Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary

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PERLOUS — PERSPECTIVE

PERLOUS, for perilous, is not used.

PERLUSTRATION, n. [L. perlustro; per and lustro, to survey.]

The act of viewing all over.

PERMAGY, n. A little Turkish boat.

PERMANENCE, PERMANENCY, n. [See Permanent.] Continuance in the same state, or without a change that destroys the form or nature of a thing; duration; fixedness; as the permanence of a government or state; the permanence of institutions or of a system of principles.

1. Continuance in the same place or at rest.

PERMANENT, a. [L. permanens, permaneo, per and maneo, to remain.]

Durable; lasting; continuing in the same state, or without any change that destroys the form or nature of the thing. The laws, like the character of God, are unalterably permanent. Human laws and institutions may be to a degree permanent, but they are subject to change and overthrow. We speak of a permanent wall or building, a permanent bridge, when they are so constructed as to endure long; in which examples, permanent is equivalent to durable or lasting, but not to undecaying or unalterable. So we say, a permanent residence, a permanent intercourse, permanent friendship, when it continues a long time without interruption.

PERMANENTLY, adv. With long continuance; durably; in a fixed state or place; as a government permanently established.

PERMANSION, n. [L. permansio.] Continuance. [Not used.]

PERMEABILITY, n. [infra.] The quality or state of being permeable.

PERMEABLE, a. [L. permeo; per and meo, to pass or glide.]

That may be passed through without rupture or displacement of its parts, as solid matter; applied particularly to substances that admit the passage of fluids. Thus cloth, leather, wood are permeable to water and oil; glass is permeable to light, but not to water.

PERMEANT, a. [supra.] Passing through. [Not used.]

PERMEATE, v.t. [L. permeo; per and meo, to glide, flow, or pass.]

To pass through the pores or interstices of a body; to penetrate and pass through a substance without rupture or displacement of its parts; applied particularly to fluids which pass through substances of loose texture; as, water permeates sand or a filtering stone; light permeates glass.

PERMEATED, pp. Passed through, as by a fluid.

PERMEATING, ppr. Passing through the pores or interstices of a substance.

PERMEATION, n. The act of passing through the pores or interstices of a body.

PERMISCIBLE, a. [L. permisceo; per and misceo, to mix.]

That may be mixed. [Little used.]

PERMISSIBLE, a. [See Permit.] That may be permitted or allowed.

PERMISSION, n. [L. permissio, from permitto, to permit.]

1. The act of permitting or allowing.

2. Allowance; license or liberty granted.

You have given me your permission for this address.

PERMISSIVE, a. Granting liberty; allowing.

1. Granted; suffered without hinderance.

Thus I emboldened spake, and freedom used

Permissive, and acceptance found.

PERMISSIVELY, adv. By allowance; without prohibition or hinderance.

PERMISTION, PERMIXTION, n. [L. permistio, permixtio.] The act of mixing; the state of being mingled.

PERMIT, v.t. [L. permitto; per and mitto, to send.]

1. To allow; to grant leave or liberty to by express consent. He asked my leave and I permitted him.

2. To allow by silent consent or by not prohibiting; to suffer without giving express authority. The laws permit us to do what is not expressly or impliedly forbid.

What God neither commands nor forbids, he permits with approbation to be done or left undone.

3. To afford ability or means. Old age does not permit us to retain the vigor of youth. The man’s indigence does not permit him to indulge in luxuries.

4. To leave; to give or resign.

Let us not aggravate our sorrows,

But to the gods permit the event of things.

[The latter sense is obsolete or obsolescent.]

PERMIT, n. A written license or permission from the custom house officer or other proper authority, to export or transport goods or to land goods or persons.

1. Warrant; leave; permission.

PERMITTANCE, n. Allowance; forbearance of prohibition; permission.

PERMIXTION. [See Permistion.]

PERMUTATION, n. [L. permutatio, permuto; per and muto, to change.]

1. In commerce, exchange of one thing for another; barter.

2. In the canon law, the exchange of one benefice for another.

3. In algebra, change or different combination of any number of quantities.

PERMUTE, v.t. [L. permuto; per and muto, to change.]

To exchange; to barter. [Not used.]

PERMUTER, n. One that exchanges. [Not used.]

PERNANCY, n. A taking or reception, as the receiving of rents or tithes in kind.

PERNICIOUS, a. [L. perniciosus, from pernicies; perneco, to kill; per and nex, necis, death.]

