Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary
PHENOGAMIAN — PHYLLOPHOROUS
PHENOGAMIAN, a. [Gr.] In botany, having the essential organs of fructification visible.
PHENOMENOLOGY, n. [phenomenon and Gr. discourse.]
A description or history of phenomena.
PHENOMENON, n. plu. phenomena. [Gr. to appear.]
In a general sense, an appearance; any thing visible; whatever is presented to the eye by observation or experiment, or whatever is discovered to exist; as the phenomena of the natural world; the phenomena of heavenly bodies, or of terrestrial substances; the phenomena of heat or of color. It sometimes denotes a remarkable or unusual appearance.
PHEON, n. In heraldry, the barbed iron head of a dart.
PHIAL, n. [L. phiala.]
1. A glass vessel or bottle; in common usage, a small glass vessel used for holding liquors, and particularly liquid medicines. It is often written and pronounced vial.
2. A large vessel or bottle made of glass; as the Leyden phial, which is a glass vessel partly coated with tinfoil, to be used in electrical experiments.
PHIAL, v.t. To put or keep in a phial.
PHILADELPHIAN, a. [Gr.] Pertaining to Philadelphia, or to Ptolemy Philadelphus.
PHILADELPHIAN, n. One of the family of love.
PHILANTHROPIC, PHILANTHROPICAL, a. [See Philanthropy.] Possessing general benevolence; entertaining good will towards all men; loving mankind.
1. Directed to the general good.
PHILANTHROPIST, n. A person of general benevolence; one who loves or wishes well to his fellow men, and who exerts himself in doing them good.
PHILANTHROPY, n. [Gr. to love, a friend, and man.] The love of mankind; benevolence towards the whole human family; universal good will. It differs from friendship, as the latter is an affection for individuals.
PHILIPPIC, n. An oration of Demosthenes, the Grecian orator, against Philip, king of Macedon, in which the orator inveighs against the indolence of the Athenians. Hence the word is used to denote any discourse or declamation full of acrimonious invective. The fourteen orations of Cicero against Mark Anthony are also called Philippics.
PHILIPPIZE, v.i. To write or utter invective; to declaim against. [Unusual.]
1. To side with Philip; to support or advocate Philip.
PHILLYREA, n. A genus of plants, Mock privet.
PHILOLOGER, PHILOLOGIST, n. One versed in the history and construction of language. Philologist is generally used.
PHILOLOGIC, PHILOLOGICAL, a. [See Philology.] Pertaining to philology, or to the study and knowledge of language.
PHILOLOGIZE, v.i. To offer criticisms. [Little used.]
PHILOLOGY, n. [Gr. to love, a word.]
1. Primarily, a love of words, or a desire to know the origin and construction of language. In a more general sense,
2. That branch of literature which comprehends a knowledge of the etymology or origin and combination of words; grammar, the construction of sentences or use of words in language; criticism, the interpretation of authors, the affinities of different languages, and whatever relates to the history or present state of languages. It sometimes includes rhetoric, poetry, history and antiquities.
PHILOMATH, n. [Gr. a lover, and to learn.] A lover of learning.
PHILOMATHIC, a. Pertaining to the love of learning.
1. Having a love of letters.
PHILOMATHY, n. The love of learning.
PHILOMEL, PHILOMELA, n. [from Philomela, daughter of Pandion, king of Athens, who was changed into a nightingale.]
PHILOMOT, a. Of the color of a dead leaf.
PHILOMUSICAL, a. Loving music.
PHILOPOLEMIC, a. [Gr. a lover, and warlike.]
Ruling over opposite or contending natures; an epithet of Minerva.
PHILOSPHATE, v.i. [L. philosophor, philosophatus.]
To play the philosopher; to moralize. [Not used.]
PHILOSOPHATION, n. Philosophical discussion. [Not used.]
PHILOSOPHEME, n. [Gr.] Principle of reasoning; a theorem.
PHILOSOPHER, n. [See Philosophy.] A person versed in philosophy, or in the principles of nature and morality; one who devotes of nature and morality; one who devotes himself to the study of physics, or of moral or intellectual science.
