payment of a price.

REPUTABLE, a. [from repute.]

1. Being in good repute; held in esteem; as a reputable man or character; reputable conduct. It expresses less than respectable and honorable, denoting the good opinion of men, without distinction or great qualities.

2. Consistent with reputation; not mean or disgraceful. It is evidence of extreme depravity that vice is in any case reputable.

In the article of danger, it is as reputable to elude an enemy as to defeat one.

REPUTABLENESS, n. The quality of being reputable.

REPUTABLY, adv. With reputation; without disgrace or discredit; as, to fill an office reputably.

REPUTATION, n. [L. reputatio.]

1. Good name; the credit, honor or character which is derived from a favorable public opinion or esteem. Reputation is a valuable species of property or right, which should never be violated. With the loss of reputation, a man and especially a woman, loses most of the enjoyments of life.

The best evidence of reputation is a man’s whole life.

2. Character by report; in a good or bad sense; as, a man has the reputation of being rich or poor, or of being a thief.

REPUTE, v.t. [L. reputo; re and puto, to think.]

To think; to account; to hold; to reckon.

The king was reputed a prince most prudent.

Wherefore are we counted as beasts, and reputed vile in your sight. Job 18:3.


1. Reputation; good character; the credit or honor derived from common or public opinion; as men of repute.

2. Character; in a bad sense; as a man held in bad repute.

3. Established opinion; as upheld by old repute.

REPUTED, pp. Reckoned; accounted.

REPUTEDLY, adv. In common opinion or estimation.

REPUTELESS, a. Disreputable; disgraceful.

REPUTING, ppr. Thinking; reckoning; accounting.

REQUEST, n. [L. requisitus, requiro; re and quaero, to seek. See Quest, Question.]

1. The expression of desire to some person for something to be granted or done; an asking; a petition.

Haman stood up to make request for his life to Esther the queen. Esther 7:7.

2. Prayer; the expression of desire to a superior or to the Almighty. Philippians 4:6.

3. The thing asked for or requested.

I will both hear and grant you your requests.

He gave them their request; but sent leanness into their soul. Psalm 106:15.

4. A state of being desired or held in such estimation as to be sought after or pursued.

Knowledge and fame were in as great request as wealth among us now.

In request, in demand; in credit or reputation.

Coriolanus being now in no request.

Request expresses less earnestness than entreaty and supplication, and supposes a right in the person requested to deny or refuse to grant. In this it differs from demand.


1. To ask; to solicit; to express desire for.

The weight of the golden ear-rings which he requested, was a thousand and seven hundred shekels of gold. Judges 8:26.

2. To express desire to; to ask. We requested a friend to accompany us.

Court of requests, in England, a court of equity for the relief of such persons as addressed his majesty by supplication.

3. A court of conscience for the recovery of small debts, held by two aldermen and four commoners, who try causes by the oath of parties and of other witnesses.

REQUESTED, pp. Asked; desired; solicited.

REQUESTER, n. One who requests; a petitioner.

REQUESTING, ppr. Asking; petitioning.

REQUICKEN, v.t. [re and quicken.] To reanimate; to give new life to.

REQUICKENED, pp. Reanimated.

REQUICKENING, ppr. Reanimating; invigorating.

REQUIEM, n. [L.]

1. In the Romish church, a hymn or mass sung for the dead, for the rest of his soul; so called from the first word.

2. Rest; quiet; peace. [Not in use.]

REQUIETORY, n. [Low L. requietorium.] A sepulcher. [Not in use.]

REQUIRABLE, a. [from require.] That may be required; fit or proper to be demanded.

REQUIRE, v.t. [L. requiro; re and quaero, to seek. See Query.]

1. To demand; to ask, as of right and by authority. We require a person to do a thing, and we require a thing to be done.

Why then doth my lord require this thing? 1 Chronicles 21:3.

2. To claim; to render necessary; as a duty or any thing indispensable; as, the law of God requires strict obedience.

3. To ask as a favor; to request.

I was ashamed to require of the king a band of soldiers and horsemen to help us against the enemy in the way. Ezra 8:22.

[In this sense, the word is rarely used.]

4. To call to account for.

I will require my flock at their hand. Ezekiel 34:10.

5. To make necessary; to need; to demand.

The king’s business required haste. 1 Samuel 21:8.

6. To avenge; to take satisfaction for. 1 Samuel 20:16.

REQUIRED, pp. Demanded; needed; necessary.

REQUIREMENT, n. Demand; requisition.

This ruler was one of those who believe that they can fill us every requirement contained in the rule of righteousness.

The Bristol water is of service where the secretions exceed the requirements of health.

REQUIRER, n. One who requires.

REQUIRING, ppr. Demanding; needing;

REQUISITE, a. s as z. [L. requiitus, from requiro.]

Required by the nature of things or by circumstances; necessary; so needful that it cannot be dispensed with. Repentance and faith are requisite to salvation. Air is requisite to support life. Heat is requisite to vegetation.

REQUISITE, n. That which is necessary; something indispensable. Contentment is a requisite to a happy life.

God on his part has declared the requisites on ours; what we must do to obtain blessings, is the great business of us all to know.

REQUISITELY, adv. Necessarily; in a requisite manner.

REQUISITENESS, n. The state of being requisite or necessary; necessity.

REQUISITION, n. [See Require.]

Demand; application made as of right. Under the old confederation of the American states, congress often made requisitions on the states for money to supply the treasury; but they had no power to enforce their requisitions, and the states neglected or partially complied with them.

REQUISITIVE, a. Expressing or implying demand.

REQUISITORY, a. Sought for; demanded. [Little used.]

REQUITAL, n. [from requite.]

1. Return for any office, good or bad; in a good sense, compensation; recompense; as the requital of services; in a bad sense, retaliation or punishment, as the requital of evil deeds.

2. Return; reciprocal action.

No merit their aversion can remove, nor ill requital can efface their love.

REQUITE, v.t. [from quit, L. cedo.]

1. To repay either good or evil; in a good sense, to recompense; to return an equivalent in good; to reward.

I also will requite you this kindness. 2 Samuel 2:6; 1 Timothy 5:4.

In a bad sense, to retaliate; to return evil for evil; to punish.

Joseph will certainly requite us all the evil which we did to him. Genesis 50:15.

2. To do or give in return.

He hath requited me evil for good. 1 Samuel 25:21.

REQUITED, pp. Repaid; recompensed; rewarded.

REQUITER, n. One who requites.

REQUITING, ppr. Recompensing; rewarding; giving in return.

RERE-MOUSE, n. A bat. [See Rear-mouse.]

RE-RESOLVE, v.t. re-rezolv’. To resolve a second time.

RERE-WARD, n. [rear and ward.] The part of an army that marches in the rear, as the guard; the rear guard. [The latter othography is to be preferred.] Numbers 10:25; Isaiah 52:12.

RESAIL, v. or i. [re and sail.] To sail back.