1. Destructive; having the quality of killing, destroying or injuring; very injurious or mischievous. Food, drink or air may be pernicious to life or health.

2. Destructive; tending to injure or destroy. Evil examples are pernicious to morals. Intemperance is a pernicious vice.

3. [L. pernix.] Quick. [Not used.]

PERNICIOUSLY, adv. Destructively; with ruinous tendency or effects.

PERNICIOUSNESS, n. The quality of being very injurious, mischievous or destructive.

PERNICITY, n. [L. pernicitas, from pernix.]

Swiftness of motion; celerity. [Little used.]

PERNOCTATION, n. [L. pernocto; per and nox, night.]

The act of passing the whole night; a remaining all night.

PEROGUE. [See Pirogue.]

PERORATION, n. [L. peroratio, from peroro; per and oro, to pray.]

The concluding part of an oration, in which the speaker recapitulates the principal points of his discourse or argument, and urges them with greater earnestness and force, with a view to make a deep impression on his hearers.

PEROXYD, n. [per and oxyd.] A substance containing an unusual quantity of oxygen.

PEROXYDIZE, v.t. To oxydize to the utmost degree.

PERPEND, v.t. [L. perpendo; per and pendo, to weigh.]

To weigh in the mind; to consider attentively. [Little used.]

PERPENDER, n. A coping stone.

PERPENDICLE, n. [L. perpendiculum.]

Something hanging down in a direct line; a plumb line.

PERPENDICULAR, a. [L. perpendicularis, from perpendiculum, a plumb line; perpendeo; per and pendeo, to hang.]

1. Hanging or extending in a right line from any point towards the center of the earth or of gravity, or at right angles with the plane of the horizon.

2. In geometry, falling directly on another line at right angles. The line A is perpendicular to the line B.

PERPENDICULAR, n. A line falling at right angles on the plane of the horizon, that is, extending from some point in a right line towards the center of the earth or center of gravity, or any body standing in that direction.

1. In geometry, a line falling at right angles on another line, or making equal angles with it on each side.

PERPENDICULARITY, n. The state of being perpendicular.

PERPENDICULARLY, adv. In a manner to fall on another line at right angles.

1. So as to fall on the plane of the horizon at right angles; in a direction towards the center of the earth or of gravity.

PERPENSION, n. [L. perpendo.] Consideration. [Not used.]

PERPESSION, n. [L. perpessio, perpetior, to suffer; per and patior.]

Suffering; endurance. [Not used.]

PERPETRATE, v.t. [L. perpetro; per and patro, to go through, to finish.] To do; to commit; to perform; in an ill sense, that is, always used to express an evil act; as, to perpetrate a crime or an evil design.

PERPETRATED, pp. Done; committed; as an evil act.

PERPETRATING, ppr. Committing; as a crime or evil act.

PERPETRATION, n. The act of committing a crime.

1. An evil action.

PERPETRATOR, n. One that commits a crime.

PERPETUAL, a. [L. perpetuus, from perpes, perpetis; per and pes, from a root signifying to pass.]

1. Never ceasing; continuing forever in future time; destined to be eternal; as a perpetual covenant; a perpetual statute.

[Literally true with respect to the decrees of the Supreme Being.]

2. Continuing or continued without intermission; uninterrupted; as a perpetual stream; the perpetual action of the heart and arteries.

3. Permanent; fixed; not temporary; as a perpetual law or edict; perpetual love or amity, perpetual incense. Exodus 30:8.

4. Everlasting; endless.

Destructions are come to a perpetual end. Psalm 9:6.

5. During the legal dispensation. Exodus 29:9.

Perpetual curacy, is where all the tithes are appropriated and no vicarage is endowed.

Perpetual motion, motion that generates a power of continuing itself forever or indefinitely, by means of mechanism or some application of the force of gravity; not yet discovered, and probably impossible.

Perpetual screw, a screw that acts against the teeth of a wheel and continues its action without end.

PERPETUALLY, adv. Constantly; continually; applied to things which proceed without intermission, or which occur frequently or at intervals, without limitation. A perennial spring flows perpetually; the weather varies perpetually.

The Bible and common prayer book in the vulgar tongue, being perpetually read in churches, have proved a kind of standard for language.

PERPETUATE, v.t. [L. perpetuo.] To make perpetual; to eternize.

1. To cause to endure or to be continued indefinitely; to preserve from extinction or oblivion; as, to perpetuate the remembrance of a great event or of an illustrious character. The monument in London perpetuates the remembrance of the conflagration in 1666. Medals may perpetuate the glories of a prince.