1. In a general sense, one who is profoundly versed in any science.
Philosopher’s stone, a stone or preparation which the alchimists formerly sought, as the instrument of converting the baser metals into pure gold.
PHILOSOPHIC, PHILOSOPHICAL, a. Pertaining to philosophy; as a philosophical experiment or problem.
1. Proceeding from philosophy; as philosophic price.
2. Suitable to philosophy; according to philosophy; as philosophical reasoning or arguments.
3. Skilled in philosophy; as a philosophical historian.
4. Given to philosophy; as a philosophical mind.
5. Regulated by philosophy or the rules of reason; as philosophic fare.
6. Calm; cool; temperate; rational; such as characterizes a philosopher.
PHILOSOPHICALLY, adv. In a philosophical manner; according to the rules or principles of philosophy; as, to argue philosophically.
1. Calmly; wisely; rationally.
PHILOSOPHISM, n. [Gr. a lover, and sophism.]
1. The love of fallacious arguments or false reasoning.
2. The practice of sophistry.
PHILOSOPHIST, n. A lover of sophistry; one who practices sophistry.
PHILOSOPHISTIC, PHILOSOPHISTICAL, a. Pertaining to the love or practice of sophistry.
PHILOSOPHIZE, v.i. [from philosophy.] To reason like a philosopher; to search into the reason and nature of things; to investigate phenomena and assign rational causes for their existence. Sir Isaac Newton lays down four rules of philosophizing.
Two doctors of the schools were philosophizing on the advantages of mankind above all other creatures.
PHILOSOPHIZING, ppr. Searching into the reasons of things; assigning reasons for phenomena.
PHILOSOPHY, n. [L. philosophia; Gr. love, to love, and wisdom.]
1. Literally, the love of wisdom. But in modern acceptation, philosophy is a general term denoting an explanation of the reasons of things; or an investigation of the causes of all phenomena both of mind and of matter. When applied to any particular department of knowledge, it denotes the collection of general laws or principles under which all the subordinate phenomena or facts relating to that subject, are comprehended. Thus, that branch of philosophy which treats of God, etc. is called theology; that which treats of nature, is called physics or natural philosophy; that which treats of man is called logic and ethics, or moral philosophy; that which treats of the mind is called intellectual or mental philosophy, or metaphysics.
The objects of philosophy are to ascertain facts or truth, and the causes of things or their phenomena; to enlarge our views of God and his works, and to render our knowledge of both practically useful and subservient to human happiness.
True religion and true philosophy must ultimately arrive at the same principle.
2. Hypothesis or system on which natural effects are explained.
We shall in vain interpret their words by the notions of our philosophy and the doctrines in our schools.
3. Reasoning; argumentation.
4. Course of sciences read in the schools.
PHILTER, n. [L. philtra; Gr. to love.]
1. A potion intended or adapted to excite love.
2. A charm to excite love.
PHILTER, v.t. To impregnate with a love-potion; as, to philter a draught.
1. To charm to love; to excite to love or animal desire by a potion.
PHIZ, n. [supposed to be a contraction of physiognomy.]
The face or visage; in contempt.
PHLEBOTOMIST, n. [See Phlebotomy.]
One that opens a vein for letting blood; a blood-letter.
PHLEBOTOMIZE, v.t. To let blood from a vein.
PHLEBOTOMY, n. [Gr. a vein, and to cut.] The act or practice of opening a vein for letting blood for the cure of diseases or preserving health.
PHLEGM, PHLEM, n. [Gr. inflammation; and pituitous matter, to burn; hence the word must have originally expressed the matter formed by suppuration.]
1. Cold animal fluid; water matter; one of the four humors of which the ancients supposed the blood to be composed.
2. In common usage, bronchial mucus; the thick viscid matter secreted in the throat.
3. Among chimists, water, or the water of distillation.
4. Dullness; coldness; sluggishness; indifference.
PHLEGMAGOGUE, n. phleg’magog. [Gr. phlegm, and to drive.]
A term anciently used to denote a medicine supposed to possess the property of expelling phlegm.
PHLEGMATIC, a. [Gr.]
