Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary




1. Making new again; repairing; re-establishing; repeating; reviving; renovating.

2. a. Tending or adapted to renovate.

RENEWING, n. The act of making new; renewal.

RENIFORM, a. [L. renes, the kidneys, and form.]

Having the form or shape of the kidneys.

RENITENCE, RENITENCY, n. [L. renitens, renitor, to resist; re and nitor, to struggle or strive.]

1. The resistance of a body to pressure; the effort of matter to resume the place or form from which it has been driven by the impulse of other matter; the effect of elasticity.

2. Moral resistance; reluctance.

We find a renitency in ourselves to ascribe life and irritability to the cold and motionless fibers of plants.

RENITENT, a. Resisting pressure or the effect of it; acting against impulse by elastic force.


The concreted milk found in the stomach of a sucking quadruped, particularly of the calf. It is also written runnet, and this is the preferable orthography.

RENNET, RENNETING, n. A kind of apple.

RENOUNCE, v.t. renouns’. [L. renuncio; re and nuncio, to declare, from the root of nomen, name.]

1. To disown; to disclaim; to reject; as a title or claim; to refuse to own or acknowledge as belonging to; as, to renounce a title to land or a claim to reward; to renounce all pretensions to applause.

2. To deny; to cast off; to reject; to disclaim; as an obligation or duty; as, to renounce allegiance.

3. To cast off or reject, as a connection or possession; to forsake; as, to renounce the world and all its cares.

We have renounced the hidden things of dishonesty. 2 Corinthians 4:2.

RENOUNCE, v.i. renouns’. To declare a renunciation.

He of my sons who falls to make it good, by one rebellious act renounces to my blood. [Not in use.]

RENOUNCE, n. renouns’. The declining to follow suit, when it can be done.

RENOUNCED, pp. Disowned; denied; rejected; disclaimed.

RENOUNCEMENT, n. renouns’ment. The act of disclaiming or rejecting; renunciation.

RENOUNCER, n. One who disowns or disclaims.

RENOUNCING, ppr. Disowning; disclaiming; rejecting.

RENOUNCING, n. The act of disowning, disclaiming, denying or rejecting.

RENOVATE, v.t. [L. renovo; re and novo, to make new; novus, new.]

To renew; to restore to the first state, or to a good state, after decay, destruction or depravation. It is synonymous with renew, except in its fourth definition, supra.

RENOVATED, pp. Renewed; made new, fresh or vigorous.

RENOVATING, ppr. Renewing.

RENOVATION, n. [L. renovatio.]

1. The act of renewing; a making new after decay, destruction or depravation; renewal; as the renovation of the heart by grace.

There is something inexpressibly pleasing in the annual renovation of the world.

2. A state of being renewed.


Fame; celebrity; exalted reputation derived from the extensive praise of great achievements or accomplishments.

Giants of old, men of renown. Genesis 6:4; Numbers 16:2.

RENOWN, v.t. To make famous.

Soft elocution does thy style renown.

A bard whom pilfer’d pastorals renown.

[This verb is nearly or quite obsolete.]

RENOWNED, a. Famous; celebrated for great and heroic achievements, for distinguished qualities or for grandeur; eminent; as renowned men; a renowned king; a renowned city.

RENOWNEDLY, adv. With fame or celebrity.

RENOWNLESS, a. Without renown; inglorious.

RENT, pp. of rend. Torn asunder; split or burst by violence; torn.

RENT, n. [from rend.]

1. A fissure; a break or breach made by force; as a rent made in the earth, in a rock or in a garment.

2. A schism; a separation; as a rent in the church.

RENT, v.t. To tear. [See Rend.]
RENT, v.i. To rant. [Not in use.]
RENT, n.

A sum of money, or a certain amount of other valuable thing, issuing yearly from lands or tenements; a compensation or return, in the nature of an acknowledgment, for the possession of a corporeal inheritance.

Rents, at common law, are of three kinds; rent-service, rent-charge, and rent-seek. Rent-service is when some corporal service is incident to it, as by fealty and a sum of money; rent-charge is when the owner of the rent has no future interest or reversion expectant in the land, but the rent is reserved in the deed by a clause of distress for rent in arrear; rent-seek, dry rent, is rent reserved by deed, but without any clause of distress. There are also rents of assize, certain established rents of free-holders and copy-holders of manors, which cannot be varied; called also quit-rents. These when payable in silver, are called white rents, in contradistinction to rents reserved in work or the baser metals, called black rents, or black mail. Rack-rent is a rent of the full value of the tenement, or near it. A fee farm rent is a rent-charge issuing out of an estate in fee, of at least one fourth of the value of the lands at the time of its reservation.