2. To continue by repetition without limitation.

PERPETUATED, pp. Made perpetual; continued through eternity, or for an indefinite time.

PERPETUATING, ppr. Continuing forever or indefinitely.

PERPETUATION, n. The act of making perpetual, or of preserving from extinction or oblivion through an endless existence, or for an indefinite period of time.

PERPETUITY, n. [L. perpetuitas.] Endless duration; continuance to eternity.

1. Continued uninterrupted existence, or duration for an indefinite period of time; as the perpetuity of laws and institutions; the perpetuity of fame.

2. Something of which there will be no end.

PERPHOSPHATE, n. A phosphate in which the phosphoric acid is combined with an oxyd at the maximum of oxydation.

PERPLEX, v.t. [L. perplexus, perplexor; per and plector, to twist; L. plico, to fold.]

1. To make intricate; to involve; to entangle; to make complicated and difficult to be understood or unraveled.

What was thought obscure, perplexed and too hard for our weak parts, will lie open to the understanding in a fair view.

2. To embarrass; to puzzle; to distract; to tease with suspense, anxiety or ambiguity.

We can distinguish no general truths, or at least shall be apt to perplex the mind.

We are perplexed, but not in despair. 2 Corinthians 4:8.

3. To plague; to vex.

PERPLEX, a. Intricate; difficult. [Not used.]

PERPLEXED, pp. Made intricate; embarrassed; puzzled.

PERPLEXEDLY, adv. Intricately; with involution.

PERPLEXEDNESS, n. Intricacy; difficulty from want of order or precision.

1. Embarrassment of mind from doubt or uncertainty.

PERLEXITY, n. Intricacy; entanglement. The jury were embarrassed by the perplexity of the case.

1. Embarrassment of mind; disturbance from doubt, confusion, difficulty or anxiety.

Perplexity not suffering them to be idle, they think and do, as it were, in a frenzy.

PERQUADRISULPHATE, n. A sulphate with four proportions of sulphuric acid combined with a maximum oxyd.

PERQUISITE, n. s as z. [L. perquisitus, perquiro; per and quoero, to seek.] A fee or pecuniary allowance to an officer for services, beyond his ordinary salary or settled wages; or a fee allowed by law to an officer for a specific service, in lieu of an annual salary. [The latter is the common acceptation of the word in American.]

PERQUISITED, a. Supplied with perquisites. [A bad word and not used.]

PERQUISITION, n. s as z. [L. perquisitus.]

An accurate inquiry or search.

PERROQUET, n. A species of parrot; also, the Alca Psittacula, an aquatic fowl inhabiting the isles of Japan and the western shores of American.

PERRY, n. The juice of pears, which being clarified by fermentation, is a pleasant drink.

PERSCRUTATION, n. [L. perscrutatio, perscrutor.]

A searching thoroughly; minute search or inquiry.

PERSECUTE, v.t. [L. persequor; per and sequor, to pursue. See Seek and Essay.]

1. In a general sense, to pursue in a manner to injure, vex or afflict; to harass with unjust punishment or penalties for supposed offenses; to inflict pain from hatred or malignity.

2. Appropriately, to afflict, harass, or destroy for adherence to a particular creed or system of religious principles, or to a mode of worship. Thus Nero persecuted the Christians by crucifying some, burning others, and condemning others to be worried by dogs. See Acts 22:4.

3. To harass with solicitations or importunity.

PERSECUTED, pp. Harassed by troubles or punishments unjustly inflicted, particularly for religious opinions.

PERSECUTING, ppr. Pursuing with enmity or vengeance, particularly for adhering to a particular religion.

PERSECUTION, n. The act or practice of persecuting; the infliction of pain, punishment or death upon others unjustly, particularly for adhering to a religious creed or mode of worship, either by way of penalty or for compelling them to renounce their principles. Historians enumerate ten persecutions suffered by the Christians, beginning with that of Nero, A.D. 31, and ending with that of Diocletian, A.D. 303 to 313.

1. The state of being persecuted.

Our necks are under persecution; we labor and have no rest. Lamentations 5:5.

PERSECUTOR, n. One that persecutes; one that pursues another unjustly and vexatiously, particularly on account of religious principles.

Henry rejected the pope’s supremacy, but retained every corruption beside, and became a cruel persecutor.