1. Abounding in phlegm; as phlegmatic humors; a phlegmatic constitution.
2. Generating phlegm; as phlegmatic meat.
4. Cold; dull; sluggish; heavy; not easily excited into action or passion; as a phlegmatic temper or temperament.
PHLEGMATICALLY, adv. Coldly; heavily.
PHLEGMON, n. [Gr. to burn.] An external inflammation and tumor, attended with burning heat.
PHLEGMONOUS, a. Having the nature or properties of a phlegmon; inflammatory; burning; as a phlegmonous tumor.
PHLOGISTIAN, n. A believer in the existence of phlogiston.
PHLOGISTIC, a. [See Phlogiston.]
Partaking of phlogiston; inflaming.
PHLOGISTICATE, v.t. To combine phlogiston with.
PHLOGISTICATION, n. The act or process of combining with phlogiston.
PHLOGISTON, n. [Gr. to burn or inflame.]
The principle of inflammability; the matter of fire in composition with other bodies. Stahl gave this name to an element which he supposed to be pure fire fixed in combustible bodies, in order to distinguish it from fire in action or in a state of liberty. But the theory has been proved to be false and is generally abandoned.
PHOLADITE, n. A petrified shell of the genus Pholas.
PHONICS, n. [Gr. sound.] The doctrine or science of sounds; otherwise called acoustics.
1. The art of combining musical sounds.
PHONOCAMPTIC, a. [Gr. sound, and to inflect.] Having the power to inflect sound, or turn it from its direction, and thus to alter it.
PHONOLITE, n. [Gr. sound, and stone.] Sounding stone; a name proposed as a substitute for klingstein [jingling stone.]
PHONOLOGICAL, a. Pertaining to phonology.
PHONOLOGY, n. [Gr. sound, voice, and discourse.] A treatise on sounds, or the science or doctrine of the elementary sounds uttered by the human voice in speech, including its various distinctions or subdivisions of tones.
PHOSGENE, a. [Gr. light, and to generate.] Generating light. Phosgene gas is generated by the action of light on chlorin and carbonic oxyd gas.
PHOSPHATE, n. [See Phosphor and Phosphorus.]
1. A salt formed by a combination of phosphoric acid with a base of earth, alkali or metal.
2. A mineral found in Estremadura, etc.
PHOSPHITE, n. A salt formed by a combination of phosphorous acid with a salifiable base.
PHOSPHOLITE, n. [phosphor and Gr. a stone.]
An earth united with phosphoric acid.
PHOSPHOR, n. [Gr. light, to shine, and to bring. See Phosphorus.]
The morning star or Lucifer; Venus, when it precedes the sun and shines in the morning. In this sense, it is also written Phosphorus.
PHOSPHORATE, v.t. To combine or impregnate with phosphorus.
PHOSPHORATED, pp. Combined or impregnated with phosphorus.
PHOSPHORATING, ppr. Combining with phosphorus.
PHOSPHORESCE, v.i. phosphoress’. [See Phosphorus.]
To shine, as phosphorus, by exhibiting a faint light without sensible heat.
Arenaceous limestone phosphoresces in the dark, when scraped with a knife.
PHOSPHORESCENCE, n. A faint light or luminousness of a body, unaccompanied with sensible heat. It is exhibited by certain animals, as well as by vegetable and mineral substances.
PHOSPHORESCENT, a. Shining with a faint light; luminous without sensible heat.
PHOSPHORESCING, ppr. Exhibiting light without sensible heat.
PHOSPHORIC, a. Pertaining to or obtained from phosphorus. The phosphoric acid is formed by a saturated combination of phosphorus and oxygen.
PHOSPHORITE, n. A species of calcarious earth; a subspecies of apatite.
PHOSPHORITIC, a. Pertaining to phosphorite, or of the nature of phosphorite.
PHOSPHOROUS, a. The phosphorous acid is formed by a combination of phosphorus with oxygen.
PHOSPHORUS, PHOSPHOR, n. [L. from the Greek. See Phosphor.]
1. The morning star.
2. Phosphorus, in chimistry, a combustible substance, hitherto undecomposed. It is of a yellowish color and semi-transparent, resembling fine wax. It burns in common air with great rapidity; and in oxygen gas, with the greatest vehemence. Even at the common temperature, it combines with oxygen, undergoing a slow combustion and emitting a luminous vapor. It is originally obtained from urine; but it is now manufactured from bones, which consist of phosphate of lime.