RENT, v.t.

1. To lease; to grant the possession and enjoyment of lands or tenements for a consideration in the nature of rent. The owner of an estate or house rents it to a tenant for a term of years.

2. To take and hold by lease the possession of land or a tenement, for a consideration in the nature of rent. The tenant rents his estate for a year.

RENT, v.i. To be leased, or let for rent; as, an estate or a tenement rents for five hundred dollars a year.

RENTABLE, a. That may be rented.

RENTAGE, n. Rent. [Not used.]

RENTAL, n. A schedule or account of rents.

RENTED, pp. Leased on rent.

RENTER, n. One who leases an estate; more generally, the lessee or tenant who takes an estate or tenement on rent.

RENTER, v.t. [L. retracho, retrahere; re and traho, to draw.]

1. To fine-draw; to sew together the edges of two pieces of cloth without doubling them, so that the seam is scarcely visible.

2. In tapestry, to work new warp into a piece of damaged tapestry, and on this to restore the original pattern or design.

3. To sew up artfully, as a rent.

RENTERED, pp. Fine-drawn; sewed artfully together.

RENTERER, n. a Fine-drawer.

RENTERING, ppr. Fine-drawing; sewing artfully together.

RENTING, ppr. Leasing on rent; taking on rent.

RENTROLL, n. [rent and roll.] A rental; a list or account of rents or income.

RENUNCIATION, n. [L. renunciatio.] The act of renouncing; a disowning; rejection. [See Renounce.]

RENVERSE, v.t. renvers’. To reverse. [Not used.]

RENVERSE, a. renvers’. In heraldry, inverted; set with the head downward or contrary to the natural posture.

RENVERSEMENT, n. renvers’ment. The act of reversing. [Not in use.]

REOBTAIN, v.t. [re and obtain.] To obtain again.

REOBTAINABLE, a. That may be obtained again.

REOBTAINED, pp. Obtained again.

REOBTAINING, ppr. Obtaining again.

REOPPOSE, v.t. s as z. To oppose again.

REORDAIN, v.t. [re and ordain.]

To ordain again, as when the first ordination is defective.

REORDAINED, pp. Ordained again.

REORDAINING, ppr. Ordaining again.

REORDINATION, n. A second ordination.

REORGANIZATION, n. The act of organizing anew; as repeated reorganization of the troops.

REORGANIZE, v.t. [re and organize.] To organize anew; to reduce again to a regular body, or to a system; as, to reorganize a society or an army.

REORGANIZED, pp. Organized anew.

REORGANIZING, ppr. Organizing anew.

REPACIFIED, pp. Pacified or appeased again.

REPACIFY, v.t. [re and pacify.] To pacify again.

REPACIFYING, ppr. Pacifying again.

REPACK, v.t. [re and pact.] To pack a second time; as, to repack beef or pork.

REPACKED, pp. Packed again.

REPACKER, n. One that repacks.

REPACKING, ppr. Packing anew.

REPAID, pp. of repay. Paid back.

REPAIR, v.t. [L. reparo; re and paro, to prepare. See Pare.]

1. To restore to a sound or good state after decay, injury, dilapidation or partial destruction; as, to repair a house, a wall or a ship; to repair roads and bridges. Temperance and diet may repair a broken or enfeebled constitution. Food repairs the daily waste of the body.

2. To rebuild a part decayed or destroyed; to fill up; as, to repair a breach.

3. To make amends, as for an injury, by an equivalent; to indemnify for; as, to repair a loss or damage.

REPAIR, n. Restoration to a sound or good state after decay, waste, injury or partial destruction; supply of loss; reparation; as, materials are collected for the repair of a church or a city.
REPAIR, v.i. To go to; to betake one’s self; to resort; as, to repair to a sanctuary for safety.

Go, mount the winds and to the shades repair.

REPAIR, n. The act of betaking one’s self to any place; a resorting; abode.

REPAIRABLE, a. That may be repaired; reparable.

REPAIRED, pp. Restored to a good or sound state; rebuilt; made good.