PERSEVERANCE, n. [L. perseverantia. See Persevere.]

1. Persistence in any thing undertaken; continued pursuit or prosecution of any business or enterprise begun; applied alike to good or evil.

Perseverance keeps honor bright.

Patience and perseverance overcome the greatest difficulties.

2. In theology, continuance in a state of grace to a state of glory; sometimes called final perseverance.

PERSEVERANT, a. Constant in pursuit of an undertaking. [Not used.]

PERSEVERE, v.i. [L. persevero. The last component part of this word, severo, must be the same as in assevero, with the radical sense of set, fixed or continued. So persist is formed with per and sisto, to stand. Constant and continue have a like primary sense. So we say, to hold on.]

To persist in any business or enterprise undertaken; to pursue steadily any design or course commenced; not to give over or abandon what is undertaken; applied alike to good and evil.

Thrice happy, if they know

Their happiness, and persevere upright!

To persevere in any evil course, makes you unhappy in this life.

PERSEVERING, ppr. Persisting in any business or course begun.

1. a. Constant in the execution of a purpose or enterprise; as a persevering student.

PERSEVERINGLY, adv. With perseverance or continued pursuit of what is undertaken.

PERSIFLAGE, n. [L. sibilo, to hiss.] A jeering; ridicule.

PERSIMMON, n. A tree and its fruit, a species of Diospyros, a native of the states south of New York. The fruit is like a plum, and when not ripe, very astringent.

PERSIST, v.i. [L. persisto; per and sisto, to stand or be fixed.]

To continue steadily and firmly in the pursuit of any business or course commenced; to persevere. [Persist is nearly synonymous with persevere; but persist frequently implies more obstinacy than persevere, particularly in that which is evil or injurious to others.]

If they persist in pointing their batteries against particular persons, no laws of war forbid the making reprisals.

PERSISTENCE, n. The state of persisting; steady pursuit of what is undertaken; perseverance in a good or evil course, more generally in that which is evil and injurious to others, or unadvisable.

1. Obstinacy; contumacy.

PERSISTENT, PERSISTING, a. In botany, continuing without withering; opposed to marcescent; as a persisting stigma; continuing after the corol is withered, as a persistent calyx; continuing after the leaves drop off, as a persistent stipule; remaining on the plant till the fruit is ripe, or till after the summer is over, as a persistent leaf.

PERSISTING, ppr. Continuing in the prosecution of an undertaking; persevering.

PERSISTIVE, a. Steady in pursuit; not receding from a purpose or undertaking; persevering.

PERSON, n. per’sn. [L. persona; said to be compounded of per, through or by, and sonus, sound; a Latin word signifying primarily a mask used by actors on the state.]

1. An individual human being consisting of body and soul. We apply the word to living beings only, possessed of a rational nature; the body when dead is not called a person. It is applied alike to a man, woman or child.

A person is a thinking intelligent being.

2. A man, woman or child, considered as opposed to things, or distinct from them.

A zeal for persons is far more easy to be perverted, than a zeal for things.

3. A human being, considered with respect to the living body or corporeal existence only. The form of her person is elegant.

You’ll find her person difficult to gain.

The rebels maintained the fight for a small time, and for their persons showed no want of courage.

4. A human being, indefinitely; one; a man. Let a person’s attainments be never so great, he should remember he is frail and imperfect.

5. A human being represented in dialogue, fiction, or on the state; character. A player appears in the person of king Lear.

These tables, Cicero pronounced under the person of Crassus, were of more use and authority than all the books of the philosophers.

6. Character of office.

How different is the same man from himself, as he sustains the person of a magistrate and that of a friend.

7. In grammar, the nominative to a verb; the agent that performs or the patient that suffers any thing affirmed by a verb; as, I write; he is smitten; she is beloved; the rain descends in torrents. I, thou or you, he, she or it, are called the first, second and third persons. Hence we apply the word person to the termination or modified form of the verb used in connection with the persons; as the first or the third person of the verb; the verb is in the second person.

8. In law, an artificial person, is a corporation or body politic.

In person, by one’s self; with bodily presence; not be representative.

The king in person visits all around.

PERSON, v.t. To represent as a person; to make to resemble; to image. [Not in use.]

PERSONABLE, a. Having a well formed body or person; graceful; of good appearance; as a personable man or woman.

1. In law, enabled to maintain pleas in court.

2. Having capacity to take any thing granted or given.

[The two latter senses, I believe, are little used.]