PHOSPHURET, n. A combination of phosphorus not oxygenated, with a base; as phosphyret of iron or copper.
PHOSPHURETED, a. Combined with a phosphuret.
PHOTIZITE, n. A mineral, an oxyd of manganese.
PHOTOLOGIC, PHOTOLOGICAL, a. [See Photology.] Pertaining to photology, or the doctrine of light.
PHOTOLOGY, n. [Gr. light, and discourse.] The doctrine or science of light, explaining its nature and phenomena.
PHOTOMETER, n. [Gr. light, and measure.]
An instrument for measuring the relative intensities of light.
PHOTOMETRIC, PHOTOMETRICAL, a. Pertaining to or made by a photometer.
PHRASE, n. s as z. [Gr. to speak.]
1. A short sentence or expression. A phrase may be complete, as when it conveys complete sense, as humanum est errare, to err is human; or it may be incomplete, as when it consists of several words without affirming any thing, or when the noun and the verb do the office of a noun only; as, that which is true, that is, truth, satisfied the mind.
2. A particular mode of speech; a peculiar sentence of short idiomatic expression; as a Hebrew phrase; an Italian phrase.
3. Style; expression.
In better phrase.
4. In music, any regular symmetrical course of notes which begin and complete the intended expression.
PHRASE, v.t. To call; to style; to express in words or in peculiar words.
For so they phrase them.
PHRASELESS, a. Not to be expressed or described.
PHRASEOLOGIC, PHRASEOLOGICAL, a. Peculiar in expression; consisting of a peculiar form of words.
PHRASEOLOGY, n. [Gr. phrase, and to speak.]
1. Manner of expression; peculiar words used in a sentence; diction.
2. A collection of phrases in a language.
PHRENETIC, a. [Gr. See Phrensy.] Subject to strong or violent sallies of imagination or excitement, which in some measure pervert the judgment and cause the person to act in a manner different from the more rational part of mankind; wild and erratic; partially mad. [It has been sometimes written phrentic, but is now generally written frantic.]
PHRENETIC, n. A person who is wild and erratic in his imagination.
PHRENIC, a. [from Gr. the diaphragm.] Belonging to the diaphragm; as a phrenic vein.
PHRENITIS, n. [Gr. from the mind; L. animus, animosus, and the Teutonic mod; Eng. mood.]
1. In medicine, an inflammation of the brain, or of the meninges of the brain, attended with acute fever and delirium.
2. Madness, or partial madness; delirium; phrenzy. [It is generally written in English, phrensy or frenzy.]
PHRENOLOGY, n. [Gr. the mind, and discourse.] The science of the human mind and its various properties.
Phrenology is now applied to the science of the mind as connected with the supposed organs of thought and passion in the brain, broached by Gall.
PHRENSY, n. s as z. [supra.] Madness; delirium, or that partial madness which manifests itself in wild and erratic sallies of the imagination. It is written also frenzy.
Demoniac phrensy; moping melancholy.
PHRONTISTERY, n. [Gr. to think; mind.] A school or seminary of learning. [Not used.]
PHRYGIAN, a. [from Phrygia, in Asia Minor.] Pertaining to Phrygia; an epithet applied to a sprightly animating kind of music.
Phrygian stone, a stone described by the ancients, used in dyeing; a light spungy stone resembling a pumice, said to be drying and stringent.
PHTHISIC, n. tiz’zic. A consumption. [Little used.]
PHTHISICAL, a. tiz’zical. [Gr. See Phthisis.] Wasting the flesh; as a phthisical consumption.
PHTHISIS, n. the’sis or thi’sis. [Gr. to consume.] A consumption occasioned by ulcerated lungs.
PHYLACTER, PHYLACTERY, n. [Gr. to defend or guard.]
1. In a general sense, any charm, spell or amulet worn as a preservative from danger or disease.
2. Among the Jews, a slip of parchment on which was written some text of Scripture, particularly of the decalogue, worn by devout persons on the forehead, breast or neck as a mark of their religion.
3. Among the primitive christians, a case in which they inclosed the relics of the dead.