REPAIRER, n. One who repairs, restores or makes amends; as the repairer of decay.

REPAIRING, ppr. Restoring to a sound state; rebuilding; making amends for loss or injury.

REPAND, a. [L. repandus.] In botany, a repand leaf is one, the rim of which is terminated by angles having sinuses between them, inscribed in the segment of a circle; or which has a bending or waved margin, without any angles; of which is bordered with numerous minute angles and small segments of circles alternately.

REPANDOUS, a. [supra.] Bent upwards; convexedly crooked.

REPARABLE, a. [L. reparabilis. See Repair.]

1. That may be repaired or restored to a sound or good state; as, a house or wall is not reparable.

2. That may be retrieved or made good; as, the loss is reparable.

3. That may be supplied by an equivalent; as a reparable injury.

REPARABLY, adv. In a manner admitting of restoration to a good state, or of amends, supply or indemnification.


1. That act of repairing; restoration to soundness or a good state; as the reparation of a bridge or of a highway.

2. Supply of what is wasted; as the reparation of decaying health or strength after disease or exhaustion.

3. Amends; indemnification for loss or damage. A loss may be too great for reparation.

4. Amends; satisfaction for injury.

I am sensible of the scandal I have given by my loose writings, and make what reparation I am able.

REPARATIVE, a. That repairs; restoring to a sound or good state; that amends defect or makes good.

REPARATIVE, n. That which restores to a good state; that which makes amends.


A smart, ready and witty reply.

Cupid was as bad as he; hear but the youngster’s repartee.

REPARTEE, v.i. To make smart and witty replies.

REPASS, v.t.

To pass again; to pass or travel back; as, to repass a bridge or a river; to repass the sea.

REPASS, v.i. To pass or go back; to move back; as troops passing and repassing before our eyes.

REPASSED, pp. Passed or traveled back.

REPASSING, ppr. Passing back.

REPAST, n. [L. re and pasco, to feed.]

1. The act of taking food; or the food taken; a meal.

From dance to sweet repast they turn.

A repast without luxury.

2. Good; victuals.

Go, and get me some repast.

REPAST, v.t. To feed; to feast.

REPASTURE, n. Food; entertainment. [not in use.]

REPAY, v.t.

1. To pay back; to refund; as, to repay money borrowed or advanced.

2. To make return or requital; in a good or bad sense; as, to repay kindness; to repay an injury.

Benefits which cannot be repaid - are not commonly found to increase affection.

3. To recompense, as for a loss.

4. To compensate; as false honor repaid in contempt.

REPAYABLE, a. That is to be repaid or refunded; as money lent, repayable at the end of sixty days.

REPAYING, ppr. Paying back; compensating; requiting.


1. The act of paying back; reimbursement.

2. The money or other thing repaid.

REPEAL, v.t. [L. appello; ad and pello.]

1. To recall. [Obsolete as it respects persons.]

2. To recall, as a deed, will, law or statute; to revoke; to abrogate by an authoritative act, or by the same power that made or enacted; as, the legislature may repeal at one session, a law enacted at a preceding one.


1. Recall from exile. [Not in use.]

2. Revocation; abrogation; as the repeal of a statute.

REPEALABILITY, n. The quality of being repealable.

REPEALABLE, a. Capable of being repealed; revocable by the same power that enacted. It is held as a sound principle, that charters or grants which vest rights in individuals or corporations, are not repealable without the consent of the grantees, unless a clause reserving the right is inserted in the act.

REPEALED, pp. Revoked; abrogated.

REPEALER, n. One that repeals.

REPEALING, ppr. Revoking; abrogating.

REPEAT, v.t. [L. repeto; re and peto, to make at or drive towards. this verb ought to be written repete, in analogy with compete, and with repetition.]

1. To do, make, attempt or utter again; to iterate; as, to repeat an action; to repeat an attempt or exertion; to repeat a word or discourse; to repeat a song; to repeat an argument.

2. To try again.

I the danger will repeat.

3. to recite; to rehearse.

He repeated some lines of Virgil.

To repeat signals, in the navy, is to make the same signal which the admiral or commander has made, or to make a signal again.


1. In music, a mark directing a part to be repeated in performance.

2. Repetition.

REPEATED, pp. done, attempted or spoken again; recited.