PERSONAGE, n. A man or woman of distinction; as an illustrious personage.

1. Exterior appearance; stature; air; as a tall personage; a stately personage.

2. Character assumed.

The Venetians, naturally grave, love to give in to the follies of such seasons, when disguised in a false personage.

3. Character represented.

Some persons must be found, already known in history, whom we may make the actors and personages of this fable.

PERSONAL, a. [L. personalis.] Belonging to men or women, not to things; not real.

Every man so termed by way of personal difference only.

1. Relating to an individual; affecting individuals; peculiar or proper to him or her, or to private actions or character.

The words are conditional; if thou doest well; and so personal to Cain.

Character and success depend more on personal effort than on any external advantages.

So we speak of personal pride, personal reflections.

2. Pertaining to the corporal nature; exterior; corporal; as personal charms or accomplishments.

3. Present in person; not acting by representative; as a personal interview.

The immediate and personal speaking of God almighty to Abraham, Job and Moses.

Personal estate, in law, movables; chattels; things belonging to the person; as money, jewels, furniture, etc. as distinguished from real estate in land and houses.

Personal action, in law, a suit or action by which a man claims a debt or personal duty, or damages in lieu of it; or wherein he claims satisfaction in damages for an injury to his person or property; an action founded on contract or on tort or wrong; as an action on a debt or promise, or an action for a trespass, assault or defamatory words; opposed to real actions, or such as concern real property.

Personal identity, in metaphysics, sameness of being, of which consciousness is the evidence.

Personal verb, in grammar, a verb conjugated in the three persons; thus called in distinction from an impersonal verb, which has the third person only.

PERSONAL, n. A movable. [Not in use.]

PERSONALITY, n. That which constitutes an individual a distinct person, or that which constitutes individuality.

The personality of an intelligent being extends itself beyond present existence to what is past, only by consciousness--

1. Direct application or applicability to a person; as the personality of a remark.

PERSONALLY, adv. In person; by bodily presence; not by representative or substitute; as, to be personally present; to deliver a letter personally. They personally declared their assent to the measure.

1. With respect to an individual; particularly.

She bore a mortal hatred to the house of Lancaster, and personally to the king.

2. With regard to numerical existence.

The converted man is personally the same he was before.

PERSONATE, v.t. To represent by a fictitious or assumed character so as to pass for the person represented.

1. To represent by action or appearance; to assume the character and act the part of another.

2. To pretend hypocritically. [Little used.]

3. To counterfeit; to feign; as a personated devotion.

4. To resemble.

The lofty cedar personates thee.

5. To make a representation of, as in picture.

6. To describe.

7. To celebrate loudly. [L. persono.] [Not used.]

PERSONATE, a. [L. persona, a mask.] Masked. A personate corol is irregular and closed by a kind of palate; or ringent, but closed between the lips by the palate.

PERSONATION, n. The counterfeiting of the person and character of another.

PERSONATOR, n. One who assumes the character of another.

1. One that acts or performs.

PERSONIFICATION, n. [from personify.] The giving to an inanimate being the figure or the sentiments and language of a rational being; prosopopoeia; as, “confusion heard his voice.”

PERSONIFIED, pp. Represented with the attributes of a person.

PERSONIFY, v.t. [L. persona and facio.] To give animation to inanimate objects; to ascribe to an inanimate being the sentiments, actions or language of a rational being or person, or to represent an inanimate being with the affections and actions of a person. Thus we say, the plants thirst for rain.

The trees said to the fig-tree, come thou, and reign over us. Judges 9:10.

PERSONIFYING, ppr. Giving to an inanimate being the attributes of a person.

PERSONIZE, v.t. To personify. [Not much used.]

PERSPECTIVE, a. [infra.] Pertaining to the science of optics; optical.

1. Pertaining to the art of perspective.

PERSPECTIVE, n. [L. perspicio; per and specio, to see.]

1. A glass through which objects are viewed.

2. The art of drawing on a plane surface true resemblances or pictures of objects, as the objects appear to the eye from any distance and situation, real and imaginary; as the rules of perspective.

3. A representation of objects in perspective.

4. View; vista; as perspectives of pleasant shades.

5. A kind of painting, often seen in gardens and at the end of a gallery, designed expressly to deceive the sight by representing the continuation of an alley, a building, a landscape or the like.

Aerial perspective, the art of giving due diminution to the strength of light, shade and colors of objects, according to their distances and the quantity of light falling on them, and to the medium through which they are seen.