REPEATEDLY, adv. More than once; again and again, indefinitely. He has been repeatedly warned of his danger.


1. One that repeats; one that recites or rehearses.

2. A watch that strikes the hours at will, by the compression of a spring.

REPEATING, ppr. Doing or uttering again.

REPEDATION, n. [Low L. repedo; re and pes, the foot.] A stepping or going back. [Not in use.]

REPEL, v.t. [L. repello; re and pello, to drive.]

1. to drive back; to force to return; to check advance; as, to repel an enemy or an assailant.

Hippomedon repell’d the hostile tide.

And virtue may repel, though not invade.

2. To resist; to oppose; as, to repel an argument.

REPEL, v.i.

1. To act with force in opposition to force impressed. Electricity sometimes attracts and sometimes repels.

2. In medicine, to check an afflux to a part of the body.

REPELLED, pp. Driven back; resisted.


1. The principle of repulsion; the quality of a substance which expands or separates particles and enlarges the volume; as the repellency of heat.

2. The quality that repels, drives back or resists approach; as the repellency of the electric fluid.

3. Repulsive quality.

REPELLENT, a. Driving back; able or tending to repel.

REPELLENT, n. In medicine, a medicine which drives back morbid humors into the mass of the blood, from which they were unduly secreted; or which prevents such an afflux of fluid to a part, as would raise it to a tumor; a discutient.

REPELLER, n. He or that which repels.

REPELLING, ppr. Driving back; resisting advance or approach effectually.

REPENT, a. [L. repo, to creep.] Creeping; as a repent root.

REPENT, v.i. [L. re and paeniteo, from paena, pain. Gr. See Paint.]

1. To feel pain, sorrow or regret for something done or spoken; as, to repent that we have lost much time in idleness or sensual pleasure; to repent that we have injured or wounded the feelings of a friend. A person repents only of what he himself has done or said.

2. To express sorrow for something past.

Enobarbus did before thy face repent.

3. To change the mind in consequence of the inconvenience or injury done by past conduct.

Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return. Exodus 13:17.

4. Applied to the Supreme Being, to change the course of providential dealings. Genesis 6:6; Psalm 106:45.

5. In theology, to sorrow or be pained for sin, as a violation of God’s holy law, a dishonor to his character and government, and the foulest ingratitude to a Being of infinite benevolence.

Except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish. Luke 13:3; Acts 3:19.

REPENT, v.t.

1. To remember with sorrow; as, to repent rash words; to repent an injury done to a neighbor; to repent follies and vices. [See Repentance.]

2. With the reciprocal pronoun.

No man repented him of his wickedness. Jeremiah 8:6.

[This form of expression is now obsolete.]


1. Sorrow for any thing done or said; the pain or grief which a person experiences in consequence of the injury or inconvenience produced by his own conduct.

2. In theology, the pain, regret or affliction which a person feels on account of his past conduct, because it exposes him to punishment. This sorrow proceeding merely from the fear of punishment, is called legal repentance, as being excited by the terrors of legal penalties, and it may exist without an amendment of life.

3. Real penitence; sorrow or deep contrition for sin, as an offense and dishonor to God, a violation of his holy law, and the basest ingratitude towards a Being of infinite benevolence. This is called evangelical repentance, and is accompanied and followed by amendment of life.

Repentance is a change of mind, or a conversion from sin to God.

Godly sorrow worketh repentance to salvation. 2 Corinthians 7:10; Matthew 3:8.

Repentance is the relinquishment of any practice, from conviction that it has offended God.


1. Sorrowful for past conduct or words.

2. Sorrowful for sin.

3. Expressing or showing sorrow for sin; as repentant tears; repentant ashes; repentant sighs.


1. One who repents; a penitent.

2. One that expresses sorrow for sin.

REPENTER, n. One that repents.

REPENTING, ppr. Grieving for what is past; feeling pain or contrition for sin.

REPENTING, n. Act of repenting. Hosea 11:8.

REPENTINGLY, adv. With repentance.

REPEOPLE, v.t. [re and people.]

To people anew; to furnish again with a stock of people. The world after the flood was repeopled by the descendants of one family.

REPEOPLED, pp. Stocked anew with inhabitants.

REPEOPLING, ppr. Furnishing again with a stock of inhabitants.

REPEOPLING, n. [supra.] The act of furnishing again with inhabitants.